April 2011

The new development landscape: A view from the bridge

As we prepare for the Fourth High Level Forum in Busan, Korea (29 November-1 December), where partners will concentrate on new approaches to development, it is more and more evident that the context in which we are working is changing. Aid continues to rise to unprecedented levels, although estimates indicate that this trend will slow down considerably. The DAC is increasingly seeking new ways of working and learning, opening its doors while tightening pressure to produce results. And aid is being managed more and more as an investment in a common future, with appropriate rules of good management being applied. Building the complementary roles of a vast group of players is at the core.

Go directly to:
2010 figures: Aid increases, but with worrying trends
DAC Senior Level Meeting

A call to action

Expanding DAC data on development finance

Evaluation in Sudan

Feature article

Upcoming events

Latest updates on the road to Busan

News in brief

Recent blogs

DAC Peer Reviews



2010 figures: Aid increases, but with worrying trends

On April 6, OECD released the preliminary figures on ODA flows for 2010. The following is the press release.


Aid flows from OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donor countries totalled USD 129 billion in 2010, the highest level ever and an increase of 6.5% over 2009. This represents about 0.32% of the combined gross national income (GNI) of DAC member countries.


While the 2010 figures demonstrate a commitment to the neediest countries, they also confirm last year’s OECD predictions that some donors are not meeting targets they set at Gleneagles and other fora.
Click to access our dynamic graphics on 2010 aid flows.


“As the OECD and the DAC celebrate their 50th anniversary, this increase shows a continuing commitment to development and development co-operation – principles central to the mission of the OECD since its inception,” said OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría. “It is in this positive spirit that I would encourage donors to make every effort to meet their Gleneagles targets and work toward achieving the MDGs.”


In 2010, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Japan, respectively, were the largest donors of official development assistance (ODA) in terms of volume. European Union countries that are members of the DAC provided a combined total of USD 70.2 billion, representing 54% of total net ODA provided by DAC donors. Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden continued to exceed the United Nations ODA target of 0.7% of GNI. The largest increases in real terms in ODA between 2009 and 2010 were recorded by Australia, Belgium, Canada, Japan, Korea, Portugal and the United Kingdom.


Looking ahead, a recent OECD survey shows that most donors plan to increase aid over the coming three years, though at a sharply reduced pace. Aid will grow at 2% per year between 2011 and 2013, compared to the average 8% per year over the past three years. Aid to Africa is likely to rise by just 1% per year in real terms, compared to the average 13% over the past three years. At this rate, any additional aid to the African countries will be outpaced by population growth.


“When countries make aid pledges, they must do the political, budgetary and planning work needed to sustain them,” said DAC Chair Brian Atwood. “We are promoting a new code of good pledging practice to ensure that promises are backed by plans.”


“The volume of aid is a crucial factor, but there are other forms of assistance that are not classified as ODA, such as some loans and guarantees, that provide critical support to low income countries. And the contribution of new donors is important as well. We are building broader and deeper global partnerships – sharing collective know-how to alleviate poverty and meet the Millennium Development Goals.”


Read more.


DAC Senior Level Meeting opens doors to dialogue

From 6-7 April, under the chairmanship of the new DAC Chair and former head of USAID Brian Atwood, senior representatives from member countries of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) met to discuss current and emerging co- development operation challenges. For the first time, the meeting was attended by representatives of China; other important non-DAC member donors, such as Brazil, India, Indonesia and South Africa, also participated.


Welcoming new partnerships in international development co operation: There have been important shifts in the international development landscape over recent years. A range of non-DAC funders – including emerging economies, private philanthropies and sector-specific funds – have rapidly increased support to developing countries. To encourage co-ordination and understanding, the DAC Senior Level Meeting (SLM) issued a statement welcoming non-DAC partners to engage in a mutual learning dialogue.


The political roadmap to Busan: The Busan High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, under the aegis of the Working Party on Aid Effectiveness (WP-EFF), promises to be one of the most important international meetings in 2011 – and a critical turning point for development. Participants in the SLM discussed a number of outstanding political issues that are critical to achieving a positive outcome in Busan, supporting an agenda that will build on the core aid effectiveness agenda to forge a broader international partnership with the full integration of non-DAC providers of assistance - public and private - focused on results, mutual accountability and transparency. Participants acknowledged the unique character of the WP-EFF as a multi-stakeholder coalition that has come a long way in strengthening the role of developing countries in the development discourse.


