Environment and development

Publications and Working Papers


This page provides a summary of publications, working papers, policy statements and declarations released by the OECD Development Assistance Committee on the nexus between development co-operation and green growth, climate change and the environment.


Publications and Working Papers






  • 2017, Investing in Climate, Investing in Growth: This report provides an assessment of how governments can generate inclusive economic growth in the short term, while making progress towards climate goals to secure sustainable long-term growth. It describes the development pathways required to meet the Paris Agreement objectives and underlines the value of well-aligned policy packages in mobilising investment and social support for the transition while enhancing growth. The report also sets out the structural, financial and political changes needed to enable the transition.
  • 2017, Chapter 7: Mobilising financing for the transition: Meeting the objectives of the Paris Agreement will require reallocation of investment away from carbon-intensive assets and rapid scale-up of private investment in lowemission, climate-resilient infrastructure and technologies. This chapter describes major trends in private financing for infrastructure and the roles of different private actors and sources of finance. It then explores what is needed to mobilise private finance for the transition, including how to address factors hindering private investment, and the types of instruments and transaction enablers governments have at their disposal. It considers the role of specialised development banks and development finance institutions, and how greater transparency and signaling in the global financial system might improve its capacity to respond to opportunities arising from the transition, while strengthening resilience to climate risks.
  • 2017, Engaging the Private Sector for Green Growth and Climate Action, An Overview of Development Co-Operation Efforts: The private sector plays an important role in supporting green growth in developing countries. As a result, there is increasing emphasis for development co-operation providers to integrate private sector engagement (PSE) approaches into their programmes on green growth and climate change. This paper provides an overview of activities in this area, estimating that 22% of climate-related development finance supported PSE activities in 2013. It also presents a stock-taking of efforts to: mobilise private climate investment, promote green private sector development and harness skills and knowledge of private actors. The paper highlights some challenges and lessons learned, such as the need for PSE to target a wider range of environmental issues, the importance of investing in integrated approaches to enable the development of pipelines, and the need to align private sector approaches with national contexts. The findings in this paper contribute to the discussion on how development co-operation providers can improve the effectiveness of PSE approaches to promote green growth and climate action, and may be a useful starting point to guide evidence-based policy relevant research.
  • 2017, Climate Change Adaptation and Financial Protection: Synthesis of Key Findings from Colombia and Senegal: Developing countries are disproportionately affected by the rising trend of losses from climate-related extreme events. These losses are projected to continue to increase in future, driven by climate change and the accumulation of people and assets in high-risk areas. Effective climate change policies are needed to reduce the accumulation of risk, combined with instruments and tools to help retain, share or transfer financial losses if an extreme event occurs. These tools and instruments, collectively known as financial protection, can help people cope with the impacts of climate-related disasters, reduce costs of recovery and reconstruction, and encourage risk reduction. Linking financial protection and climate adaptation in development planning and policy has the potential to increase the resilience of affected communities. This paper uses case studies of Colombia and Senegal to examine how countries are using financial protection as part of their approaches to managing climate risks. The paper identifies emerging priorities for development co-operation providers in supporting financial protection against climate risks. 
  • 2016, The Role of Development Finance in Climate Action Post-2015: This working paper reflects on the outcomes of the 2015 agreements on development and environment including the Sendai Framework, the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals, and the Paris Agreement. It identifies common themes emerging from the international agreements and their implications for development co-operation providers and their partners. The paper outlines existing synergies between climate and development finance and proposes factors to improve coherence for sustainable development with a particular focus on the role of development co-operation providers in the post-2015 context. The paper contributes to the discussion about how the international community can successfully deliver on the commitments to sustainable development and climate action made in 2015.
  • 2016, 2020 Projections of Climate Finance Towards the USD 100 Billion Goal: This work was undertaken in response to a request to provide analytical support to the preparation by developed countries of a roadmap for meeting the commitment of jointly mobilising USD 100 billion per year by 2020 for climate action in developing countries. This technical note was prepared by staff members from the OECD Environment and Development Co-operation Directorates1 and aims to set out as transparently and rigorously as possible the methodology and assumptions underlying the projections of climate finance in 2020 presented here. It is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of OECD member countries or the international organisations and other institutions referenced in this note. The authors are, however, grateful to the countries and institutions that have shared information to help interpret their climate finance pledges.
  • 2016, Climate-Related Development Finance In 2015: The adoption of the 2030 Agenda and the Paris Agreement on climate change committed the international community to a set of ambitious goals, intended to achieve sustainable development and ‘leave no one behind’. This requires immediate and ambitious action to combat climate change as part of a broader sustainable development agenda. Development finance can play an important role to support developing countries to transition to low-carbon, climate-resilient development. It operates, for instance, through technical assistance to support countries to strengthen enabling policies and institutional capacity, and through more direct financial support to mitigation and adaptation activities, such as renewable energy and resilient water supply services.
  • 2016, Biodiversity related Official Development Assistance 2015: The adoption of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 under the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, committed the international community to a set of ambitious goals on ‘living in harmony with nature’ and ‘leaving no one behind’. This requires immediate and ambitious action to protect life both below water and on land, by reducing pressures on biodiversity and ecosystems. Development co-operation can support developing countries to transition towards sustainable development. Development finance operates both through technical assistance to strengthen enabling policies and institutional capacity, and through more direct financial support to activities in support of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. The OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Creditor Reporting System (CRS) monitors development finance targeting the objectives of the Rio Conventions on climate change, biodiversity and desertification. This brochure presents statistics on biodiversity-related official development assistance (ODA) by members of the OECD DAC over the period 2006-2015.
  • 2015, National Climate Change Adaptation: Emerging Practices in Monitoring and Evaluation.: Developing countries are increasingly moving towards more strategic national policies and plans, the effectiveness of which will depend upon proper assessment of a given country’s vulnerability to climate change. This report draws upon emerging monitoring and evaluation practices across developed and developing countries to identify four tools that countries can draw upon in their own assessment frameworks: 1) climate change risk and vulnerability assessments, 2) indicators to monitor progress on adaptation priorities, 3) project and programme evaluations to identify effective adaptation approaches, and 4) national audits and climate expenditure reviews. The appropriate mix of tools to monitor and evaluate national climate-change adaptation will to a large extent be determined by data availability, monitoring and evaluation capacity, and the ability to bring together the producers and the users of relevant climate information. The report also examines how development co-operation providers can support partner countries in their efforts to monitor and evaluate adaptation.
  • 2015, Climate Finance in 2013-14 and the USD 100 billion goal: Developed countries committed to mobilise jointly USD 100 billion a year in climate finance by 2020 for climate action in developing countries. Five years after the initial commitment was made at COP15 in Copenhagen in 2009 and six years ahead of the target date of 2020, this report provides a status check on the level of climate finance mobilised by developed countries in 2013 and 2014. There has been significant progress in meeting this goal. The preliminary estimates provided in this report are that climate finance reached USD 62 billion in 2014 and USD 52 billion in 2013, equivalent to an annual average over the two years of USD 57 billion. The report aims to be transparent and rigorous in its assessment of the available data and the underlying assumptions and methodologies, within the constraints of an aggregate reporting exercise. Methodological approaches and data collection efforts to support estimates such as this one are improving. Nevertheless, there remains significant work to be done to arrive at more complete and accurate estimates in the future, as outlined in the report. The OECD and CPI stand ready to support such efforts
Cover page of the OECD working paper on biodiversity and development co-operation (2015)
  • Biodiversity and Development Co-operation (2015) explores how development co-operation is addressing biodiversity conservation and sustainable use on the one hand, and
  • development and poverty reduction on the other.





