Presented at the COP21 in December 2015, Effective Carbon Rates in the OECD and Selected Partner Economies calculates effective carbon rates (ECR) on CO2-emissions from energy use for 41 countries which together use 80% of global emissions.
The effective carbon rate is the sum of specific taxes on energy use, carbon taxes, and prices of tradable emissions permits, where these apply. It is the total price on carbon emissions from energy use resulting from market-based policy instruments (including specific energy taxes that are not explicitly intended as taxes on carbon emissions but that are economically equivalent.)
The main findings, for 41 countries representing 80% of world emissions in 2012, are as follows:
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