Demonstrating that aid produces results: The post-crisis budget crunch has raised the need for development assistance agencies in many OECD countries to demonstrate that aid produces results – and therefore merits continued political support from donor publics. Donors continue to struggle to demonstrate clear links between aid and the achievement of development outcomes for poor people. Participants in the SLM agreed on the need for a joint approach (although differentiated for each of their publics) among donors to measuring results and on the crucial importance of strong leadership from developing countries in the definition and measurement of results.


Aid and beyond: With the new trends in international development, including new sources of development financing (non-ODA flows and innovative finance), and a growing emphasis on the need for integrated policies at the global, regional and national levels, the DAC is increasingly broadening its work in these areas. At the SLM, it was agreed that the DAC should undertake, for example, significant new work to measure and assess development flows other than ODA, referred to as “development-related financing”. It was also agreed that the DAC should play a more active role in OECD work in development-related areas such as agriculture, migration, education, climate change and others.


Good pledging practice: Aid pledges can signal political support for a specific country or initiative, help mobilise additional resources and establish targets against which performance can be assessed. In recent years, however – as demonstrated by donors’ performance on their 2010 commitments – donors have not always backed their pledges with appropriate action and all too often, their promises were vague, confusing or ill-defined. To correct this, SLM participants adopted a recommendation to ensure that future aid targets and pledges are clear, comparable and realistic, and that they can be monitored and attained. 



A call to action by the OECD Secretary-General and the DAC Chair

On 16-17 April 2011 at the joint spring meetings of the World Bank-International Monetary Fund (IMF) Development Committee and the IMF’s International Monetary and Financial Committee, OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría and DAC Chair Brian Atwood made a call to action on the development front. The following are excerpts from the statement.


We currently are witnessing the emergence of a new development landscape: the G20’s commitment to tackling development gaps offers significant opportunities to promote growth and re-charge our efforts to reach the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This is a call to action for all of us to continue to keep our promises regarding volumes of official development assistance (ODA) and to improve its quality while sharpening our focus on the quality of non-ODA policies and partnerships that impact growth and development. The Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (HLF-4) in Busan, Korea, at the end of 2011 will be a key opportunity to galvanise political action towards this dual objective.


Marking its 50th anniversary, the OECD is as committed as ever to realising better policies for better lives and to engaging in mutual learning and knowledge-sharing with emerging and developing economies at all levels. OECD countries are increasingly placing development at the centre of their policies, as underscored by the OECD Ministerial Declaration on Policy Coherence for Development (2008) and our new strategy for development, which will be presented for endorsement at this year’s Ministerial Council. We will continue to foster more comprehensive approaches to development, drawing on expertise across all relevant policy areas to support accountable governance and frameworks that contemplate the important roles of the private sector and civil society. With our wide range of expertise –in taxation, green growth and reform implementation, for example – as well as 50 years of development co-operation through the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), the OECD is well placed to play a leading role in this new landscape, contributing to translating better policies into sustainable growth and development.


As we all strive to promote innovative, effective and inclusive approaches to development, we should not lose sight of the objectives that drive our efforts. The MDGs are about progress and development results. As such, they translate into better nourished, healthier and more educated children, a more sustainable environment and more dignified lives for women and men. […]


Let us not miss the opportunity Busan offers to shape the new development landscape by building a broader paradigm. This means making the best use of all resources, developing coherent policies and enhancing the capacities of all actors under the leadership of the developing countries. We have learned much about ODA and development, but even more solutions and ideas are available in the new development landscape. What is critical is to translate technical know-how into practical and sustainable reforms for development and evidence, collaborative partnerships and political will are key ingredients.


The current high-level dialogue in support of the implementation of the G20 Action Plan on Development offers a great opportunity to share experiences, co-ordinate efforts and improve policies. We need to buttress all forms of partnership through inclusive dialogue, mutual learning and knowledge-sharing.


The OECD Development Assistance Committee, as the key promoter of the Paris Declaration and the host of the Working Party on Aid Effectiveness, stands ready to make the “final push” to meet our collective commitments ahead of the MDGs, and to continue to play an active role in the new development landscape.



Expanding DAC data on development finance 

Transparency on development finance is an important tool for accountability. Statistics from the United Arab Emirates and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation are helping the DAC improve the detail and comprehensiveness of information on flows. Such information allows providers and recipients alike to make more informed decisions on aid allocations and helps to identify countries and sectors that may be over- or under-funded.


