Le tourisme est un secteur économique important dans de nombreux pays, et le choc brutal et immense que la pandémie de COVID-19 a provoqué dans ce secteur se fait sentir dans le reste de l’économie. Pour contenir la propagation du virus, les pays du monde entier ont adopté des mesures sans précédent. Or, les restrictions ainsi imposées aux déplacements, à la marche des entreprises et aux interactions individuelles ont mis l’économie du tourisme à l’arrêt. Aujourd’hui, de nombreux pays entrent dans une nouvelle phase consistant à combattre le virus tout en gérant la réouverture de l’économie du tourisme. La tâche est complexe et ardue, et il est difficile de quantifier les incidences de cette nouvelle phase sur l’économie du tourisme.

Cinq mois après le début de la crise, la situation continue d’évoluer, et l’avenir reste incertain. On s’attend désormais à une reprise plus tardive et plus lente que ce qui avait été prévu. Il est probable que des restrictions de déplacement et des mesures de confinement vont se poursuivre, et qu’elles ne seront levées que de façon graduelle, tout en pouvant être rétablies en cas de nouvelles vagues d’infection. Même une fois que les chaînes logistiques touristiques recommenceront à fonctionner, la mise en place de nouveaux protocoles sanitaires signifiera que les entreprises ne fonctionneront pas à plein régime. La reprise prendra aussi du temps du côté de la demande, en raison de l’enchevêtrement des conséquences des crises économique et sanitaire et de la levée progressive des restrictions de déplacement. Parallèlement, la confiance des consommateurs et leurs déplacements seront d’autant plus affectés que la pandémie se prolongera. Il en découlera des conséquences indirectes pour de nombreuses économies nationales.

D’après les scénarios révisés, le choc pourrait se traduire par un repli de 60 % à 80 % de l’économie du tourisme international1 en 2020, en fonction de la durée de la crise et de la rapidité avec laquelle les voyages et le tourisme repartiront. L’hypothèse de départ n’a pas changé, puisque les flux touristiques sont restés extrêmement restreints jusqu’à juin, mais ces nouvelles estimations reflètent la révision de deux scénarios antérieurs pour les arrivées de touristes internationaux dans la zone OCDE, ainsi que l’ajout d’un troisième scénario, dans lequel un véritable redressement n’interviendrait qu’en 2021.

  • Scénario 1 (révisé) : les arrivées de touristes internationaux commencent à se redresser en juillet, et se renforcent progressivement sur le second semestre, mais à un rythme plus lent que prévu (- 60 %)

  • Scénario 2 (révisé) : les arrivées de touristes internationaux commencent à se redresser en septembre, et se renforcent progressivement sur le dernier trimestre, mais à un rythme plus lent que prévu (- 75 %)

  • Scénario 3 (nouveau) : les arrivées de touristes internationaux commencent à se redresser en décembre, dans le cadre d’une reprise limitée du tourisme international avant la fin de l’année (- 80 %)

À court terme, on considère que c’est le tourisme interne2 qui offre les meilleures perspectives s’agissant de provoquer une relance et d’aider le secteur touristique. Le tourisme interne est important, puisqu’il représente environ 75 % de l’activité économique liée au tourisme au sein des pays de l’OCDE3. Ce tourisme interne a lui aussi été très touché par les restrictions de déplacement, mais on s’attend à ce qu’il se redresse plus rapidement une fois les mesures de confinement levées. Il est néanmoins peu probable que le tourisme interne suffise à compenser le déclin du tourisme international, surtout dans les destinations très dépendantes des marchés internationaux. On peut donc s’attendre à des répercussions macroéconomiques importantes dans les pays, les régions et les villes où le tourisme fait vivre beaucoup de travailleurs et d’entreprises.

Au-delà de l’économie du tourisme, la pandémie a provoqué une crise économique mondiale, et de nombreux pays sont en train d’entrer en récession. Dans de premières estimations macroéconomiques4, l’OCDE a indiqué que, pour chaque mois de confinement strict, on pouvait s’attendre à un recul de la croissance du PIB annuel de l’ordre de 2 points de pourcentage. Elle a aussi estimé que, si le confinement se poursuivait pendant trois mois, et en l’absence de toute mesure de compensation, la croissance du PIB annuel pourrait être inférieure de 4 à 6 points de pourcentage à ce qu’elle aurait été autrement. Toutefois, les perspectives se sont assombries depuis, ce qui aura des conséquences sur la reprise du tourisme.

La pandémie de coronavirus (COVID-19) est avant tout une crise humanitaire qui a des conséquences sur la vie des personnes, à l’origine d’une crise économique mondiale. Elle a des effets très concrets sur le secteur du tourisme qui revêt une importance cruciale pour de nombreuses populations, localités et entreprises, et ces répercussions se font particulièrement sentir dans les pays, les villes et les régions où le tourisme représente une part importante de l’économie.

Le tourisme est source de devises étrangères, stimule le développement régional, contribue directement à la création de nombreux emplois et entreprises, et fait vivre maintes populations locales. La contribution directe du tourisme aux économies de l’OCDE s’élève en moyenne à 4,4 % du PIB et à 21,5 % des exportations de services5, ces pourcentages étant nettement plus élevés dans certains pays de l’OCDE. En Espagne, par exemple, le tourisme contribue à hauteur de 11,8 % du PIB, les voyages représentant pour leur part 52,3 % des exportations totales de services. Ces chiffres s’établissent respectivement à 8,7 % et 78,3 % au Mexique, 8,6 % et 47,7 % en Islande, 8,0 % et 51,1 % au Portugal et 7,4 % et 22,2 % en France6.

Le tourisme est un secteur à forte intensité de main d’œuvre qui représente 6,9 % de l’emploi, en moyenne, dans les pays de l’OCDE. Il est l’un des principaux créateurs d’emploi et peut offrir un volume important de débouchés aux travailleurs peu qualifiés ainsi qu’aux plus qualifiés. Le secteur emploie de nombreux saisonniers, des travailleurs à temps partiel et à durée déterminée. Si les conséquences de la crise continuent de se répercuter sur les mois de juin, juillet et août, faisant tourner de nombreuses branches du secteur à bas régime, un grand nombre de ces emplois seront directement touchés. En temps normal, ce secteur peut offrir des débouchés divers à de nombreux migrants, femmes, étudiants et travailleurs âgés, dans les grandes villes mais aussi dans les régions reculées, rurales, littorales et autres, souvent fragiles sur le plan économique, qui offrent peu de perspectives professionnelles. Le tourisme représente par exemple 15,7 % des emplois en Islande, 13,5 % en Espagne, 10,3 % en Irlande, 10,0 % en Grèce, et 9,8 % au Portugal7.

Le secteur du tourisme est l’un des plus directement frappés par la crise actuelle, et nécessite l’engagement de mesures immédiates et de long terme. Le COVID-19 a eu des conséquences instantanées et retentissantes sur le tourisme mondial : paralysie quasi totale du trafic aérien international depuis le mois de mars8, fermeture des sites et attractions les plus emblématiques, annulation ou report des grands festivals et manifestations, et interdiction des rassemblements publics (en intérieur et en extérieur) dans de nombreux pays. Qui plus est, malgré la résilience dont le secteur a fait preuve lors de crises antérieures, l’ampleur et la profondeur des effets liés au COVID-19 sur le tourisme et l’économie en général font qu’une reprise rapide est peu probable. Face à l’urgence de la situation, les ministres du Tourisme des pays du G20 se sont rassemblés en réunion extraordinaire le 23 avril et ont présenté une déclaration dans laquelle ils ont salué les efforts nationaux déployés pour atténuer les effets économiques et sociaux de la pandémie, et se sont engagés à travailler ensemble afin de soutenir une reprise durable et inclusive du secteur touristique9.

En réalité, le tourisme mondial va être durement éprouvé tout au long de l’année 2020, voire au-delà, même si la propagation du virus est maîtrisée au cours des prochains mois. Les entreprises de tourisme ont fait partie des premières à être fermées suite à la mise en œuvre des mesures permettant de faire barrage au virus. En effet, le tourisme implique nécessairement des interactions entre les personnes et des déplacements pour se rendre de son lieu de résidence habituel au lieu de destination, dans son propre pays ou à l’étranger. Les activités touristiques devraient également être parmi les dernières à reprendre, et de manière progressive. Et même lorsque ces entreprises ouvriront, elles devront adopter un fonctionnement différent en l’absence d’un vaccin. La pandémie aura certainement également des répercussions sur le comportement des touristes qui se feront sentir sur la relance et la reprise du tourisme interne et international.

Après révision de ses estimations, l’OCDE prévoit un recul de 60 % du tourisme international en 2020 pouvant aller jusqu’à 80 % si la relance n’intervient pas avant décembre. La dernière contraction de l’économie touristique mondiale remonte au lendemain de la crise financière de 2008 ; le nombre d’arrivées internationales avait alors diminué de 3.9 %. Ceci coïncide avec des projections récentes issues d’autres organisations qui signalent également une inversion de tendance notable par rapport aux projections de croissance antérieures. Les dernières estimations de l’Organisation mondiale du tourisme (OMT) prévoient une baisse de 22 % des arrivées internationales pour les trois premiers mois de l’année et une diminution de 58 % à 78 % pour 2020, ce qui correspondrait à une perte de 910 milliards USD à 1 200 milliards USD de recettes d’exportation du tourisme10. Dans le même temps, le Conseil mondial du tourisme et des voyages (CMTV) prévoyait, le 24 avril, que 100,8 millions d’emplois étaient menacés à travers le monde11. D’après une synthèse sectorielle de l’OIT, le tourisme représente un des secteurs les plus fragiles et risque très probablement d’enregistrer une baisse spectaculaire de l’emploi suite à la crise du COVID-1912.

Les prévisions nationales affichent des répercussions attendues de la même ampleur sur le tourisme en 2020 et témoignent de la difficulté de faire des prévisions dans une situation aussi changeante et incertaine. Des pays, dont le Chili, la Finlande et le Royaume-Uni, ont adopté des approches en se fondant sur des scénarios tirés d’hypothèses et de simplifications qui tendent vers différentes issues possibles qui seront définies à terme en fonction de l’évolution des crises économique et sanitaire et de la manière dont les multiples facteurs de l’offre et de la demande interagiront (Encadré 1).

Les tentatives de prévision des répercussions potentielles de la pandémie sur l’économie touristique ont rapidement été dépassées par la vitesse avec laquelle la situation a évolué au moment de la propagation de l’épidémie. Toutefois, les estimations indiquent de plus en plus qu’il faudra deux ans ou plus avant de retrouver un niveau comparable à celui d’avant la crise. L’Association du transport aérien international (IATA)13 prévoit que les compagnies aériennes ne retrouveront pas le niveau de trafic qu’elles avaient avant la crise avant le début 2021, et la société STR qui fournit des données sur l’hôtellerie n’entrevoit pas un retour aux niveaux d’avant la crise avant 202214.

Dans le monde, plus de 9 personnes sur 10 vivent dans un pays qui a imposé des mesures de restrictions aux déplacements internationaux15, la pandémie actuelle a donc une dimension nettement plus mondiale et durera beaucoup plus longtemps que des crises sanitaires antérieures. À titre de comparaison, des crises comme celles du SARS, en 2003, du H1N1 en 2009, et du MERS en 2015, étaient de moins grande ampleur et l’incidence sur le tourisme a été plus localisée. Alors que ces crises ont montré que l’engouement pour les voyages était revenu rapidement, une fois que les risques sanitaires étaient sous contrôle et que la confiance était revenue, l’étendue de la crise du COVID-19 et l’ampleur de la crise économique qu’elle a entraînée laisse sous-entendre que la reprise sera plus lente. Le CMTV estime que les répercussions de cette crise sur le tourisme seront cinq fois supérieures à celles de la crise financière16, et les données de STR alertent également sur la profondeur des effets avec des revenus par chambre disponible (RevPAR) qui s’effondrent de 84,9 % en avril 2020 alors que la baisse n’était que de 28 % par rapport à l’année précédente17 après la crise financière.

