Action Against Hunger and Poverty
The first meeting of Action Against Hunger and Poverty was held on 20 September 2004 at the UN Headquarters. The outcome of the meeting was the New York Declaration on Action against Hunger and Poverty, which highlighted the need to raise development assistance levels and to give further attention to innovative mechanisms of financing, in order to meet the Millennium Development Goals.
African Green Revolution
A system of the Sustainable Modernization of Agriculture and Rural transformation to help the continent move towards self-sufficiency in food, reduction of hunger, and eradication of poverty. It has four major components: Biological/technological; Crop-livestock integration; Organic/inorganic chemical fertilizers and Biophysical technologies, such as irrigation.
Agenda21 (the "Earth Summit")
A comprehensive plan of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organisations of the United Nations System, governments, and major groups in every area in which people impact on the environment.
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992
Almaty Programme of Action
This addresses the special needs and problems of landlocked developing countries (see glossary) in order to integrate them effectively into the world economy by establishing efficient transit transport. Adopted on 28-29 August 2003 in Almaty Kazakhstan.
Aviation Taxation Proposals
A recent proposal to introduce a tax on airline tickets to fund development projects. Various options have been put forward, including a voluntary or a mandatory levy. Levies could range between EUR 2-10 per flight. Revenue raised in Europe could range between EUR 568 million to 2763 million.
Barbados Programme of Action
Report of the global conference on the sustainable development of small island developing states (see glossary) held in Bridgetown, Barbados, 25 April-6 May 1994.
Bretton Woods Institutions
Consist of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund founded in July 1944 at a conference attended by representatives from 44 countries in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire.
Adopted, together with the Platform for Action, at the Fourth World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace, Beijing, China 15 September 1995.
Beijing Platform for Action
Adopted at the Fourth World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace, Beijing, China 15 September 1995. Governments committed to the effective inclusion of a gender dimension throughout all their institutions, policies, planning and decision making.
Common Country Assessments (CCA)
A UN country-based process for analysing the national development situation and identifying key issues as a basis for advocacy and preparation for the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF).
Convention on Biological Diversity
The key international instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.
Dakar Framework for Action
Adopted at the World Education Forum held in Dakar Senegal from 26 to 28 April 2000, it commits governments to achieving quality basic education for all by 2015 or earlier, with particular emphasis on girls' education, and includes a pledge from donor countries and institutions that "no country seriously committed to basic education will be thwarted in the achievement of this goal by lack of resources".
The Doha round of World Trade Organization negotiations aims to lower barriers to trade around the world, with a focus on making trade fairer for developing countries.
Doha Work Programme
The text of the General Council’s decision on the Doha Agenda work programme (the “July Package”) was agreed on 1 August 2004, containing frameworks and other agreements designed to focus the negotiations and raise them to a new level.
Doha Ministerial Declaration
Adopted on 14 November 2001, the Declaration commits members to continue to make positive efforts to ensure that developing countries secure a share in the growth of world trade commensurate with the needs of their economic development.
Education for All programmes (EFA)
Programmes to provide basic quality education for all children and massively reduce adult illiteracy.
Education for All Fast Track (EFA/FTI) Initiative http://www1.worldbank.org/education/efafti/
A global partnership between donors and developing countries to make primary education a national priority and draw up education plans that would get them to the 2015 target of primary education for all children.
Global Environmental Facility (GEF), established in 1991, helps developing countries fund projects and programs that protect the global environment. GEF grants support projects related to biodiversity, climate change, international waters, land degradation, the ozone layer, and persistent organic pollutants.
Global Fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria (GFATM) was created to dramatically increase resources to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria and to direct those resources to areas of greatest need. http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/
Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN)
A technical collaboration of existing institutions and networks which pool human and technical resources for the rapid identification, confirmation and response to outbreaks of international importance. The Network provides an operational framework to link this expertise and skill to keep the international community constantly alert to the threat of outbreaks and ready to respond. http://www.who.int/csr/outbreaknetwork/en/
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative
First launched in 1996 by the IMF and World Bank, with the aim of ensuring that no poor country faces a debt burden it cannot manage. The Initiative entails coordinated action by the international financial community, including multilateral organizations and governments, to reduce to sustainable levels the external debt burdens of the most heavily indebted poor countries.