2010 marked a significant year of progress in aid monitoring by the DAC: the United Arab Emirates (UAE) provided, for the first time, whole-of-government reporting on its aid flows at activity level, making the UAE the first country outside the DAC’s membership to report in such detail. At the same time, the Bill & Gates Foundation reported its grants in support of global health, making it the first private foundation to share its data with the DAC.


UAE: The data show that in 2009, the UAE disbursed USD 1 038.2 million in gross official development assistance (ODA). This exceeds the aid volumes of six DAC donors, making the UAE the third largest donor outside the DAC after Saudi Arabia and China.



The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation: The figures reported by the Gates Foundation show that in 2009, they disbursed USD 1.8 billion in grants to improve health in developing countries, including support for vaccines, polio, HIV/AIDS, malaria, pneumonia, tuberculosis (TB), diarrheal diseases, other infectious diseases, family planning, nutrition, and maternal, newborn and child health. This makes the Gates Foundation the third largest international donor of aid to health after the United States and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.



The Gates Foundation reported their health data at the activity level. The data represent 2009 concessional outflows from a private foundation and are included in DAC statistics as part of net private grants from the United States. They are not official development assistance (ODA) and are not to be confused with aid from the United States Government.


The DAC warmly welcomes the efforts of the UAE and the Gates Foundation to collect and report data on their aid flows, and hopes that all major providers of development co-operation will begin to do so, standing ready to collaborate with them to improve the tracking of development co-operation flows at the global level.


Read more on UAE and Gates reporting.



Evaluation in Sudan

In January 2011, six years after the end of the Sudanese civil war, Southern Sudan voted for independence. As the country moves into a new era, a recent joint evaluation has examined how the international community has worked to help prevent conflict and build peace in Sudan since the signing of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement.


The evaluation – "Aiding the Peace: A Multi-Donor Evaluation of Support to Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding Activities in Southern Sudan" – concludes that support to conflict prevention and peacebuilding has only been partially successful. Some of the reasons for this are:

  • Donor strategies have emphasised basic services over security, policing and rule of law. But in Southern Sudan, insecurity compromised the effectiveness and sustainability of projects that concentrated on basic services and livelihood.

  • Insufficient assistance has been given towards preparing Southern Sudan for secession.

  • In efforts to follow the good-practice principles of ownership and harmonisation, donors sometimes overlooked realities on the ground and were not flexible enough in adapting to changing local conditions.


The multidisciplinary team of international and Sudanese evaluators used a mixed methodology, anchored in analysis of the key drivers of conflict identified in 2005 and 2010.


This evaluation is part of a collaborative effort to encourage quality, independent evaluation in the fields of conflict prevention and peacebuilding. Click to read the policy brief, full-length evaluation report, or read more about the OECD DAC’s work on evaluating peace assistance.



Feature article

Supporting statebuilding in situations of conflict and fragility

Alastair McKechnie, former Director for the Fragile and Conflict-Affected Countries Group at the World Bank, shares his personal views on the new approach that is needed to counter conflict and fragility, and promote a stronger, more productive world community. Mr. McKechnie, who co-chaired with the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID) the International Network on Conflict and Fragility (INCAF) Task Team on Peacebuilding, Statebuilding and Security, has also held several managerial positions in the Middle East and South Asia vice presidencies of the World Bank, including as Country Director for Afghanistan during 2002-08.


Most people living in low-income countries have seen huge gains in their incomes and welfare over the past two decades. Unfortunately, however, for a group of about 40 countries affected by conflict or its legacy — two-thirds of which are in Africa — development has been elusive. People living in these states face daily threats of violence and abuse — be it from rebels, criminals or agents of the state.


Outbreaks of violent conflict — including civil war — set back development by decades, taking their toll not only in terms of loss of life and physical assets, but also through the destruction of institutions — and the trust that enables these institutions to function. Conflict in one country can also infect countries in its region or even further abroad.


Addressing state fragility is not just a difficult case for development; it requires a new approach. To help in marking out this approach and drafting policy guidance, the OECD DAC International Network on Conflict and Fragility (INCAF) established a task team. The formulation of the policy guidelines involved both conceptual work, e.g. understanding the concepts of legitimacy and political settlements, and practical work, as evidenced in the publication Do No Harm: International Support for Statebuilding. Most recently, the DAC endorsed Supporting Statebuilding in Situations of Fragility: Policy Guidance in November 2010.