L’OMT déclare que des restrictions de déplacements liées au COVID-19 sont instaurées dans tous les pays à travers le monde et, le 1er juin 2020, 156 gouvernements avaient totalement fermé leurs frontières au tourisme international. Ces restrictions de voyage devraient se poursuivre les prochaines semaines voire plus longtemps. En Europe, par exemple, la Comission européenne a demandé que les frontières extérieures restent fermées pour les déplacements non essentiels jusqu’au 15 juin, au plus tôt. Certains pays comme la Nouvelle-Zélande et l’Australie, qui ont rapidement imposé des restrictions à l’entrée des touristes venant de l’étranger pour éviter l’importation de cas de COVID-19, étudient la création d’une « bulle de voyage » entre les deux pays. D’autres pays envisagent d’autoriser les déplacements entre pays voisins, comme avec la création d’une bulle de voyage baltique permettant la reprise du tourisme entre l’Estonie, la Lettonie et la Lituanie, ou des « ponts aériens » entre les pays où le virus est contrôlé.

Il reste encore à préciser quand une ouverture plus généralisée des frontières pourra avoir lieu, et sous quelles conditions. Là où les frontières sont levées, certains pays ont annoncé des périodes d’isolement obligatoire de 14 jours pour les personnes venant de l’étranger. Cependant, la situation reste floue et les pays cherchent des solutions pour contrôler le virus tout en limitant l’incidence des mesures de restriction, notamment sur le tourisme. L’Islande fait partie des pays qui ont annoncé des plans pour relancer les voyages internationaux à partir du 15 juin en donnant aux touristes la possibilité de choisir entre un test de dépistage du virus ou une période de quarantaine.

Alors que toute l’attention se portait sur le tourisme international, notamment en raison d’un nombre de données disponibles plus important, le tourisme interne a également été lourdement touché par les mesures de confinement. Avant la crise, le tourisme interne comptait pour 75 % des dépenses touristiques en moyenne dans les pays de l’OCDE. Cependant, ce chiffre varie fortement selon les pays (Graphique 3).

Le tourisme interne devrait jouer un rôle important dans la phase initiale du redémarrage compte tenu des perspectives incertaines qui planent sur les voyages internationaux. Les pays où le tourisme interne représente déjà une part importante de l’économie touristique devraient donc connaître une reprise plus rapide dans ce secteur que les autres pays, qui dépendent plus lourdement des flux touristiques internationaux. De nombreux pays ainsi que l’industrie du tourisme s’engagent pour promouvoir le tourisme interne et satisfaire les visiteurs dans leur propre pays.

La Chine est devenue l’un des principaux moteurs du tourisme mondial au cours de la décennie écoulée : en 2018, elle s’est classée au premier rang en termes de tourisme émetteur (10.6 %), au quatrième pour le nombre d’arrivées internationales de touristes (4.5 % - précédée seulement de la France, de l’Espagne et des États-Unis), et au onzième des recettes touristiques internationales (2.8 %). Par conséquent, l’interruption brutale des voyages en provenance de ce pays en janvier a eu une incidence immédiate sur la demande partout dans le monde. Cela n’a été que le premier signe de la menace que le virus constituait pour le tourisme international ; sa propagation a eu par la suite des répercussions sur d’autres marchés et destinations de premier plan, à travers le monde.

De nombreux pays passent à présent à la phase suivante de la lutte contre la pandémie et s’orientent vers un allègement des restrictions. Les restrictions, initiées en Chine (Encadré 2) avant de gagner le reste du monde, sont progressivement levées dans la plupart des pays où les populations retournent au travail et se remettent à voyager, à une échelle limitée.

Ce processus devrait être progressif et non linéaire. Les pays cherchent à organiser un retour progressif à la vie normale tout en contrôlant le virus, il est donc encore difficile de savoir à quel moment les activités touristiques pourront reprendre totalement. Cette situation sera étroitement surveillée et les gouvernements n’ont pas hésité à souligner qu’il pourrait être nécessaire de réintroduire des mesures restrictives si la circulation du virus venait de nouveau à s’intensifier. C’est ce que Singapour a vécu, par exemple, puisque les mesures de restriction à la circulation des personnes qui avaient d’abord été allégées ont été introduites de nouveau lorsqu’une deuxième vague de contaminations menaçait le pays.

Le redémarrage du secteur touristique sera plus complexe que sa fermeture et nécessitera une approche équilibrée et mesurée. Alors que le tourisme a lourdement été touché par la pandémie et les mesures mises en œuvre pour contenir le virus, les flux touristiques représentent un vecteur potentiel de propagation du virus. La lente réouverture du secteur et les incertitudes persistantes créent des difficultés supplémentaires mais une accélération du processus risque d’ébranler davantage la confiance des gouvernements et des consommateurs quant à leur capacité à relancer et faire tourner le secteur à long terme.

Les retombées probables ne seront pas seulement fonction de la durée de la pandémie et de ses conséquences pour la survie des entreprises, mais aussi des éventuels changements de comportement des voyageurs suite à la crise – seront-ils alors plus réticents à se rendre à l’étranger ? La crise devrait avoir des effets permanents sur le comportement des clients, accélérer leur recours à l’internet, les rendre plus attentifs à l’hygiène et soucieux de vivre sainement, et plus enclins à utiliser des moyens de paiement scripturaux et sans contact18.

Les répercussions sur le comportement des voyageurs n’ont pas encore été identifiées mais les entreprises du secteur touristique, telles que les croisières et le transport aérien, se préparent déjà à améliorer le contrôle sanitaire et les mesures d’hygiène, parfaitement conscientes qu’il reste beaucoup à faire pour restaurer la confiance des voyageurs. Les PME et microentreprises devront être capables de mettre en œuvre l’ensemble de ces mesures et le gouvernement a un rôle à jouer pour faire en sorte que les organismes professionnels nationaux de premier plan soutiennent ces entreprises. Les entreprises devront également prendre des mesures pour protéger les travailleurs en première ligne qui proposent des services touristiques.

Une autre question concerne l’accueil des visiteurs dans les lieux de destination. La pandémie pourrait également conduire les populations hôtes à jeter un regard négatif sur les touristes considérés comme un risque potentiel, d’autant plus lorsque les populations locales qui se plaignaient avant la crise du volume trop important de visiteurs et de la surpopulation se sont réapproprié les lieux.

La pandémie a entraîné des dérèglements dans les branches, les entreprises et les destinations du secteur touristique, et touché certains domaines plus que d’autres, dès à présent et à plus long terme. Les PME sont à l’évidence concernées puisque la plupart des entreprises de la filière touristique s’inscrivent dans cette catégorie. Compte tenu de leurs ressources souvent limitées et des obstacles auxquels elles sont confrontées pour accéder aux capitaux, leur délai de survie à un choc sera vraisemblablement inférieur à celui des entreprises de plus grande taille. Comme l’indiquent les Perspectives intermédiaires de l’OCDE, des entreprises normalement solvables, des PME notamment, risquent de faire faillite sous l’effet des mesures de confinement en vigueur21. Les entreprises du secteur touristique viables avant la pandémie pourraient désormais être fragilisées. Les coûts liés à la prévention et à l’adaptation des processus de travail, comme l’adoption d’outils numériques et la mise en œuvre de nouveaux protocoles opérationnels, peuvent s’avérer relativement plus élevés pour les PME.

La Note d’orientation de l’OCDE COVID-19: SME Policy Responses19, attire l’attention sur le fait que les PME n’auront peut-être pas la résilience et la flexibilité suffisante pour supporter les coûts résultant de chocs de cette nature et une étude menée auprès de ces entreprises indique que plus de 50 % d’entre elles risquent fort de ne pas survivre les prochains mois. Un effondrement général des PME pourrait avoir de lourdes répercussions sur les économies nationales et les projections de croissance mondiale, mais aussi sur l’économie touristique. Les gouvernements ont rapidement pris la mesure de la situation particulière des PME et ont adopté des politiques de soutien impliquant des actions qui suivent fréquemment l’ordre suivant : des mesures sanitaires, et des informations sur la manière de les appliquer, des mesures pour répondre aux besoins de liquidités, avec des reports de versements, des mesures pour faciliter l’obtention de prêts exceptionnels pour renforcer la résilience des PME, des mesures pour limiter les répercussions liées aux licenciements imprévus, et des mesures d’ordre structurel. Ces mesures destinées aux PME en général ont également été prévues pour les PME du secteur touristique.

Outre le fait qu’il est essentiellement constitué d’une multitude de PME et microentreprises, le secteur du tourisme est très fragmenté et diversifié, et recouvre de nombreuses filières. Étant donné ce caractère intersectoriel, multiniveaux et morcelé, il est confronté à des difficultés particulières. Les services touristiques sont souvent interdépendants, et une crise dans un sous-secteur, comme le transport aérien, peut avoir des répercussions catastrophiques sur l’ensemble de la chaîne de valeur. Alors que le secteur tente de reprendre du service, une des difficultés consiste à faire de nouveau travailler ensemble tous ces éléments interconnectés de la chaîne de valeur du secteur touristique afin de proposer aux visiteurs des expériences touristiques sans faille. L’Encadré 3 présente quelques-unes des conséquences subies par certaines branches du secteur touristique.

Les effets de l’épidémie sur le tourisme semblent asymétriques et fortement localisés à l’intérieur des pays et certaines destinations sont plus exposées que d’autres. Même en temps normal, certaines destinations semblent beaucoup plus vulnérables que d’autres aux effets des crises en raison de leur extrême dépendance vis-à-vis du secteur touristique. Cette inégalité a toutes les chances d’être fortement accentuée après la pandémie. En outre, les exemples passés montrent que les économies locales les plus touchées ne seront pas capables de rebondir rapidement et les marchés de l’emploi local pourraient en pâtir pendant plusieurs années, accentuant les disparités régionales en terme de chômage, d’inactivité économique et de qualité de l’emploi20.

Des analyses menées par le Centre commun de recherche de la Commission européenne soulignent que les économies des hauts lieux touristiques pâtiront davantage des restrictions aux voyages compte tenu de la saisonnalité et de l’ampleur du tourisme par rapport à la taille de la population locale. Les régions côtières devraient être les plus touchées avec une baisse cumulée du PIB entre les mois d’avril et juin estimée entre 9,7 milliards EUR et 24,9 milliards EUR21.

Les destinations touristiques présentent souvent les pourcentages les plus élevés d’emplois potentiellement menacés. Les analyses de l’OCDE indiquent qu’une part importante des emplois sont menacés dans les destinations européennes telles que les îles ioniennes en Grèce, les Baléares et les Canaries en Espagne, et la région de l’Algarve au Portugal, compte tenu de la part importante du tourisme dans l’économie locale. De même, en Corée, Jeju-do est la région la plus menacée et, en Amérique du Nord, le Nevada (où se trouve Las Vegas) apparaît comme l’État potentiellement le plus touché, suivi par Hawaii22.

Dans de nombreux pays, les destinations touristiques soumises à des mesures de confinement strictes sont restées fermées. Les restrictions sont à présent en train d’être levées progressivement et de manière inégale selon les régions et les villes, en fonction du contexte local et de la situation sanitaire. L’interaction de ces mesures et leur incidence sur les activités touristiques pendant des périodes clés pour le secteur auront également des répercussions. La pandémie a contraint certaines destinations à mettre un terme prématurément à la saison de ski et la saison estivale de l’hémisphère nord est actuellement menacée.

L’ampleur des conséquences économiques sur les destinations touristiques dépendra également de plusieurs facteurs, notamment la nature de l’offre touristique, les répercussions des restrictions aux voyages sur les flux de visiteurs, la vitesse à laquelle l’économie se redressera sur les principaux marchés émetteurs, l’ampleur et la complexité des activités commerciales, la taille du marché touristique et sa dépendance à l’égard des marchés émetteurs internationaux, et la place du tourisme dans l’économie.