Adopted at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction held from 18-22 January 2005 in Kobe, Hyogo, Japan this is a strong commitment of the international community to address disaster reduction and to engage in a determined, results-oriented plan of action for the next decade.
Hyogo Framework of Action 2005-2015
World Conference on Disaster Reduction held in Kobe, Hyogo Japan on 18-22 January 2005. The Conference was to take stock of progress in disaster risk reduction accomplished since the Yokohama Conference of 1994 and to make plans for the next ten years.
International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD )
Held in Cairo Egypt from 5-13 September 1994 to address the important global problems in the areas of population and development.
International Financial Facility (IFF)
A UK Government proposal to create a means of rapidly increasing the flow of aid in support of the MDGs. The IFF would raise funds on the private capital market through officially guaranteed bond issues. The funds could be disbursed quickly through existing channels. When the bonds matured, official donors would pay out the bondholders. It would last for about 15 years, with the time for repaying lasting around 30 years. http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/International-Finance-Facility2003.pdf
International Financial Facility for Immunization (IFFm)
A proposed pilot IFF for immunization. This would raise frontloaded, realiable funding over a number of years to expand global immunization efforts to help achieve the child mortality MDG by accelerating production of new and existing vaccines and strengthening capacity to deliver vaccines.
International Health Regulations
The purpose and scope of these regulations are to prevent, control and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade. The IHR (2005) also establish a single code of procedures and practices for routine public health measures at international airports and ports and some ground crossings.
Johannesburg Plan of Implementation
A framework for action to implement the commitments originally agreed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992). It was adopted at the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg, South Africa from 26 August to 4 September 2002.
A legally binding agreement between committed parties that targets to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions between 2008 to 2012. This was adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto Japan.
Landlocked Developing Country (LLDC)
Developing country that suffers from lack of territorial access to the sea, remoteness and isolation from world markets. They are generally among the poorest of the developing countries, with the weakest growth rates, and are typically heavily dependent on a very limited number of commodities for their export earnings.
Least Developed Countries (LDCs)
An LDC is a low-income country based on a three-year average estimate of the gross national income (GNI) per capita (under USD 750 for inclusion, above USD 900 for graduation). It suffers from human resource weakness measured by a Human Assets Index (HAI) based on indicators of nutrition, health, education and adult literacy. An Economic Vulnerability Index measures the instability of agricultural production and, exports of goods and services, the economic importance of non-traditional activities, merchandise export concentration, the handicap of economic smallness, and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters.
Calls for the further implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States. International meeting to review progress was in Port Louis, Mauritius 10-14 January 2005.
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
Eight goals drawn from the UN Millennium Declaration (September 2000) to fight against poverty, illiteracy, hunger, lack of education, gender inequality, child and maternal mortality, disease and environmental degradation by the target date of 2015. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/
Resolution adopted by the UN General Assembly on 18 September 2000 from which the Millennium Development Goals were drawn. http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.pdf
Outcome document of the International Conference on Financing for Development held in Monterrey, Mexico on 18-22 March 2002 which spelled out actions needed to promote a global partnership for development and accelerate progress towards the MDGs. http://www.un.org/esa/ffd/aconf198-11.pdf
National Development Strategy
A developing country strategy that provides a policy framework and guides the allocation of resources and programmes towards promoting growth, generating wealth and reducing poverty and vulnerability.
New Partnership for Africa’s Development. Its strategic framework document arises from a mandate given to the five initiating Heads of State (Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa) by the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) to develop an integrated socio-economic development framework for Africa. www.nepad.org
New Asian-African Strategic Partnership (NAASP)
Adopted at Asian-African Summit in Jakarta, Indonesia on 22-23 April 2005 NAASP was envisioned as a vehicle to enable the nations of Asia and Africa to cooperate for their mutual benefit, and was intended to promote peace, prosperity and progress. It consists of three key areas for cooperation, including political solidarity, economic cooperation and cultural cooperation. The NAASP action plan outlines inter-regional cooperation mechanisms and concrete action plans.
Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness
An international agreement to improve aid effectiveness and be held accountable by a series of indicators and targets as a way of combating poverty in developing countries. Endorsed on 2 March 2005 at the Second High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness. www.oecd.org/dac/effectiveness/parisdeclaration
Rio Principles (the "Earth Summit")
Set of principles underlying sustainable development adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992.