The conceptual framework underlying the policy guidance builds on three propositions: that statebuilding is fundamentally an endogenous process and therefore there are limits to what the international community can do; that statebuilding needs to be understood in the context of state-society relations; and that statebuilding is a deeply political process, which depends on what is perceived as legitimate in a particular country.


As well as legitimacy within the country, however, an effective state also needs external legitimacy, obtained from acting within international norms, which provides recognition and access to resources. Nonetheless, there may be divergences between what a given society currently believes is legitimate and the existing norms of the international community on matters such as the conduct of elections, the relationship between money and politics, and the role of women and/or religion in public life. Likewise, there are divergences of view and practice among OECD countries on some of these issues as well as regarding the constitutional arrangements that have legitimacy based on a country's history and cultural beliefs.


Statebuilding is not a problem to be solved technically and the new approach represents a move away from “good governance” and “best practice” to embrace the broader political context and the real nature of power. The statebuilding approach recognises that capable and legitimate states are a precondition for development. There are certain core functions that a state should provide: security and justice; managing economic development and employment; facilitating the delivery of services such as education, health and infrastructure; and raising and managing revenues to pay for the services it delivers. Yet there are many paths for carrying out these functions, which may involve informal as well as formal solutions, non-state as well as state actors and institutions that evolve out of local history and culture. Statebuilding is not a linear process; it involves an evolving political settlement – not necessarily equivalent to a peace agreement – among elites and with the population, which embodies their expectations, as well as the capability and responsiveness of the state to deliver its core functions. Outsiders can influence this process but not control it.


This approach to statebuilding has profound implications for overall assistance strategies to countries. Not only does it emphasise the importance of understanding local context; it demands an approach that can influence local, endogenous processes that take place over decades or even generations. Statebuilding requires a long-term relationship with a country that will experience setbacks as well as leaps forward. Clarity about goals and objectives is required, and conflicts and tradeoffs among them need to be identified and managed. There may be tensions among the interests and approaches of international partners that require drilling down on “ownership” and the local legitimacy of what international partners may be seeking. And there may be differences around establishing a reasonable timeframe for desirable reforms. Statebuilding also involves engagement with a broad range of state and non-state actors within the country, particularly those institutions that strengthen the accountability and legitimacy of the recognised authority. International actors can strive to strengthen the accountability of government to its citizens, rather than substituting international for local accountability.


In a post-crisis setting, agreeing on priorities with the local government helps ensure that efforts are focused on what is important and feasible in the short term. Prioritisation includes determining which actions support the political settlement and prevent renewed conflict; what are the core functions that the state should deliver; and how to deliver assistance that strengthens the legitimate authority of the state and does not undermine it. Bypassing government institutions in the interests of quick results can keep them from acquiring capacity and accountability for service delivery. Consolidating investment into national programmes may have a larger and more sustainable impact than donor-driven, quick-impact projects. Respecting the national budget and funding it directly can improve co-ordination, strengthen government accountability to legislature and population, and promote policy changes in areas that avoid long-term aid dependency, such as revenue collection and value for money.


Aligning aid modalities with statebuilding objectives could require greater use of pooled and jointly managed funds and a more strategic, longer-term and co-ordinated approach to assistance that promotes the transformation of national institutions. While such long-term engagement would still facilitate some early results, it would also develop deep-rooted institutional capacity, encourage critical policy reforms and promote investment for the future, e.g. in higher education or the infrastructure needed to sustain economic growth and employment.


Statebuilding requires actions that go beyond the traditional definition of development, that challenge coherence across policy communities and within donor governments. Co-ordinated assistance among diplomatic, security, justice, development and humanitarian activities at the country level becomes extraordinarily difficult if donors themselves are not well aligned internally. At the same time, there may be regional actors that can contribute relevant experience, and third parties that strengthen accountability, e.g. for managing natural resources.


Co-ordinated international assistance, aligned with national priorities – as set out in the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness – is as relevant for statebuilding as for facilitating economic and social development. Helping countries develop robust institutions that can respond effectively to external and internal shocks is one of the great challenges the world faces, not just for those facilitating development, but also for those assisting in related areas of political reform, security, justice and humanitarian assistance.



Also in this issue...

Upcoming events

Broadening opportunities for development

How might people be provided with better opportunities to access education and health services, and other forms of human capital? How might they be provided with access to affordable financial services and the ability to own land or other assets? How can better service delivery be ensured? And how can gender equality be promoted and ensured?