Les destinations les plus dépendantes des marchés internationaux devraient être les plus touchées (en particulier à long terme), notamment les destinations urbaines. Les destinations rurales et isolées et les espaces naturels pourraient attirer davantage de visiteurs, du moins dans un premier temps. Tourism Economics prévoit une reprise du tourisme urbain interne en 2021 mais le tourisme international devrait repartir d’ici deux ans ou plus. Le tourisme à destination des grandes villes devrait repartir en premier mais un redémarrage plus généralisé du tourisme international dans les villes n’est pas attendu avant 202423.

Les destinations précédemment très prisées pourraient enregistrer de fortes baisses des flux touristiques alors que les destinations rurales moins courues pourraient devenir plus populaires. La région de la Vénétie (Italie), par exemple, prévoit dans son plan de relance de mettre en avant les sites classés au patrimoine de l’UNESCO moins connus afin de réorienter les nombreux touristes de Venise vers d’autres sites. Les destinations populaires pourraient également avoir besoin de repenser leur modèle de développement pour attirer les visiteurs tout en leur permettant d’appliquer une distanciation physique suffisante.

Un problème majeur de la relance des destinations consiste à savoir si l’ensemble des services essentiels fonctionneront après la crise pour accueillir les visiteurs lorsqu’ils viendront. Une économie touristique dynamique repose sur la disponibilité d’une large gamme de services sur le lieu de destination : une offre d’hébergements et de services de restauration mais aussi des divertissements, des activités et des événements. Dans le même temps, l’enjeu pour les organismes de gestion des destinations (OGD) consiste à communiquer avec les parties intéressées et à leur fournir des informations précises et actualisées. Par ailleurs, certains OGD réorganisent leur site internet pour fournir des informations aux habitants afin de les renseigner sur les commerces locaux et de répondre aux besoins actuels ; c’est le cas notamment de la ville de Raleigh24, aux États-Unis, et de Seignanx, dans les Landes25, en France.

La manière dont les touristes seront accueillis dans les régions reste un problème à résoudre. Les flux touristiques pourraient devenir un vecteur de propagation du virus. Si cela était avéré, cela pourrait entamer la confiance des gouvernements, des entreprises et des consommateurs quant à leur capacité à relancer et faire tourner le secteur à long terme. Cela pourrait également entraîner une réaction hostile des collectivités locales qui pourraient s’opposer à l’arrivée de visiteurs par peur qu’ils apportent le virus et mettent leurs services de santé sous pression. Cela s’est produit dans certains cas, suite à la mise en place des mesures de confinement, lorsque des personnes ont quitté la ville pour aller passer cette période de confinement dans leur maison secondaire, mais aussi depuis la levée des restrictions aux déplacements, avec certaines collectivités locales et certains organismes touristiques qui demandent aux touristes de ne pas venir26.

La crise actuelle continue de frapper les entreprises de toutes tailles, depuis les plus grandes compagnies aériennes internationales jusqu’aux plus petits hôteliers indépendants. La riposte immédiate de ces entreprises s’est naturellement concentrée sur l’élaboration proactive de plans de survie à court terme. Avec l’évolution de la crise, les entreprises cherchent à présent avec les autorités à identifier les priorités fondamentales pour permettre une relance à moyen et long terme.

Une inquiétude majeure qui touche un domaine encore incertain, pour de nombreuses entreprises du tourisme, toutes branches du secteur confondues, concerne les conditions dans lesquelles ils seront autorisés à rouvrir et à reprendre leur activité, et la possibilité pour les entreprises d’avoir une activité rentable dans ces conditions. En réaction, les acteurs du secteur ont pris les devants en proposant de nouvelles normes de travail et de nouveaux protocoles dont l’objectif est de protéger les travailleurs, redonner confiance aux visiteurs, assurer la distanciation sociale et appliquer les normes de nettoyage et d’hygiène nécessaires. Le CMTV a présenté de nouveaux protocoles mondiaux pour relancer le tourisme appelés « Safe Travels » 27 et, le 4 mai 2020, le secteur du tourisme américain a fourni des directives détaillées aux entreprises du voyage afin d’assurer la sécurité de leurs clients et de leurs employés alors que le pays sort de la crise du COVID-19 (Encadré 4).

Le secteur participe à la mise en place de groupes de travail spécialisés afin d’assurer une réponse coordonnée à la crise. Un exemple au niveau mondial est celui du groupe de travail du CMTV COVID-19, qui assure la coordination entre les représentants du secteur privé et les organisations internationales en vue de définir des solutions communes pour soulager les pressions qui pèsent sur les entreprises touristiques. L’annexe B contient une liste de pages web d’organismes privés qui publient à intervalles réguliers des mises à jour et des analyses de la crise.

Le Comité de crise pour le tourisme mondial piloté par l’OMT est une initiative conjointe des secteurs public et privé qui vise à coordonner les rispostes à la pandémie. Le 1er avril, il a publié des recommandations pour l’action des gouvernements centrées sur trois grands domaines : i) limiter les répercussions sur l’emploi et les liquidités, ii) protéger les plus fragiles, et iii) préparer le redressement. 28 Ainsi, le 28 mai, le Comité s’est accordé sur une série de priorités pour le redressement du tourisme et a approuvé les directives mondiales pour le redémarrage du tourisme. Au niveau national et international, le secteur a également joué un rôle de premier plan pour sensibiliser les autorités à l’importance de programmes visant spécifiquement à soutenir ses activités.

Les entreprises sont encore en mode survie dans plusieurs pays. En riposte aux effets immédiats et massifs sur le secteur, les autorités sont appelées à élaborer et instaurer sur le champ des mesures visant à apporter un soutien financier aux entreprises en difficulté. Des mesures en soutien aux travailleurs sont conseillées étant donné que les entreprises de tourisme en difficulté se sont vues contraintes de supprimer des emplois, de geler les embauches, d’instaurer le partage de postes et de demander au personnel de prendre des congés annuels et de maladie. Autre domaine d’intervention identifié par le secteur privé : la communication d’informations et d’orientations essentielles et actualisées sur la façon de s’adapter à des règlementations en constante évolution. Les associations professionnelles fournissent également des données. Quoique pleinement conscientes du caractère essentiellement humanitaire de la crise, les entreprises touristiques appellent les autorités à assouplir leurs obligations financières et à assurer un dialogue permanent entre les responsables publics et le secteur. En Grèce, par exemple, le ministère du Tourisme a établi une ligne de communication ouverte destinée aux voyagistes, aux entreprises et aux représentants du marché pour traiter les problèmes qui surgissent.

La coopération volontaire entre le secteur du tourisme et celui de la santé est également un phénomène largement répandu à l’appui des efforts de confinement. Dans plusieurs cas, les entreprises ont mis leur capacité d’accueil excédentaire à la disposition du système de santé, soit en fournissant des repas au personnel médical ou aux personnes âgées, soit en ouvrant des établissements pour loger les personnes en quarantaine. Des bons ont également été offerts au personnel médical pour les aider à partir en vacances. Par exemple, l’hôtel Four Seasons de New York s’est transformé en hébergement pour les travailleurs de la santé. 29 Le groupe Accor a ouvert 40 de ses hôtels en France pour le personnel infirmier, les populations à risque et les personnes qui luttaient contre la propagation du coronavirus.30 Des hôtels se sont également transformés en lieux de soins médicaux pour soulager les hôpitaux qui croulaient sous les demandes de soins. Les hôtels de Madrid, en Espagne, ont mis à destination des hôpitaux 9 000 lits supplémentaires pour les patients contaminés par le coronavirus31 et la compagnie de croisières Carnival Cruise a mis plusieurs de ses navires à disposition pour en faire des hôpitaux de fortune. 32

La pandémie a toutefois représenté une occasion de développement pour le secteur dans le domaine du numérique. Les premières données indiquent que la crise actuelle accélère la transformation numérique du secteur. Des solutions numériques sont mises au point, qui visent à créer des expériences touristiques « à distance »33 ou virtuelles ; c’est le cas de plusieurs musées qui ouvrent leurs portes virtuellement aux touristes du monde entier pour soutenir les personnes soumises à des périodes de distanciation sociale prolongées. Ce passage vers le numérique influence également la manière de travailler dans le secteur.

À plus long terme, les mesures de distanciation sociale, ainsi que les nouvelles stratégies de fonctionnement du secteur et de gestion du risque, et l’attrait des consommateurs pour le sans contact, le libre service et la personnalisation des expériences, pourraient accélérer l’adoption de systèmes de gestion hôtelière hébergés sur un cloud, et de bornes automatiques pour l’enregistrement des arrivées et des départs dans les hôtels, les terminaux de transport et les sites de loisir. Des robots autonomes pourraient également réaliser plus fréquemment des activités de nettoyage ou remplacer les exécutants en coulisse.

Dans la première phase de la crise, les autorités ont déployé leurs efforts pour riposter au plus vite et limiter les répercussions pour protéger les visiteurs et les travailleurs et assurer la continuité de l’activité commerciale suite à la mise en œuvre des mesures de confinement. Les soutiens ont essentiellement consisté en une aide financière la plus étendue possible aux travailleurs et aux entreprises, le plus rapidement possible. Alors que les mesures de confinement commencent à s’alléger, les prochaines étapes consisteront à inciter les voyageurs à se déplacer, faire repartir et fonctionner les entreprises de tourisme et remettre les individus au travail. C’est une opération essentielle, quoique complexe et difficile.

Les répercussions à moyen et long termes du COVID-19 varieront selon les pays, les destinations et les segments du secteur, mais il est évident que pour relancer l’activité alors que le virus circule toujours, les autorités vont devoir prendre des mesures proportionnées, calculées et coordonnées, à l’échelon local, national et international, pour protéger les personnes tout en limitant les suppressions d’emplois et les fermetures d’entreprises, dans l’immédiat et à long terme. L’OCDE a créé une carte qui présente pays par pays les mesures économiques prises pour lutter contre le COVID-19, disponible à l’adresse suivante : https://oecd.github.io/OECD-covid-action-map.

Les pays ont pris des mesures exceptionnelles pour lutter contre la crise (voir annexe A). Si leurs priorités sont encore la santé publique, les autorités ont également rapidement réagi et mis en œuvre des mesures extraordinaires pour atténuer les répercussions économiques du coronavirus sur les entreprises et les travailleurs. Elles ont le plus souvent pris la forme de programmes de relance économique globale, qui prévoyaient souvent des injections de liquidités et des allègements fiscaux (par exemple avec des prêts, des exonérations temporaires d’impôts ou des reports, des dispositifs de garantie d’emprunt). Par exemple, la Commission européenne a ainsi mis en œuvre une Initiative d’investissement en réponse au coronavirus à hauteur de 37 milliards EUR, entrée en vigueur le 1er avril, pour apporter des liquidités aux petites entreprises et au secteur de la santé34. Cette initiative a été complétée par l’Initiative d’investissement Plus en réponse au coronavirus (CRII+), un nouveau train de mesures conçu pour permettre de mobiliser au maximum toutes les aides non utilisées des Fonds structurels et d’investissement européens35.

Le secteur du tourisme bénéficie largement de ces programmes de relance économique et de ces aides, adaptés et accessibles aux travailleurs et aux entreprises de tourisme de toutes les tailles. Dans certains pays, le tourisme est également considéré comme un secteur cible au sein de ces cadres de relance, face à l’ampleur des répercussions qui l’ont touché. Compte tenu des pressions considérables auxquelles l’économie touristique est confrontée et de l’évolution de la situation, de nombreux pays de l’OCDE adoptent également des mesures spécifiques afin de remédier aux conséquences immédiates de la crise sur la filière, et de faciliter sa reprise. Les autorités ajustent également les mesures mises en œuvre afin de répondre au mieux aux besoins des entreprises de tourisme et du secteur en général.

La plupart des initiatives, engagées dans le cadre de la riposte en urgence et de la phase consistant à limiter les répercussions, prévoient d’assurer une continuité salariale pour les travailleurs du tourisme et une protection de leur emploi, et de faire en sorte que les entreprises du secteur seront en mesure de reprendre leurs activités lorsque les mesures de confinement n’auront plus cours. Les travailleurs ont été protégés dans de nombreux pays (par exemple, dans certains pays, les autorités ont payé les salaires à plus de la moitié de la main d’œuvre) mais ceci n’est pas tenable à long terme. Lorsque les entreprises pourront rouvrir, il sera possible de se rendre pleinement compte de l’ampleur des pertes d’emploi. Il en va de même pour les entreprises – le combat pour rester en activité ne s’arrêtera pas avec la levée des restrictions aux déplacements.