Sao Paulo Consensus
Marks the commitment to the eradication of poverty and hunger through the achievement of fair and equitable multilateral trade negotiations that emerged from the UNCTAD XI.
Slum Upgrading Facility (SUF)
A global facility located within UN-HABITAT designed to lead and coordinate technical cooperation and seed capital initiatives established to develop bankable projects that promote affordable housing for low-income households, the upgrading of slums, and the provision of urban infrastructure in settlements in cities of the developing world.
Small Island Developing States (SIDS)
Island states with small populations, lack of resources, remote, susceptible to natural disasters, excessive dependence on international trade and vulnerable to global developments. In addition, they suffer from lack of economies of scale, high transportation and communication costs, and costly public administration and infrastructure. Also includes low-lying coastal countries that share similar sustainable development challenges.
Traditionally viewed as encompassing technical cooperation amongst developing countries themselves, with a focus on sharing experiences; exchanging capacity building and technical assistance, and encouraging economic cooperation among developing countries through financial investment, trade and technology flows.
“Three Ones” principles
Principles by which governments, working in cooperation with their partners in civil society and the international community, may greatly reduce the spread of AIDS. Donors, developing countries and UN agencies agreed to harmonize their efforts around three core principles – known as the "Three Ones". They agreed to have: one HIV/AIDS action framework that provides the basis for coordinating the work of all partners; one national AIDS coordinating authority; and one agreed country-level monitoring and evaluation system.
Signed in Marrakesh, Morocco in 1994, this agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights sets out to reduce distortions and impediments to international trade, while taking into account the need to promote effective protection of intellectual property rights. Recognises the need for new rules and disciplines. http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/trips_e/t_agm0_e.htm
United Nations Convention Against Corruption
Signed in December 2003, this was the first legally binding international agreement to fight corruption. The ratifying countries enter into a legal obligation to: (i) criminalize corrupt practices; (ii) develop national institutions to prevent corrupt practices and to prosecute offenders; (iii) cooperate with other governments to recover stolen assets; and (iv) help each other to fight corruption. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UN/UNPAN021245.pdf
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification
Entered into force on 26 December 1996, this convention urges the international community to recognize the vital importance and necessity of international cooperation and partnership in combating desertification (the land degradation in dry areas resulting from various factors including climatic variations and human activities) and mitigating the effects of drought. http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N04/490/36/PDF/N0449036.pdf?OpenElement
The 11th session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development took place in Sao Paulo Brazil on 13-18 June 2004. The conference focused on: Enhancing the coherence between national development strategies and global economic processes towards economic growth and development, particularly of developing countries. http://www.un-ngls.org/unctad11.htm
United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF)
A planning framework for the development operations of the UN system at the country level. It defines (i) common objectives; (ii) common strategies of development assistance; (iii) common timeframe for design and follow up; (iv) programme resources framework; and (v) business plan of the United Nations.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
Sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change. It recognizes that the climate system is a shared resource whose stability can be affected by industrial and other emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. http://unfccc.int/2860.php
United Nations Human Settlements Foundation (UNHHSF)
The UNHHSF is a Trust Fund managed by UN-HABITAT. Its primary objective was "to assist in strengthening national environmental programmes relating to human settlements, particularly in developing countries, through the provision of seed capital and the extension of the necessary technical and financial assistance."
United Nations Millennium Project
An independent advisory body commissioned by Secretary-General Kofi Annan to develop a global plan for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015.
World Health Assembly
The main decision-making body for the World Health Organisation. The last meeting was held in Geneva Switzerland on 16-25 May 2005 and discussions included the revision of the International Health Regulation.
World Solidarity Fund
Established to eradicate poverty and to promote social and human development in developing countries. It stresses the voluntary nature of contributions, the need to avoid duplication of existing United Nations funds and encourages the role of the private sector and individual citizens.
World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)
The purpose of WSIS is to develop a common vision and understanding of the information society. The first phase took place in Geneva from 10 to 12 December 2003, when 175 countries adopted a Declaration of Principles and Plan of Action. The second phase will take place in Tunis hosted by the Government of Tunisia, from 16 to 18 November 2005.