At the next Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE) (30 May-1 June, OECD Headquarters, Paris), leading economic thinkers and policy makers will discuss how economic opportunities can be broadened to accelerate poverty reduction, promote human development, and stimulate inclusive growth. The OECD is co-hosting the ABCDE 2011 as part of its 50th anniversary celebrations, in partnership with the World Bank and France, which in 2011 is presiding over the G8 and G20.


Read more and apply to register.


Mutual accountability for the least developed countries

The United Nations Development Cooperation Forum (DCF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the OECD will co-host a special event on mutual accountability at the Fourth United Nations Conference on Least Developed Countries (LDCs) in Istanbul, Turkey. At the event (9-13 May 2011), leaders of LDCs, will join the donor community and other stakeholders in exploring whether current frameworks aimed at ensuring mutual accountability on aid commitments fully reflect the concerns and needs of these countries. Contact: jenny.hedman@oecd.org and boehler@un.org.



Latest updates on the road to Busan

Preparations are well under way for the Fourth High Level Forum (HLF4) in Busan, Korea (29 November to 1 December 2011), where ministers and specialists will take stock of what has been advanced in implementing the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2005) and will seek to set out a new consensus on development. What follows is a round-up of recent related events.

  • Task Team on South-South Co-operation: Second call for case stories: Building on more than 110 case stories prepared for the Bogota High Level Event in 2010, the Task Team is calling for a second round of case stories. All practitioners involved in South-South and triangular knowledge exchange are invited to share their stories and lessons learned to inform the HLF4 in Busan. Submissions in English, Spanish or French can be made on line at www.southsouthcases.info until 31 May 2011.

  • Division of Labour Third Regional Workshop (12-13 April 2011, Honduras): The Task Team on Division of Labour and the EU Fast Track Initiative on Division of Labour jointly organised a series of regional workshops on country-led division of labour, hosted by SEPLAN, Honduras. The workshop discussed not only in-country and cross-country division of labour, but also South-South co-operation.

  • Second Meeting of the Task Force on Procurement (31 March 2011, Cuzco, Peru): This meeting produced the draft Cuzco Declaration – a summary of key messages for ministers and senior policy advisors attending the HLF-4.

  • Task Team on CSOs: After two days of debates (17-18 March 2011, Härnösand, Sweden), a task team of donors, CSOs and partner countries approved a draft paper with key messages for the HLF4, reaffirming that all actors share a responsibility to address CSO effectiveness, and that CSOs, as independent development actors, need an environment that enables effectiveness and accountability. For more information, contact stacey.bradbury@oecd.org.

  • Fragile States Principles: Consultation and country systems dialogue: At this meeting, (16-18 March 2011, Timor Leste), government officials, development partners and civil society representatives reviewed international engagement and support to Timor-Leste. For more information, contact stacey.bradbury@oecd.org.

  • Experts’ Meeting on Innovative Financing for Development: A ‘mapping’ of innovative financing for development (IFD) – done by the OECD with support from the World Bank – was reviewed by some 50 experts in the field (14 March 2011, OECD Headquarters, Paris). They looked at the relation of IFD to official development assistance (ODA), climate change financing and aid effectiveness so as to: offer information and analysis that can be used by public investors; propose an OECD benchmark for regular monitoring and assessment of IFD; and clarify the relationship between IFD and ODA, including ODA’s catalytic role. For more information, contact stacey.bradbury@oecd.org.

  • Global Partnership on Managing for Development Results: Participants in this meeting (8 March 2011, OECD Headquarters, Paris) discussed ways in which work on managing for development results can provide evidence for Busan. For more information, contact stacey.bradbury@oecd.org



News in brief

Aid to water and sanitation in developing countries

Aid to the water and sanitation sector rose sharply in the last decade, to USD 8.2 billion in 2008-09, targeting primarily regions most in need of improved access to this resource. The most striking of trends include:

  • Japan is the largest donor in the water sector, accounting for 25% of total aid in this sector for the period 2008-09.

  • Aid to water and sanitation primarily targeted the regions most in need: sub-Saharan Africa received 28% of total aid to water and South and Central Asia 19%.


Consult our dynamic graphics for more detailed information.