Plus précisément, l’allègement financier accordé aux entreprises de tourisme est assuré grâce à une législation exceptionnelle et de nouvelles règles, par exemple pour autoriser les entreprises à proposer des avoirs à leurs clients au lieu d’un remboursement en liquide, tout en permettant aux clients de récupérer leur argent s’ils n’ont pas utilisé cet avoir dans un délai prédéfini. Les décideurs politiques prennent des mesures pour protéger les consommateurs d’offres touristiques et leur fournir des informations actualisées. D’autres actions adoptées comprennent l’instauration de comités ou de groupes de travail en lien avec le COVID (notamment au Canada, en France, en Irlande et en Nouvelle-Zélande) pour assurer une direction et une coordination à l’échelle de l’ensemble de l’administration et servir de plateforme pour la participation des entreprises et l’élaboration de plans de relance efficaces.

Un aperçu général des mesures prises par les pays face à la pandémie de COVID-19 fait apparaître trois grandes catégories et types de mesures qui continuent d’évoluer :

Les autorités ont pris des mesures sans précédent pour répondre à la crise avec l’adoption de plans de relance de l’économie d’ordre général, toutefois, il reste encore beaucoup à faire, au plus vite, au niveau sectoriel avec l’adoption de solutions innovantes pour soutenir les entreprises et les travailleurs du tourisme, rétablir la confiance des voyageurs et dynamiser la demande une fois que les restrictions seront levées. La crise montre que la politique touristique doit impérativement s’inscrire dans une approche gouvernementale intégrée pour que les mesures adoptées en riposte concordent avec les programmes généraux de relance économique et les complètent (des mesures d’assistance aux PME et aux travailleurs par exemple).

  • Protection des touristes. Hors de leur environnement habituel, les touristes souffrent souvent d’un manque d’informations ; c’est pourquoi les pays s’emploient à leur fournir une assistance et des renseignements dans plusieurs langues et sous différentes formes.

  • Soutien aux travailleurs et aux entreprises. Le secteur touristique bénéficie des mesures intersectorielles prises par les autorités nationales pour apporter de la flexibilité aux travailleurs et les soulager. Certains pays ont pris des mesures spécifiquement destinées aux travailleurs indépendants ce qui est particulièrement adapté aux nombreuses microentreprises et PME de tourisme. Les pays où l’incidence de la pandémie sur le tourisme est particulièrement sensible ont donné priorité aux mesures destinées à apporter une aide financière aux PME de la filière, sous forme de report de versement de la TVA, par exemple. Des aides non financières sont également proposées, notamment avec la communication d’informations et l’accès à des services de conseil sur la façon de s’adapter à de nouvelles règlementations.

  • Aide aux destinations. Les conséquences de la pandémie sur les destinations touristiques varient en fonction de divers facteurs et les plus dépendantes à l’égard des marchés émetteurs internationaux pourraient être les plus touchées (les zones urbaines, rurales et naturelles). D’autres facteurs concernent la nature de l’offre touristique, l’incidence des restrictions aux voyages sur les flux de visiteurs, l’échelle et la complexité des opérations commerciales, la taille du marché touristique interne et la place qu’occupe le tourisme dans l’ensemble de l’économie. Les réponses devront souvent être adaptées à chaque situation.

  • D’autres formes d’assistance ont été mises en place par les autorités : des campagnes de communication en vue de prévenir la propagation du virus ; des dispositifs de soutien offrant aux entreprises et aux travailleurs une plus grande flexibilité avec une réduction des heures de travail, des licenciements temporaires, des congés maladie, des injections de liquidité et d’autres instruments financiers (allègement fiscal, garanties, subventions, par ex.), pour garantir la survie immédiate des entreprises ; des mesures en matière de passation de marchés et de retards de paiement ; des dispositions pour aider les PME à adopter de nouveaux processus de travail et à trouver de nouveaux marchés. Des exemples d’initiatives spécifiques prises par des pays sont présentés à l’Encadré 5.

Dans la plupart des pays, les entreprises du tourisme bénéficient également des programmes de relance économique plus généraux. Aux États-Unis, le secteur du transport et du tourisme bénéficiera d’un plan de relance économique de 2 000 milliards USD ouvert à toutes les entreprises, qui comprend des pots communs de financement réservés aux entreprises les plus durement touchées, notamment les compagnies aériennes, les aéroports et les agences de voyages. Le programme prendra la forme d’un ensemble de mesures comprenant des versements de liquidités, des prêts, des subventions et des garanties.

Les plans de soutien mis en œuvre pour aider et assurer une relance rapide des entreprises du tourisme et des destinations sont d’une ampleur exceptionnelle et concernent les entreprises de toutes les tailles tout au long de la chaîne logistique. Par exemple, le Portugal a consacré 1,7 milliard EUR au soutien des prestataires de services d’hébergement, de restauration et aux agences de voyage et, en Australie, le plan de relance du transport aérien prévoit le remboursement et l’annulation d’un éventail de taxes imposées par le gouvernement sur les entreprises de ce secteur, y compris les taxes sur le carburant de l’aviation, les taxes de Airservices sur les lignes nationales et les redevances régionales et nationales de sureté aérienne. Le montant total des mesures est estimé à 715 millions AUD36.

Au-delà de la nature exceptionnelle des mesures prises par les pays face à la crise et des difficultés rencontrées par les gouvernements pour élaborer de nouveaux programmes dans un délai très court, les représentants des entreprises délivrent tous le même message : les entreprises dans toute la chaîne logistique du tourisme ont un besoin urgent d’injections immédiates de liquidités et les aides et les plans de relance économique n’atteignent pas le secteur touristique en temps voulus. D’autres initiatives pour soutenir les entreprises et les destinations sont présentées à l’Encadré 6.

Le défi, pour les mois à venir, sera de faire évoluer des mesures d’urgence conçues pour limiter les effets de la crise en des mesures de relance et de reprise à long terme destinées à soutenir plus efficacement la reprise du secteur et en particulier des entreprises fructueuses qui pourraient être en difficulté mais qui jouent un rôle essentiel dans le redémarrage des activités du secteur. Le défi est particulièrement difficile à relever car certaines entreprises rentables avant la pandémie pourraient ne plus l’être au cours de la période qui suivra la crise sanitaire en raison des mesures de distanciation sociale et d’autres restrictions qui seront appliquées pour une durée indéterminée. Les autorités vont devoir s’intéresser à un point particulier : déterminer pendant combien de temps doivent durer les aides aux entreprises, et identifier les entreprises qu’il faut soutenir. Il convient également de déterminer les ajustements qu’il est nécessaire d’apporter aux mesures actuelles afin qu’elles répondent au mieux aux besoins des entreprises de tourisme.

Les actions des gouvernements portent sur les domaines clés suivants :

  • Recourir à des mesures de coordination et à des groupes de travail. Quelques pays ont instauré des mécanismes de coordination, sous forme de comités gouvernementaux et de groupes de travail par exemple, pour observer les retombées de la pandémie sur le tourisme et prendre les mesures qui s’imposent face à une situation qui évolue rapidement (Canada, France, et Irlande par exemple). Ces mécanismes ont souvent pour objectif d’identifier les sous-secteurs confrontés aux plus grandes difficultés, qui ont besoin d’une aide immédiate, et d’élaborer des feuilles de route et des plans d’action pour les mesures de relance. La priorité a été donnée au dialogue avec le secteur pour assurer la mise au point de mesures ciblées et efficaces.

  • Lever les restrictions aux voyages. L’incertitude subsiste quant au moment où seront levées les restrictions aux voyages. La coordination entre les pays et au niveau national sera essentielle afin de garantir le respect des mesures sanitaires tout en permettant une relance du tourisme le moment venu. À ce sujet, certains pays concernés par les mêmes degrés de contamination et les mêmes processus de gestion de ces cas (par exemple avec un dépistage et un traçage plutôt qu’avec une mise en quarantaine) étudient la possibilité de créer dans un premier temps des « couloirs » ou des « bulles » pour ouvrir leurs pays au tourisme international.

  • Regagner la confiance des voyageurs et dynamiser la demande. D’après une étude de l’IATA, parue le 21 avril, 40 % des personnes ayant répondu ont l’intention d’attendre six mois ou plus avant de voyager une fois que les restrictions seront levées37. Les voyageurs auront besoin d’être rassurés quant à la sécurité lors des déplacements et les gouvernements devront collaborer avec le secteur privé afin d’instaurer de nouvelles normes en matière de sécurité, d’hygiène, de tests et de procédures. De la même manière, les autorités devront prendre des mesures pour veiller à ce que les collectivités de destination soient assurées que les bénéfices liés au retour des touristes l’emportent sur les potentiels risques sanitaires qui les préoccupent. Certains pays ont instauré des certifications en matière de sécurité et de propreté afin de rassurer les visiteurs (notamment au Portugal et en Israël) et le recours à des outils numériques est envisagé (par exemple, une application pour la sécurité des plages au Portugal). Les pays entendent également développer le tourisme interne, accéder à d’autres marchés et renvoyer une image positive tandis qu’ils sortent de la pandémie de COVID-19 (notamment en Australie, en Grèce, en Israël et en Italie).

Du point de vue du soutien et du conseil apporté aux entreprises, la National Tourism Developement Authority d’Irlande (Fáilte Ireland) propose un ensemble de mesures pour former et conseiller les entreprises de tourisme et leur permettre de faire face aux difficultés et aux risques auxquels le secteur est désormais confronté. De plus, pour aider ces entreprises à respecter les mesures de distanciation sociale et les consignes de nettoyage, conformément au protocole national « Return to Work Safely », Fáilte Ireland finalise des directives détaillées pour le secteur, élaborées en consultation avec les entreprises de tourisme et les autorités concernées.

Des pays soutiennent également le développement des compétences dans le secteur. En Israël, le ministère a lancé un programme de webinaires professionnels et de cours sur internet, afin de préserver et enrichir le capital humain du secteur touristique israélien, notamment des hôteliers, des agents de voyage, des voyagistes, des guides touristiques, et d’autres professionnels du tourisme. Les informations comportent essentiellement des conseils pratiques d’experts pour traverser la crise du coronavirus et se préparer en amont à la période qui suivra. En Finlande, Visit Finland a mis gratuitement à disposition du matériel de formation en ligne sur le passage au numérique du secteur touristique.

La crise met par ailleurs en évidence le manque de données appropriées et comparables pour appuyer l’élaboration des politiques et les décisions des entreprises dans des situations qui évoluent rapidement. Dans ce contexte, certains pays ont mis en place des outils permettant de partager des informations et des données actualisées avec les entreprises. Par exemple, l’Allemagne a créé un site web qui présente des mises à jour quotidiennes de l’enquête sur l’état d’esprit du secteur qui donne chaque jour un aperçu des attentes des entreprises dans le secteur du tourisme. Dans le même temps, Turismo de Portugal a réorienté son activité pour collecter et apporter chaque semaine des informations sur le marché aux entreprises, et élabore actuellement des contenus numériques pour les opérateurs nationaux dans chacun des marchés.

La pandémie a également des répercussions sur la collecte des données relatives au tourisme pendant la crise puisque les sources habituelles de données et les méthodes de collecte pourraient être indisponibles (par exemple, aucun examen sur les touristes aux frontières, ou aucune donnée fournie par les prestataires d’hébergement fermés et les autres entreprises de tourisme). Ceci a des répercussions sur la fiabilité des statistiques officielles sur le tourisme, lorsqu’elles sont disponibles, et impose de réaliser des estimations, éventuellement en s’appuyant sur d’autres sources de données. Des initiatives en ce sens sont déjà en cours dans certains pays.