  • Financing for Development in Support of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (2015) considers the key financing challenges and opportunities for realising both biodiversity conservation and sustainable development objectives. It considers the full range of possible sources, from public and private, domestic and international sources, but has a focus on public resources.






 Icon of the green development co-operation landscape in Zambia working paper
 Cover of working paper on monitoring and evaluation of climate change adaptation
  • Monitoring and Evaluation of Climate Change Adaptation: Methodological Approaches (2014) explores methodological approaches that can be used to monitor and evaluate climate adaptation initiatives at the project and programme level. It focuses on three challenges and the lessons that can be learned from other areas of development practice: (i) assessing attribution, (ii) establishing baselines and targets, (iii) dealing with long time horizons. 
  • Towards Green Growth in Southeast Asia (2014) provides evidence that, with the right policies and institutions, Southeast Asia can pursue green growth and thus sustain the natural capital and environmental services, including a stable climate, on which prosperity depends



  • Two sets of e-learning materials building on the OECD guidance Greening Development: Enhancing Capacity for Environmental Management and Governance (2012) have been developed by Evidence on Demand. These are:

    • A foundation course - comprising three modules (see flyer)
    • An in depth course - comprising five modules (see flyer)

    Both courses are open-access and aim to help development professionals without specialist knowledge of climate and environment to integrate these policy areas into their projects and programmes. Each module is estimated to take around 20 minutes.

    To access the course, sign up by clicking the link “Click here to enter our new interactive e-learning portal” here

  • For more information on the OECD post-2015 Reflection Series see here
  • Exploring Climate Finance Effectiveness (2013) explores how different communities view climate finance effectiveness; the policies or institutional pre-conditions that facilitate effectiveness; and how effectiveness is currently monitored and evaluated.


  • The report and a policy summary is also available in  French
The Development Co-operation Report: Lessons on Linking Sustainability and Development (2012) is the key annual reference document for statistics and analysis on trends in international aid.
  • The report is also available in French and German. A Short Summary is also available in several languages.
  • The report is also available in French. A Policy Summary is available in French and Spanish.
Strategic Environmental Assessment in Development Practice: A Review of Recent Experience (2012) illustrates how SEAs can be applied in development co-operation by presenting nine detailed case studies.
  • The report is also available in French. 
Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Development Co-operation: Policy Guidance (2009) provides information and advice on how to facilitate the integration of adaptation within development processes.
  • The report is available in French, Spanish and Portuguese. Summaries are also available in French and Spanish.
  • The report is also available in French.
Applying Strategic Environmental Assessment: Good Practice Guidance for Development Co-operation (2006) provides recommendations and a framework for the application of SEA to development co-operation based on emerging good practice.
  • The report is also available in French, Spanish and Portuguese.
Bridge Over Troubled Water: Linking Climate Change and Development (2005) deals with mainstreaming responses to climate change in development planning and assistance.
  • The report is also available in French.
Environmental Fiscal Reform for Poverty Reduction (2005) outlines key issues faced when designing Environmental Fiscal Reform (EFR) and related technical issues.
  • The report is also available in French.
Integrating the Rio Conventions into Development Co-operation (2002) highlights the linkages between global environmental issues, on the one hand, and sustainable development and poverty reduction, on the other.
  • The report is also available in French.
  • The guidance is also available in French.


Policy Statements and Declarations


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