Aid to gender equality by sector
In 2007-09, DAC members committed USD 23 billion yearly to gender equality, primarily in the social sectors. These dynamic graphics show aid spent on gender equality and women’s empowerment both in total and by individual DAC member. Together, DAC members committed USD 23 billion per year to gender equality in 2007-2009. Almost one fourth of this aid was spent in the health sector, and large shares were committed in the education and governance sectors. Overall, less aid was committed to gender equality in the economic and productive sectors.


Consult our dynamic graphics for more detailed information.


Developing capacities for pro-poor growth
The DAC Network on Poverty Reduction (POVNET) and Train4Dev Joint Donors’ Competence Development Network developed a series of hands-on events designed to promote mutual learning and build understanding in poverty reduction and capacity development. GIZ Eschborn is the lead agency, while the Overseas Development Institute and ITAD provide the training and design the courses and materials. After pilot events in Tanzania in October 2009 and Benin in November 2010, the next courses are planned for Nepal and Nicaragua.


More information is available here.


Capacity development: From concept to implementation
To help take capacity development from concept to implementation, a workshop was hosted by Egypt (Cairo, March 28-29), with the support of the OECD and the Japanese International Co-operation Agency (JICA). This workshop emphasized leadership from developing countries, and African countries in particular. The main conclusions were captured in the Cairo Consensus on Capacity Development, endorsed by both developed and developing countries. For more information, contact silvia.guizzardi@oecd.org.


Implementing aid for trade
On 28-29 March 2011, an expert workshop at OECD’s Paris headquarters took a critical look at ways of helping developing countries turn trade opportunities into trade flows, and trade flows into economic growth. Specific sessions concentrated on: identifying the supply-side constraints to trade; prioritising reforms; understanding the role of complementary policies; evaluating and assessing the trade impact of aid for trade.



Recent blogs

ABCDE 2011: Broadening opportunities for development (18 April 2011): In anticipation of the 30 May-1 June Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE) 2011, and to coincide with the spring World Bank-International Monetary Fund meetings, Felix Zimmermann of the OECD Development Co-operation Directorate outlines the aims of the conference and introduces the key speakers.


Mapping paths out of fragility and conflict (14 April 2011): Following on the 11 April 2011 presentation of the World Development Report, Stephan Massing of the OECD International Network on Conflict and Fragility looks at the role of external support in fragile states.


100 years of World Women’s Day (8 March 2011): On the occasion of the centennial of World Women’s Day, the OECD DAC Network on Gender Equality contributed to the OECD Insights blog with two articles. “How to create an international movement for gender equality” and “Women's economic empowerment - it's about money and more...



DAC Peer Reviews

How have the 24 members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee adjusted their policies to meet their aid commitments? How are they responding to the call to accelerate progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)? In August 2010, he Development Co-operation Directorate requested DAC members to provide information on the policy changes they have undertaken to meet their aid commitments and, in particular, the MDGs. Read their responses.




Issues paper: “Women’s Economic Empowerment”: Women’s economic empowerment is not only a right – it is a prerequisite for sustainable development and for achieving the Millennium Development Goals.


Creditor Reporting System studies on aid to gender equality and women’s empowerment:


Supporting Statebuilding in Situations of Conflict and Fragility: Policy Guidance: DAC Guidelines and Reference series: This publication presents new thinking on statebuiling and clear recommendations for better practice, drawing from experience in the field.


Programming notes on Armed Violence Reduction: Three Programming Notes build on the 2009 publication:


Trade for Growth and Poverty Reduction: How Aid for Trade Can Help explains how aid for trade can foster economic growth and reduce poverty, and why it is an important instrument for a development strategy that actively supports poverty alleviation.



OECD DAC countries' ODA in 2010

USD 128.7 billion up 6.5% in real terms and
0.32% of DAC members’ combined GNI

OECD DAC Statistics including Aid at a Glance charts for DAC members, recipient countries, and by region.

Senior Policy Advisor (Reference 3864): As the DCD charts its strategic vision for the future, we are looking for a Senior Policy Advisor to engage in work with the international development policy and research environment, analysing emerging trends and topics and the evolving architecture of actors. The Senior Policy Advisor will also contribute to the directorate’s high-profile analytical products, as identified by the Director, providing substantive inputs to senior staff and supporting quality assurance of the end-product as a senior peer reviewer, in consultation with line managers.

Communication/Liaison Officer (Reference 3942): Under the direction of the Head of the Aid Effectiveness Division and in close collaboration with the DCD Communication Manager, the Communication/Liaison Officer will carry out a wide range of responsibilities related to the HLF4.

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