Les pays n’en sont pas tous au même stade dans leur gestion de la crise du COVID-19 et, alors que certains pays sont en train d’adapter les mesures engagées pour répondre aux difficultés et aux besoins des entreprises de tourisme, d’autres ont à l’esprit de commencer à préparer la conception de plans de relance globale du tourisme. Si la priorité ces derniers mois était, à juste titre, de protéger les travailleurs et les visiteurs, et d’aider les entreprises à survivre, les autorités prennent également en compte les répercussions de la crise sur le secteur à plus long terme et la transformation structurelle nécessaire pour forger une économie du tourisme plus forte, plus durable et plus résiliente à l’avenir. Dans le sillage des mesures prises dans l’immédiat face à la crise, la transition verte et le virage du numérique resteront d’actualité et les décisions prises par les autorités auront un rôle important à jouer pour façonner le secteur du tourisme dans le contexte de l’après-COVID-19.

Outre les mesures qui s’imposent dans l’immédiat, les responsables publics devront tirer des enseignements de la crise du COVID-19 afin d’améliorer les stratégies de gestion de crise et de mieux préparer les destinations et le secteur en général à réagir aux chocs futurs. Au fur et à mesure de l’évolution de la situation, les pays consacrent des ressources en vue de garantir une reprise rapide après la crise. Lors de la conception des plans de relance, les pays ont identifié des priorités et enjeux majeurs dans les domaines suivants :

  • Repenser le secteur du tourisme. La crise offre une occasion de repenser le secteur du tourisme pour en faire à l’avenir un système plus durable et plus résilient. L’intervention des pouvoirs publics sera nécessaire pour résoudre les problèmes structurels du secteur, éviter de retomber dans les écueils de la gestion du tourisme (par exemple avec la surpopulation touristique), et progresser dans les objectifs prioritaires tels que la promotion de nouveaux modèles commerciaux, le virage du numérique et l’incitation à la connectivité. Ce dernier point sera particulièrement important dans un scénario d’après-crise où la distanciation sociale doit encore être respectée et où les touristes recherchent les destinations moins fréquentées. Le développement durable devrait être un fil conducteur de la relance, également dans l’objectif d‘éviter que le tourisme ne soit un potentiel vecteur de propagation de la pandémie (par exemple pour les questions en lien avec la gestion des déchets).

  • Renforcer les destinations et le secteur du tourisme. Les mesures de soutien et de relance doivent concerner l’ensemble des branches du secteur qui font partie de l’expérience touristique. L’accessibilité, la connectivité et le transport devraient figurer en tête de liste des actions, au même titre que l’hôtellerie, la restauration, les stations touristiques, les événements, les associations de voyage, les entreprises technologiques liées au tourisme, les voyagistes, et les associations de tourisme. Tous les efforts engagés pendant plusieurs années pour renforcer et dynamiser une destination ont été effacés en l’espace d’un instant, et il sera nécessaire de soutenir les économies locales pour les aider à reconstruire ce qui a été perdu.

  • Innover et investir dans le tourisme. Les pouvoirs publics doivent s’assurer que le secteur sera prêt à repartir et pourra continuer à innover et à se transformer. En outre, des investissements seront nécessaires pour procéder à des changements structurels et physiques afin de se plier aux règles sanitaires et de répondre aux attentes des visiteurs dès la première phase de relance et à long terme. Certains pays ont également mis en œuvre des mesures pour aider les PME à innover pour acquérir une meilleure résilience économique à long terme. Les entreprises de tourisme et les destinations touristiques vont également avoir besoin d’adapter leur offre pour coller aux nouveaux comportements des voyageurs.

L’annexe A présente une vue d’ensemble des mesures engagées par les pays dans ces différents domaines, reprise dans le Tableau 1 de manière synthétique. Compte tenu de l’évolution rapide de la situation, cet inventaire des mesures nationales est régulièrement mis à jour et a pour objet d’informer sur les pratiques mises en place par les pays et de favoriser l’apprentissage mutuel. Pour l’heure, les phases de l’épidémie varient considérablement d’un pays à l’autre, et les mesures adoptées pour y faire face sont propres aux contextes économiques et sanitaires nationaux. Par ailleurs, il n’existe à ce stade aucune évaluation de leur efficacité mais cela sera nécessaire à mesure que la situation évolue.

Travel ban and restrictions are changing very rapidly. For this reason, the annex does not provide a comprehensive list of restrictions. Please consult each country Ministry of Foreign Affairs website to see the most up to date information.

NOTE: This annex focuses on policy measures targeted at tourism. Tourism businesses also stand to benefit strongly from general economic stimulus measures. Unless otherwise stated, policy measures mentioned in this Annex were inputs sent by countries in response to a survey of OECD member and partner countries, and updates provided based on an earlier version of this paper. Additional information on general economic actions can be found at the link: www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/.

The Australian Government has announced a series of economic stimulus packages. Tourism specific elements include support for aviation, fee waivers for tourism destinations and cash flow support for SMEs. These measures are outlined below.

  • Regional Air Network Assistance: provides AUD 198 million to assist domestic commercial airlines to maintain a basic level of connectivity across their network of regional routes. This will support critical air services connecting regional Australia to freight, medical testing, supplies and essential personnel.

  • Regional Airlines Funding Assistance: provides AUD 100 million to financially assist smaller regional domestic air service providers to help manage cash flow issues they may be experiencing as a result of the impacts of the Coronavirus. This will help these service providers to maintain essential connectivity for regional and remote communities.

  • Aviation Relief Package involves the refunding and ongoing waiving of a range of Government charges on the industry including aviation fuel excise, Airservices charges on domestic airline operations and domestic and regional aviation security charges. The total cost of the measures are estimated to be AUD 715 million with an upfront estimated benefit of AUD 159 million to be paid to airlines for reimbursement of applicable charges paid by domestic airlines since 1 February 2020.

  • Australian Airline Financial Relief Package: The Australian Airline Financial Relief Measures (the program) will run over 6 months from 1 April 2020 to 30 September 2020. The package of measures includes the refunding and ongoing waiving of a range of Government charges on the industry including aviation fuel excise, Airservices Australia charges on domestic airline operations and domestic and regional aviation security charges. The objective of the program is to reduce the cost base faced by commercial airlines, improving the financial viability of scheduled and commercial flights.

  • EMDG funding boost: The Government will inject an extra AUD 49.8 million into the Export Market Development Grants (EMDG) program in the 2019-20 financial year, allowing exporters and tourism businesses to get additional reimbursements for costs incurred in marketing their products and services around the world.

  • COVID-19 Export Capital Facility: a AUD 500 million Facility to assist previously profitable Australian exporters whose businesses have been impacted by COVID-19. Exporters will be able to access loans from AUD 250 000 to AUD 50 million under the Facility.

  • Commonwealth National Parks – Fee Waivers: From 16 March to 31 December, 2020, the Australian Government is waiving up to AUD 11.2 million in entry fees to Booderee, Kakadu, and Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Parks. Free park entry will provide additional incentives for travelers to visit these iconic destinations, once travel restrictions are relaxed.

  • In addition, up to AUD 772,000 is available to assist businesses operating in Commonwealth National Parks by providing temporary relief from licence fees and permit charges levied by the Director of National Parks for the period of 1 January 2020 to 31 March 2021, and providing rent relief to tenants of the Australian National Botanic Gardens in accordance with the Australian Government's Rent Relief Policy.

  • Temporary waiver of Environmental Management Change for the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: This AUD 8.1 million initiative temporarily waives the Environmental Management Charge (EMC) for the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park until 31 December 2020. Backdating the waiver from 1 April 2020 to 1 January of this year will result in around AUD 3 million in further relief for the industry. In addition, the Government will be waiving tourism operator Marine Park permit fees to 30 June 2021.

  • JobKeeper Payment: The Government is supporting a demand driven wage subsidy payment. This is helping Australian businesses, including those in the tourism industry, significantly impacted by COVID-19 to cover the costs of their employees’ wages. It is estimated that Government support through this payment will be around AUD 70 billion.

  • SME Guarantee Scheme: The Government will support up to AUD 40 billion of lending to SMEs with turnover of less than AUD 50 million, including sole traders and not-for-profit organisations, with the Government guaranteeing up to 50 per cent of new loans issues by eligible lenders until 30 September 2020.

  • Supporting Trainees and Apprentices: The Government is supporting small business to retain their apprentices and trainees. Eligible employers can apply for a wage subsidy of 50 per cent of the apprentice’s or trainee’s wage paid during the 9 months from 1 January 2020 to 30 September 2020. Where a small business is not able to retain an apprentice, the subsidy will be available to a new employer.

  • Cash flow support for SME enterprises: The Government is providing temporary cash flow support to small and medium businesses and not-for-profit organisations that employ staff during the economic downturn associated with COVID-19 (novel coronavirus). This will be done through two sets of cash flow boosts delivered from 28 April 2020 to support employers to retain employees.

  • The Government will provide tax-free cash flow boosts of between AUD 20 000 and AUD 100 000 to eligible businesses, delivered through credits in the activity statement system, when eligible businesses lodge their activity statements.

  • National Tourism Incident Communications Plan (NTICP): Austrade, the Australian government agency with policy responsibility for tourism, activated the NTICP on 8 January 2020 in response to the bushfire crisis and extended it to cover the COVID-19 crisis. The NTICP committee comprises representatives from Australian, state and territory governments and key peak tourism industry bodies and is the main conduit to distribute consistent, reliable information on the developing crises. The committee holds regular meetings and receives direct advice from the Department of Health.

(Information last updated on 27 May 2020)

Preliminary tourism data for March 2020 indicate a decline in overnight stays of 58.9% and 67.8% in tourist arrivals. The closing down of accommodation providers due to the outbreak of COVID-19 in Austria has had a massive impact on the results of the entire winter season 2019/2020. From November 2019 to March 2020 a decrease of 8.1% in overnight stays and 9.9% in tourist arrivals is registered – despite the fact that overnight figures for February 2020 grew 7.2% compared to 2019.

From 15 May, all restaurants, cafes, bars, will reopen under certain restrictions, such as limited number of people at one table, while accommodation providers and tourism sites may reopen at the end of May.

To support the economy in this difficult situation, the Austrian Government has launched a recovery package of EUR 38 billion open for all sectors, including tourism. This includes subsidies for small enterprises, salary payment support, guarantees for loans, and tax deferrals.

Taking into account these measures, the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Regions and Tourism has developed a specific coronavirus package for tourism together with the Austrian Bank for Tourism Development:

  • State guarantees for bridging loans used to cover temporary liquidity shortages caused by decreases in turnover because of COVID-19. The volume of available guarantees has been increased to EUR 1 billion).

  • Tourism enterprises that have had an active loan before the outbreak of COVID-19 can apply for the suspension of all loan repayments for the year 2020.

A matching platform was established to provide accommodation options for companies looking for accommodation for key workers such as caregivers, food retailers, fitters and aid workers.

(Information last updated on 30 April 2020)

Due to the coronavirus outbreak, it is estimated that the revenue losses within the tourism value chain in Belgium will be more than EUR 2 billion per month (EUR 1.3 billion in Flanders, EUR 400 million in Brussels and EUR 326.1 million in Wallonia). Around 95 % of tourism establishments are closed. After a decision of the Federal Government on 15April, festivals are cancelled until end of August. Belgium has enacted a National Crisis Plan, focused on economic support for impacted employees, SMEs and industries. The Belgian Plan for Social and Economic Protection, which benefits tourism businesses, is based on three pillars, with measure to: (1) protect the spending power of employees; (2) directly support the self-employed and (3) support companies. The most important instrument is the temporary unemployment, which is granted automatically, without the need to provide a reason. Self-employed who had to close their business or are having difficulties can get a monthly allowance up to EUR 1 600. Facilitations are granted regarding social security, VAT and income taxes.

Specific to the travel sector, if a package holiday is cancelled, customers may be given a credit voucher of equal value, valid for at least one year, in place of a refund. Moreover, ease delivery services for the hospitality industry, the rules on deliveries have been applied with flexibility, and no new licence required for restaurants.

