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This paper compares and analyses the use of market mechanisms in core sub central policy areas, namely education, health care, transport, social protection, and environment. Arrangements like tendering, outsourcing, user choice and competition, user fees and performance-related funding can help to improve quality of service provision or lower its cost. With around 32% of total public expenditure and often wide-ranging spending powers,
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Fiscal equalisation is a transfer of resources across jurisdictions to offset disparities in revenue raising capacity or public service cost. It covers 2.5 percent of GDP or 5 percent of total government expenditure across OECD countries. Equalisation reduces fiscal disparities by two third on average and in some countries levels them virtually out. Strong equalisation comes at a price: on average, around 70 percent of a
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How fiscal rules can help minimise pressure on resources and ensure that they are used efficiently. Economics Department Working Paper 456 by Douglas Sutherland, Robert Price and Isabelle Joumard.
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This paper provides data and interpretation on the fiscal resources of sub-central government in OECD countries. It presents a set of fiscal autonomy indicators such as revenue and expenditure decentralisation, tax autonomy, intergovernmental grants and the stringency of fiscal rules.
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A study of grant design that integrates both theoretical and empirical insights from the fiscal federalism literature, and information obtained directly from practitioners concerning their experiences with the implementation of different types of grants.
These documents provide a definition of shared taxes, established by the Council of Europe, agreed upon by the council of Ministers on January 19, 2006.