This report assesses the Republic of Kazakhstan’s significant efforts to improve water supply and sanitation (WSS) services over the past 15 years, notably in terms of ambitious target-setting, implementation of a sound water tariff policy, and significant investment in the rehabilitation and development of relevant infrastructure. Generally speaking, the absence of updated data on WSS institutional development is a limiting factor for further policy and programme development in the field, including in Kazakhstan. The monitoring and evaluation system proposed in this report aims to help assess progress in the WSS sector and serve as a basis for any necessary corrective measures.
Is there a role for trade liberalisation and facilitation in zeroing in on corruption and supporting integrity in trade? Yes – and a greater one than you might think.
Trade and investment in natural mineral resources hold great potential for generating income, growth and prosperity, sustaining livelihoods and fostering local development. However, a large share of these resources is located in conflict affected and high-risk areas. In these areas, exploitation of natural mineral resources is significant and may contribute, directly or indirectly, to armed conflict, gross human rights violations and hinder economic and social development. The OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas provides step-by-step management recommendations endorsed by governments for global responsible supply chains of all minerals, in order for companies to respect human rights and avoid contributing to conflict through their mineral or metal purchasing decisions and practices. The Due Diligence Guidance for minerals may be used by any company potentially sourcing any minerals or metals from conflict-affected and high-risk areas, and is intended to cultivate transparent, conflict-free supply chains and sustainable corporate engagement in the minerals sector.
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The state continues to exercise considerable influence on the Greek economy. According to the OECD’s Product Market Regulation indicator, Greece has one of the highest degrees of state control in the productive sectors across OECD countries.
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Ensuring that SOEs perform efficiently – and on a level playing field with private competitors – is crucial for allocative efficiency in the broader economy and sound management of public resources. Making sure that SOEs operate in a clean and transparent manner is critical for maintaining citizens’ trust in the institutions which have been tasked with overseeing SOEs on their behalf.
Since the start of the economic reform process in the 70s China has been able to generate a large volume of investment, both from domestic and foreign sources. This high volume of investment was instrumental in sustaining strong economic growth and related improvements in living standards. However, this growth model is not longer sustainable. Returns on investment have fallen, excessive capacity is plaguing several sectors and the negative externalities have been very onerous, notably in terms of environmental degradation and rising income inequality. A key objective of the Chinese government is therefore to move the economy towards a more balanced, sustainable and inclusive growth path as envisaged by the 13th Five-Year Plan. In this adjustment process, the country is seeking new approaches for smarter, greener and more productive investment. This will require mutually reinforcing reforms to improve investment planning, rebalance the role of government and market forces, mainstream responsible business conduct and encourage greater private investment, especially in green infrastructure. China’s growing role as an outward investor may act as catalyser for the required reforms at home, as Chinese private and state-owned enterprises have to adopt internationally recognised practices and standards .
Whistleblower protection is essential for safeguarding the public interest, for promoting a culture of accountability and integrity in both public and private institutions, and for encouraging the reporting of misconduct, fraud and corruption wherever it occurs. While many countries are increasingly developing legal frameworks to protect whistleblowers, more can be done to mainstream integrity and promote open organisational cultures. This report analyses whistleblower protection frameworks in OECD countries, identifies areas for reform and proposes next steps to strengthen effective and comprehensive whistleblower protection laws in both the public and private sectors.
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This report reviews the legal and regulatory landscape for disclosure of beneficial ownership and control in Asia. It compares enforcement practices in 10 Asian jurisdictions and provides guidance and good practices to support policy makers and regulators.
Paris, 8 March 2016: Organised on International Women's Day, the OECD hosted a conference to consider policy approaches to closing leadership gender gaps in the public and corporate sectors.
One of the main areas of OECD's work in the responsible sourcing of gold is to ensure that international standards do not further marginalise workers of the informal sector. This implies working on the formalisation of the Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM) sector.