At a regional level, the Wallonia Government has granted EUR 5 000 per company which was required to close (catering, accommodation, travel agencies, tour operators, reservation services and related activities, coach operators, tourist attractions). Similarly the Brussels and Flanders Governments are providing EUR 4 000 to businesses which were shut down. In the Brussels Region, the City Tax on tourist accommodation was suspended for the period 1 January to 30 June 2020. Moreover, a loan at a reduced rate for the hospitality sector for companies is provided and subsidies are maintained for postponed events and up to the amount of the expenses incurred. Flanders grants financial support for social and youth tourism. Lease payments of youth hostels are cancelled for 2020.hote

Local authorities are also suspending taxes for tourism accommodations.

The Walloon Tourism Observatory and the Flanders Tourism Agency are monitoring the effect of the Covid-19 crisis on the tourism sector in their region. Regions, which are competent in tourism, are working on recovery plans for the post-COVID-19-period and with regular surveys. Useful information is bundled and distributed as for instance FAQ’s about the crisis and about the national and regional governmental measures to challenge it. Regional task forces bring together public bodies and the private sector. The Walloon Minister of Tourism is elaborating a post-corona plan within a task force (composed of the representatives of the Minister, and also of the Walloon tourist public bodies) which works in collaboration with the private sector.

The Walloon administration of tourism was requested to conduct a consumer survey on travelling after the COVID-19, and a survey within the tourist professional associations to determine the sectors’ concerns and needs. Moreover the administration informs the tourist sector about the national and regional measures taken, and provides tourist operators with operational guides to simple and clear health directives by type of tourism activity. Wallonia Belgium Tourism (in charge of promotion of Wallonia in Belgium and abroad) was requested by the task force to work on a promotional campaign on Wallonia.

(Information last updated on 13 May 2020)

In Brazil, demand for domestic flights fell by 50% and international bookings were 85% down in the second half of March. On 16 March LATAM Airlines Group, South America’s largest carrier, cancelled 90% of its international flights as demand collapsed and countries shut down borders leaving the region increasingly isolated. Brazil’s largest domestic carrier Gol Airlines, said it would cancel up to 95% of international flights while cutting domestic flights by up to 60% until June. Brazil’s third airline, Azul, said it would cut all international flights out of its main hub in Sao Paulo. Airline association ABEAR said the sudden halt in travel was the worst crisis ever faced by the country’s aviation sector. (OECD internal briefing note on LAC countries, updated on 2 April 2020).

The National Development Bank opened a working capital loan line for small and medium-sized firms in the tourism and service sectors. This includes 6-month interruption of loan payments, with no late interest payment.

Tax liabilities have been deferred for firms, especially SMEs. In addition, administrative procedures for some imports and for loan renegotiations have been eased. The National Development Bank has announced new credit lines to companies with a loan volume of 0.6% of GDP. As part of these measures, tourism firms were given facilitated access to credit and deferred payments.

The Government also designed an airlines relief package, including: i) a 6-month postponement of the collection of air navigation tariffs; ii) postponement to December 2020 of the collection of concession fees from airport concessionaires; and iii) a 12-month extension period for companies to reimburse costumers for cancelled flights.

(Information last updated on 26 March 2020)

The Ministry of Tourism undertook the following measures to support tourism business during the COVID-19 crisis:

  • Possibility for tour operators to provide vouchers to customers for cancelled trips.

  • Deadline extension for tourism businesses to fulfil obligations

  • Issuing of guidelines and recommendations for tourism packages.

Tourism businesses will benefit as well of general fiscal policy, monetary policy, and labour measures, to support the recovery, the Ministry of Tourism is currently working on vouchers to stimulate domestic tourism for the late summer season. Recommendations for tourism accommodation establishments are being developed. Another crucial long-term measure under development is the establishment of a Guarantee Fund in the tourist interest protection.

The Ministry of Tourism is working to integrate long-term support measures for the tourism sector in the next programming period under the EU Operational Programs and other EU programs.

(Information last updated on 23 April 2020)

The Government of Canada continues to monitor the situation with respect to COVID-19 and recognizes that tourism is one of the hardest-hit sectors of the economy. The Minister responsible for tourism is playing a leading role on the recently created Cabinet Committee on the Federal Response to the Coronavirus Disease, which meets regularly to ensure whole-of-government leadership, coordination, and preparedness for a response to the health and economic impacts of the virus. This includes coordinating efforts with other levels of government.

To support individuals and businesses facing hardships resulting from the global COVID-19 outbreak, the Government of Canada has announced a set of broad-based measures that are assisting businesses and workers throughout the economy, including in the tourism sector. These measures include:

  • The Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB), a taxable benefit that provides CAD 2,000 every four weeks for up to four months to workers who lose their income as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

    • The CERB also applies to wage earners, as well as contract workers and self-employed individuals who would not otherwise be eligible for Employment Insurance (EI) and are unable to work due to COVID-19.

  • Liquidity support programs, such as

    • the Business Credit Availability Program (BCAP) to support small and medium-sized enterprises. The BCAP provides loan guarantee measures as well as a co-lending program (a collaboration between the Business Development Bank of Canada and private-sector financial institutions), and

    • The Canada Emergency Business Account (CEBA), which provides interest-free loans of up to CAD 40,000 to small businesses and not-for-profits, to help cover their operating costs during a period where their revenues have been temporarily reduced.

  • A CAD962 million Regional Relief and Recovery Fund, administered by the federal Regional Development Agencies (RDAs), which will provide support for regional economies, communities and businesses across Canada, including those in the tourism sector.

  • The Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy (CEWS), which will subsidize 75% of employee wages to help employers retain workers or rehire those that have been laid off, and to hire summer students. While the CEWS was originally set to expire on June 6, 2020, the Prime Minister has announced that it will be extended to the end of August 2020.

  • The Canada Emergency Commercial Rent Assistance (CERCA), which offers forgivable loans to eligible commercial property owners so that they can reduce the rent owed by their impacted small business tenants by at least 75% for the months of April, May and June 2020.

  • A CAD 500 million COVID-19 Emergency Support Fund for Cultural, Heritage and Sport Organizations, which will address the financial needs of affected organizations within these sectors so that they can continue to support artists and athletes.

  • The Large Employer Emergency Financing Facility (LEEFF), which will provide liquidity to keep Canada’s largest companies and their suppliers active during this difficult period and position them for a rapid economic recovery. This assistance will be available to companies with annual revenues in excess of CAD 300 million seeking financing of CAD 60 million or more.

  • CAD 306.8 million in funding to help small and medium-sized Indigenous businesses and support financial institutions that offer financing to these businesses. The funding will allow the businesses to obtain short-term, interest-free loans and non-repayable contributions.

  • CAD 1 million in funds from the Canadian Experiences Fund (CEF), which has been re-purposed to alleviate pressures on Indigenous tourism businesses. The CEF is a CAD 60 million fund announced in 2019, aimed at enhancing and developing tourism experiences across the country

The Government of Canada is also working with tourism operators in national parks, historic sites, and marine conservation areas to defer payments on commercial leases and licences of occupation without interest until September 1, 2020.

The provinces and territories are also taking steps to help the Canadian tourism sector, including preparing new marketing campaigns, and reducing or deferring some regulatory obligations.

(Information last updated 18 May 2020)

According to joint preliminary forecasts by the National Tourism Service’s Statistics Department and the Division of Studies and Territory of the Under Secretariat of Tourism, based on the information available on 23 March, 2020, a combined drop of USD 1.8 million in absolute terms for domestic and international tourisms expected in 2020 , down 20.4% compared to 2019. This is equivalent to a loss of approximately 5.7 million of trips as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic, which began to expand in Chile in March 2020. In particular, for a decrease of 32.5% in international arrivals is expected compared to total arrivals in 2019. These estimates are based on a moderate scenario that supposes a strong contraction during the second quarter of the year. A pessimist scenario with a contraction during the second and third quarters would mean a combined drop of USD 3.0 million, or 32.2% in domestic and international tourism compared to 2019.

On 19 March, the Chilean Government announced an unprecedented emergency plan that will allow the economy to recover in the midst of the coronavirus pandemic. This package includes suspensions and postponements of tax payments, tax flexibilities and other measures aimed at providing more liquidity to the affected companies. These measures particularly benefit SMEs across the country, including those in the tourism sector.

(Information last updated on 14 April 2020)

As of 4 April, the main associations of the tourism sector in Colombia have reported the following data from the coronavirus outbreak:

  • From 1 to 16 March, national passenger air traffic decreased by 12.5% and international passenger air traffic decreased by 49.7%. IATA reported losses of USD 1.9 billion in Colombia alone.

  • Losses of USD 26.5 million in cancellations for travel agencies.

  • Hotel occupancy rate as of 19 March was 21%, the lowest level in history for this month, with a loss of USD 105.4 million.

  • Amusement parks will lose USD 19.6 million per month, while the closure of operations continues, putting at least 5 000 jobs at risk, 40% of which correspond to young people between 18 and 25 years old.

The Colombian Government has been monitoring and analysing the situation of COVID-19 in the world to take timely and proportional measures according to the evolution of the pandemic in the country. Thus, to date, the Government has adopted a series of measures aimed at containing the spread of the virus and mitigating its effects on the economy. Including measures to protect the tourism sector, such as:

  • VAT exemption of the first four months of 2020 extended for companies dedicated to commercial passenger air transport, the hotel sector, among others that may be affected by the situation of the Coronavirus

  • Postponement of the payment of the fiscal Contribution for the Promotion of Tourism of the first quarter of 2020 until 29 July, 2020.

  • Deadline for the renewal of the registration on the Registro Único Empresarial y Social (RUES) -and which include the Registro Nacional de Turismo and the Registro Mercantil- were extended until 3 July 2020. It also extends the deadline for holding ordinary general assembly meetings until the month following the end of the health emergency.

  • The Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism launched credit line “Colombia Responde”, through Bancoldex, for USD 86.4 million, in order to help the enterprises, of which an amount up to USD 62 million was assigned for the tourism sector, including airlines.

  • The payment dates for the following taxes were postponed: i) the income tax for the 2019, ii) VAT for bars, hotels, travel agencies, airlines and tour operators, iii) national consumption tax for the two-month period March-April 2020 for those responsible of food and beverage services, iv) parafiscal contribution for the promotion of tourism of the first quarter of 2020.

  • A tariff of zero pesos was established for the parking services of aircraft of Colombian regular public passenger transport companies (Resolution 713 of 2020).

  • The Financial Superintendence of Colombia established transitory measures to have grace periods and increase the terms for credits granted to the economic sectors affected by COVID-19

  • More than 9.000 hotel rooms available to be used in the hospital emergency plan and under the required health standards.

  • Training in the management of the current situation in hotel environment was given by the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism, National Institute of Health and the Ministry of Health and Social Protection.

  • Implementation of a communication channel with the trades, regions and national entities, in order to monitor the economic impacts on the sector and respond to contingencies.

  • Implementation of a communication channel with Latin American tourism authorities and tourism organizations worldwide to share information on good practices.

  • Resources were allocated to support, during the emergency, the tour guides who have an active and valid registration in the Registro Nacional de Turismo.

  • The payment of the National Tourism Tax as a social investment was postponed, which comes from the purchase of international tickets to Colombia.

  • Until December 31, 2021: i) income tax payers who make new investments in the national aeronautical sector for a value equal to or greater than 2 million Tax Value Unit (previously 30 million), may receive tax benefits; ii) aviation fuel becomes taxed at a rate of 5%; and iii) VAT for air tickets becomes 5%

  • Procolombia’s campaign "Let's take care now, so we can meet again soon" was launched as a message to strengthen the sector.

(Information last updated on 6 May 2020)

Tourism, accommodation, transport services and shipping sectors are particularly vulnerable to the crisis. Many hotels started working in limited capacity, which also affect their labour usage. As of 24 March, more than 8 000 nights of hotel bookings are cancelled. Costa Rican Chamber of Hotels and Hospitality estimates a decline in sales of 5%-50% depending on the region. (OECD internal macro-economic update, 24 March 2020)

On 31 March, the Costa Rican Tourism Institute declared a three-month tax moratorium on air ticket sales and per tourist income for companies that submit requests for non-payment due to liquidity problems in the period of April to July 2020. (OECD COVID action map)38

A Task Force comprising all the relevant governmental and business sector representatives was established to design measures to mitigate the crisis. Locally, many destinations are considering specific measures, which are being analysed and will soon be announced.

As a general economy measure established on 18 March, tourism is included in the scope of the Export Guarantee Fund with the aim of enabling the issuance of guarantees for loans to banks for additional liquidity. Concurrently, the Ministry of Tourism also undertook the following measures:

  • Postponement of payment of tourism association membership fees for economic operators and private renters.

  • Postponement of payment of tourist tax for private renters (flat rate).

  • Restriction of working/opening hours of catering facilities.

  • Support for programmes for financing working capital and improving the liquidity of vulnerable tourism businesses.

  • Delay of payment of the fee for the concession on tourist land in the camps.

As of 9 April, the Government approved amendments to the laws under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Tourism, giving the Ministry the power to additionally regulate, in special circumstances caused by the coronavirus epidemic, a number of by-laws which are currently already being drafted:

  • The use of voucher for reimbursement;

  • Amount of the tourist tax and deadlines for payment.

  • Postponing mandatory re-classification of accommodation facilities (every 4 years)

  • Financing of tourist boards.

It is expected that hospitality premises will be able to re-open on the 11 May. On the same date, inter-city bus routes and domestic air traffic will be relaunched. Physical distancing, the use of masks and the respect of health indication will be mandatory. Campsites as well as some of the hotels in Istria, Kvarner and Dalmatia will open their doors at the end of May, while in June, a majority of hotels and other tourist accommodation facilities will be opened.

The web page of the Ministry of Tourism, provides the latest, updated information regarding information and recommendation for different sub-sectors of tourism and hospitality in Croatia.

(Information last updated 28 May 2020)

The Government is preparing, in co-operation with tourism industry representatives, an instrument for financing the re-bounce of domestic tourism. The programme should be based on the holiday vouchers for employees and self-employed persons for stays in the Czech Republic.

(Information last updated on 2 April 2020)

According to a survey from the Danish Chamber of Commerce, the tourism sector on average experienced a decrease of 75% in turnover between 1-26 March 2020, while retailers and the transportation industry has respectively lost 42% and 34% in turnover.

Denmark has taken several economic measures of a total amount of DKK 285 billion to support businesses and industries to tackle the impacts of the current COVID-19 situation.

The Government has taken temporary measures to strengthen the liquidity and loans of Danish businesses, which among others include: loan guarantee schemes, postponement of payment deadlines for taxes, increased access to export credit for SMEs, a credit guarantee for Scandinavian Airlines (SAS). The Danish and Swedish governments have agreed to provide credit guarantees for SAS worth approx. DKK 2 billion (Denmark accounts for 50%). A State Guarantee for the Travel Guarantee Fund worth DKK 1.5 billion was also established with the scope to cover compensation for travel companies’ costs associated with refunds due to COVID-19 related cancellations.

Furthermore, the Government has taken a set of measures on turnover, income and retention of employees, which can benefit tourism businesses as well. A compensation scheme for the cancellation and postponement of major events following COVID-19 includes events for over 1 000 participants or over 500 for specific risk groups. The compensation scheme is targeted event organising companies to compensate for financial losses.

The Ministry of Industry, Business and Financial Affairs, which is responsible for tourism, is constantly in close exchange with the tourism industry and other relevant tourism stakeholders to discuss the current situation and further steps.

(Information last updated on 14 April 2020)

A survey of businesses commissioned by the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications found tourism to be the most affected sector, with 98% of hotels, 97% of restaurants and 82% of tour operators considering the impact of COVID-19significant.

As of the 25 March, most of the hotels, spas and accommodation establishments were closed. Many restaurants have closed or restricted opening hours, due to lack of clients and new restrictions to gatherings and opening times. A number have moved to offering take away services to home.

The Estonian Government announced a EUR 2 billion general economic stimulus package on 19 March 2020 to support businesses in difficulty, including tourism, and also includes labour market support measures. The first payouts have already been made from 1 April, including to a number of tourism businesses.

As a tourism-specific measure, the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications in co-operation with the Kredex Foundation (a public financing institution for Estonian businesses) and Enterprise Estonia have also developed a EUR 25 million aid package for supporting the tourism sector. Tourism sector businesses will be provided loans guaranteed on favourable conditions by Kredex and micro, small and medium-sized tourism enterprises will be able to apply for direct support from Enterprise Estonia.

Additional support measures will be offered by the Estonian Ministry of Culture, for cultural and creative industries, including museums and public attractions, and the Rural Development Foundation, including rural tourism businesses in regions.

The Ministry is working on a medium term National Tourism Strategy for 2021-24 and the planning for the new EU financial framework 2027. Many strategic issues are being revalued, refocused and strengthened. For example, the role of DMOs in managing and leading the tourism sector through the crisis as well as co-operation with ministries and policy areas (e.g. tourism and transport) to restart the business as soon as the crisis alleviates.

(Information last updated 20 April 2020)

As of 1 April, the Finnish Hospitality Association estimated that among member businesses, demand has dropped over 90%, all congresses and events have been cancelled. According to the Association of Finnish Travel Industry, consumers are waiting for more than EUR 114 million reimbursement from the businesses under European Travel Package Directive. Finnair, the national airline carrier, has cut flight capacity by 90%.

A survey conducted by Visit Finland from the 27 March pointed out tourism businesses will face outstanding economic losses especially in the second quarter, with almost all businesses (96%) reporting cancellations. Companies are preparing to cut significant amount of jobs in the sector until end of June. Over 30% of the respondents estimate a decrease in number of international travellers will continue until the end of the year.

In Finland, tourism businesses stand to benefit strongly from general economic stimulus measures. In the administrative sector of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment, business financing including grants, loan guarantees for the tourism sector is provided by Finnvera, Business Finland and ELY Centres. Municipalities support sole entrepreneurs.

Visit Finland has suspended all marketing activities in response to current travel restrictions and is focusing on developing plans and supporting tourism businesses when applying funding from Business Finland.

As a tourism-specific measure, the Government has granted a State guarantee of up to EUR 600 million to support Finnair’s financing needs. Direct financial support for restaurants which are closed following a government decision is under consideration as well.

The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment of Finland will co-ordinate the preparation of a supplement to the Finland’s Tourism Strategy 2019–28 for the years 2020–21. It will include updated goals and measures, which will be carried out during the recovery phase. An Inter-Ministerial Working Group (MiniMatka) will contribute to the preparation of the supplement strategy.

Domestic tourism will be stimulated by a campaign “100 reasons to travel in Finland” where various organisations are involved and participate in funding.

(Information last updated 27 April 2020)

The closure of non-food shops, restaurants, cafes, as well as concert halls, nightclubs, museums, leisure parks on 25 March affected approximately 75 000 restaurants, 40 000 cafes and 3 000 nightclubs, which employ more than a million people. From 2 June, restaurants, cafés, and museums will reopen, and accommodation services will progressively reopen.

Tourism specific measures include an ordinance (decree-law) modifying the conditions for cancellations of travel bookings and other types of contracts that was prepared following the adoption of the emergency law to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. Prior to the ordinance, in the event of force majeure causing the consumer or the professional to cancel the service, a full refund was required - both by European law and by national law. However, cancellations of travel and tourist stays as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic are already numerous and will continue to increase in the coming weeks. Under these conditions, France has decided to allow all professionals to propose that the reimbursement be replaced by a credit of an equivalent amount on a next service. This will avoid an immediate cash outflow and help businesses get through a very difficult phase.

However, this credit does not completely replace the reimbursement. The European Package Travel Directive explicitly provides for a refund within 14 days of cancellation. In a notification relating to Directive and COVID-19 (released on March 19), the European Commission opened the possibility of offering a "voucher". But maintaining that the traveller must be able to request reimbursement. Therefore, if the credit is not used by the client for a new service within the 18-month period, reimbursement may be requested.

In order to contribute to making vouchers an attractive and reliable alternative to reimbursement in money, at least vouchers presenting the characteristics described in points 3 to 12 should be covered by protection against insolvency of the carrier or of the organiser that is sufficiently effective and robust.

On the 14 May, the Prime Minister announced that the Government will commit EUR 18 billion to the tourism sector to support the recovery. The support will start with EUR 6.2 billion of guaranteed loans granted to 50 000 companies in the sector. In addition, the solidarity fund for tourism businesses currently in place will remain available until the end of 2020. Other measures are planned to help the sector get through the current closure period and avoid mass layoffs. Employee and employer contributions will be removed as long as the closure lasts.39

A EUR 1.3 billion recovery plan financed by Caisse des Dépôts and Bpifrance. This sum will be supplemented by additional private investments to reach a total of 7 billion euros.

The Government also announced that communities will be able to reduce tourist taxes.

Finally, in a measure for consumers, the ceiling for using restaurant vouchers will be doubled from EUR 19 to EUR 38, and can be used on weekends and holidays to allow French people to spend in bars and restaurants.

(Information last updated 29 May 2020)

In Germany, the Federal Government Centre of Excellence for Tourism, which is the central interface between the industry, academia and federal policy-making, created an information webpage for the tourism industry dedicated to the COVID-19 impact on the sector (https://corona-navigator.de/). The so called ‘Navigator’ collects, bundles and disseminates relevant private and public information for tourism professionals. This includes sector-specific measures established by the Federal Government and the Länder, as well as news and analysis specific of the tourism industry worldwide. The service also includes a ‘barometer of the mood in the tourism sector’, which maps the business expectations in the tourism sector each day.

(website accessed on 23 March 2020).

The Hellenic Chamber of Hotels estimated, as of 17 March, that the losses linked to the virus outbreak of the Greek hotels amounted to EUR 522 million in terms of cancellations of rooms and conferences. Moreover, the study mentions the slowdown of the pace of future reservations, by 72% in 92% of the hotels operating all year round, as well as by 58% in 83% of the seasonally operating hotels, in comparison with 2019. Of the all year round operating hotels, 91% estimate a loss of turnover by 51% in 2020, while 83% of the seasonal operating hotels estimate a loss of turnover by 36% for 2020.It is also estimated that 38 234 jobs are directly at risk, constituting the 20.5% of the overall employment in hotels.

According to Alpha Bank's Weekly Economic Developments Bulletin published on 11 March on tourism, there is an expected decline of 940 000 travellers in incoming travel for 2020. The negative impact is estimated to be limited, inter alia, because of the seasonality of tourism demand, since 85% of total tourist arrivals take place between May and October each year.

The Ministry of Tourism monitors the developments, records the problems, informs the operators of the sector and elaborates measures and proposals to support the Greek tourism market in co-ordination with the National Tourism Organisation, the competent services and the private tourism sector. In this light, it has set up a Crisis Management Committee for Coronavirus, which:

  • provides up to date information to the tourism market for developments,

  • draws up a continuity plan for the Ministry

  • elaborates a package of measures to stimulate the market in the short run and the long run, taking also into account proposals from the private tourism sector,

  • sets up a programme to promote the country as a safe destination when conditions are deemed appropriate;

  • plans how to recover in the international market

  • participates in initiatives to provide a co-ordinated confrontation to the effects of COVID-19 at European and international level.

There is also an Open Communication Line for tourism operators, businesses and market representatives with the Ministry of Tourism to address emerging issues, while key information is also disseminated via the Ministry’s website, including in the form of FAQs.

At national level, a Governmental Co-ordination Committee has been created, with the participation of the Secretaries General of all ministries. For the tourism sector, the strategic aims for the recovery are to open businesses as soon as possible, preserve destination safety in terms of public health, and support the entire value chain of the tourism industry (tourism enterprises and employees).

To fulfil these goals, the Ministry is elaborating further measures and policies in order to:

  • strengthen the competitiveness and resilience of the industry and ensure the adequate marketability of the product,

  • create the necessary framework to ensure health conditions before/during/after the trip, and

  • support domestic demand, expanding the tourism season and increasing economic resources for the marketing of the national tourism product.

    Furthermore, as far as co-ordination mechanisms are concerned, in Greece, the Regional Tourism Council provides a valuable communication instrument for the co-ordination of tourism development and promotion, including crisis management.

The transition to a greener tourism economy and sustainable tourism development, paired with the digital transformation of the sector, remain of utmost relevance, serving as mega trends of decisive importance, contributing to better shape the tourism sector in the post COVID–19 context.

Digital skills are also widely supported and educational units supervised by the Ministry of Tourism offer the opportunity to their students to continue from home through a distant learning platform. This opportunity also refers to further education and training programmes addressed to people already working in tourism.

Policy responses connected to the COVID-19 outbreak are linked to the impact on employment and tourism businesses, including SMEs (income losses and liquidity issues). The Government has introduced general relief measures which are available for tourism businesses. Including VAT exemption and special support measures for seasonal workers.

The Greek Tourism Confederation (SETE) has proposed a series of measures to promptly support tourism businesses, which are targeted at reducing the operational cost for the months of crisis, supporting employment, and ensuring liquidity to enable the possibility of a quick “recovery” after the crisis.

(Information updated on 24 April 2020)

As of 20 May, Hungary is gradually reopening. First steps taken to ease the restrictive measures in the countryside as of 4 May favour the hospitality sector, with the reopening of restaurants and cafés with open air areas. Restaurants and cafés already fully reopened in the countryside while in Budapest they can fully resume operation indoors from the 29 May. People can visit outdoor beaches in the whole country with specific safety measures. Hotels can restart their operation, most of them will reopen for the weekend beginning on the 29 May. Events larger than 500 people cannot be held until the 15 August. Open-air museums, national parks and zoos can reopen. Outdoor sporting and cultural events can also be held.

Borders restrictions are being lifted. From 25 May citizens of Hungary and Serbia are allowed to travel between the two countries without undergoing a mandatory quarantine upon entry. Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic reopened their borders on the 27 of May: their citizens crossing the borders will not need to be isolated unless they wish to stay in the other country longer than 48 hours.

Budapest Airport will soon resume passenger service with strict security measures. Passengers arriving at Budapest’s Liszt Ferenc International Airport, which saw the relaunch of some flights, will undergo a compulsory medical test upon arrival. Depending on the test’s result, they may be taken to hospital quarantine or ordered to stay in home quarantine for 14 days. The occupancy figure of Wizz Air, the Hungarian low-cost airline for April was 75%, and they are seeing a steady increase in their resumed flights. By the end of the year Wizz Air expect to reached 60-70% of their pre-COVID-19 capacity and 100% by next summer. In June, Wizz Air will be flying from Budapest to 12 cities, and some of resumed flights will also fly from their bases in London, Vienna and Varna.

In its first package of economic measures the Government gave priority to tourism. For those enterprises operating in affected sectors, employers are exempt from paying taxes on wages from March to June 2020, except for the healthcare contribution which is limited to HUF 7 710. Those liable for the tourism development contribution tax on commercial accommodation services will also not have to pay this for the period from 1 March to 30 June. By releasing the pension and health contribution of the employees, 30% of labour costs were released or assumed by the Government. A moratorium on credit and interest payments applies to businesses also.

On 6 April, the second cycle of economic measures was announced consisting of five new programmes aimed at protecting Hungary’s economy, including support for hard-hit economic sectors, such as tourism and hospitality. The second cycle consists of five new programmes aimed at protecting Hungary’s economy and provide support for hard-hit economic sectors, such as tourism and hospitality. The Government will provide HUF 600 billion support for priority areas of intervention in the next three years in the form of investment subsidies, tax reductions, infrastructure development, soft and guaranteed loans, and capital programmes. In addition the Bank of Hungary announced new monetary measures. The Hungarian Tourism Agency reports to the Government every 48 hours on the state of the sector, and consults daily with the leaders of the professional organisations. According to the Hungarian Tourism Agency, the perception of Hungary may further improve in the eyes of international tourists, because Hungary is one of the countries less affected by the virus. The Agency has prepared a detailed Covid Handbook, (one week before the EU protocols), which includes basic public health information for travellers as well as for accommodation providers. The Handbook formulates recommendations to help hotel managers and other tourism companies to adjust to the current situation affected by the coronavirus to serve the safety of guests and employees. In writing the handbook, existing Western European examples and models have been considered and a number of WHO recommendations have been incorporated.

The Hungarian Tourism Agency launched several tourism video campaigns, to encourage domestic tourism demand after restrictions are removed. There is regular consultation with the festival organisers and the Agency will allocate much more resources than the previous festival grants to organise events featuring domestic musicians and artists, who have been left without performances for months.

The CEO of the Hungarian Tourism Agency has said that HUF 20 billion (EUR 57 million) will be spent to get tourism back to Hungary as quickly as possible. The Agency has embarked on a domestic campaign to promote staying at home and preparing to come back (#visszajovok) to the favourite places after the coronavirus crisis. The newest campaign video of the HTA is titled “Take care of each other and we will succeed!” in Hungarian. The Agency will refrain from conducting any international campaign to boost tourist traffic, as long as restrictions in European travel are in force. When the time is more appropriate, the Agency will start targeting Austria and the Czech Republic. It has set up a task force in order to consult with stakeholders and collect information. The Agency is also currently working on an action plan in order to support the recovery of the sector. It is expected that in March 2021, the sector could reach the level of March 2019 and then Hungarian tourism can return to a dynamic growth trajectory again.

Forward bookings for summer 2021 are stronger in the country side than Budapest. With recovery of domestic tourism performance could be 50% of last year, hopefully returning to 2019 levels in March 2021. Monitoring research found that more than half of the Hungarians are preparing to travel after the epidemic this year, mostly domestically, but 12% of the respondents would look for a foreign destination. The Agency is collecting inputs from stakeholders to provide to decision makers of the Hungarian Government.

(Information last updated 29 May 2020)

Overnight stays in hotels in March 2020 were down 54% on March 2019, with hotel bed occupancy was 30.1% which is a decrease of 35.8% year-on-year.

On 21 March, the Government announced the first phase of response measures to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. As part of the action, the following three tourism-specific actions together represent a ISK 4.6 billion injection into Iceland's tourism industry:

  • Payment and collection of the tax on overnight stays (bed-night tax) will be suspended from 1 April 2020 through 31 December 2021. Payment of tax on overnight stays from 1 January 2020 through 31 March 2020 is deferred. The payment due date for tax on overnight stays during this period is deferred until 5 February 2022.

  • Icelandic residents over 18 years of age will collectively receive ISK 1.5 billion worth of travel vouchers from the Government, to spend domestically. This action will be further implemented in co-operation with the Icelandic Travel Industry Association.

  • A promotional campaign for Iceland as a destination is currently in preparation and will be rolled out when conditions allow and when travel can be expected to resume. The campaign is two-fold, one to encourage Icelanders to travel within the country and another to encourage international travel to Iceland.

    On 26 March 2020 the City of Reykjavik announced an action package including extended deadlines for taxes and charges, the lowering of commercial property tax, investment acceleration and a marketing campaign for Reykjavik as a destination once the situation returns to normal. Other municipalities are also discussing potential actions in response to COVID-19 to protect local businesses.

On 21 April 2020, the Government of Iceland announced the second phase of response measures to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Worth up to ISK 60 billion (EUR 377 million), the latest phase of the economic response focuses on support and protections for small enterprises, innovation and vulnerable groups.

On 28 April 2020 the Government of Iceland announced a third stimulus package in support of employees and companies. The aim of the proposals is to mitigate the damage caused by mass lay-offs and mass insolvencies, thereby protecting workers’ rights while fostering greater resilience in the economy as a whole. The proposals should be particularly beneficial for tourism companies.

There is also a focus on stimulating innovation. When the direct impact of the pandemic will begin to slow down, the authorities will give strong support to the revitalisation of the economy. For tourism, this includes at first the domestic travel vouchers and domestic promotional campaign mentioned above, followed by an international promotional campaign when travel restrictions are lifted.

On 30 April 2020 the Government agreed to proposal that Icelandair may be granted a credit line or state guaranteed loans against the successful increase of share capital and financial restructuring.

The response package also includes a special ISK 15 billion investment acceleration initiative including several projects that are aimed at supporting tourism:

  • ISK 650 million for infrastructure at national parks and protected areas including large public tourist sites.

  • ISK 200 million for the Tourist Site Protection Fund (private/municipal tourist sites).

  • Harbour improvements around the country.

  • Road improvements around the country.

  • Infrastructure to speed up electrification of harbours and rental car fleet.

  • Renovation of Harpa Concert and Conference Centre in Reykjavik.

In an agreement between Icelandair and the Icelandic State (in effect from end of March 2020, and renewed until the 5 May), Icelandair agreed to continue flying to Boston, and either to London or Stockholm two days a week. In return, the Icelandic State will cover losses incurred for those flights. The public company which runs Iceland’s airports, Isavia, has temporarily waived user charges at Keflavik international airport. Isavia has received ISK 4 billion for infrastructure projects including the Keflavik airport.

On 12 May 2020 the Icelandic Government announced that it expects to start easing restrictions on international arrivals no later than 15 June 2020, while from 15 May some professionals arriving in Iceland will be eligible for a modified quarantine, including scientists, filmmakers and athletes.

No later than 15 June 2020, travellers arriving in Iceland are expected to be given a choice between a two-week quarantine, or being tested for the virus upon arrival or otherwise proving that they are free of coronavirus infection. Exact requirements are still being developed, but travellers will likely be required to download and use the official tracing app which is already in use by around 40% of the population in Iceland. Final details on the easing of quarantine requirements for travellers will be announced by the end of May.

(Information last updated 27 May 2020)

Ireland’s Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport established a COVID-19 Tourism Monitoring Group, made up of industry stakeholders, the state tourism agencies and Department officials. The group, which has met regularly since this crisis began, is monitoring the disruption to the sector, facilitating the rapid sharing of information and assisting in the formulation of a recovery plan.

The Department continues to liaise with other Government Departments to align the economy wide COVID-19 supports and initiatives, with tourism and hospitality needs. As a result, many tourism businesses are now availing of the various supports that the Government has already put in place.

The Department also engaged with the banking and insurance sectors to address issues being encountered by tourism businesses.

Ireland’s tourism Development Authority, Fáilte Ireland, is providing a suite of training and advisory supports for tourism businesses, to enable them to respond to the challenges and threats now being faced in the sector.

At EU level, Ireland is advocating for the introduction of new, tourism-specific funding supports for member states and to allow maximum flexibility in State Aids rules to enable the provision of timely and appropriate supports for the sector.

The phased reopening of the tourism sector under Ireland’s Roadmap for Reopening Society and Business will kick-start domestic tourism in Quarters 3 and 4 of 2020.  In line with the sequence of actions detailed in the Roadmap, Phase 3 should see cafés and restaurants reopening on 29 June.  Hotels (not including hotel bars), hostels, caravan parks and holiday parks are due to reopen under Phase 4 on 20 July, with Phase 5 seeing pubs, bars, nightclubs, cinemas and theatres reopening on 10 August.  All of these dates are conditional on the continued successful suppression of the spread of COVID-19 in Ireland and final decisions will be guided by the public health advice applying at the time.

To assist tourism businesses meet social distancing and cleaning requirements in line with the national ‘Return to Work Safely’ protocol, Fáilte Ireland is currently finalising detailed guidelines for the sector, in consultation with the tourism industry and the relevant authorities.

The Department recently appointed a Tourism Recovery Taskforce to prepare a Tourism Recovery Plan which will include a set of recommendations on how best the Irish tourism sector can adapt and recover in the changed tourism environment as a result of Covid-19. The plan will identify priority aims, key enablers and market opportunities for the sector for the period 2020-2023. The Taskforce may consult with stakeholders to inform its deliberations before reporting back later this year.

(Information updated on 26 May 2020)

Starting 5 May, businesses have been allowed to open under strict hygiene regulations of the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Tourism, including rural accommodations, hotels and lodges, nature reserves, heritage sites and national parks. Domestic tourism is expected to lead the revival stage of tourism in the country, and due to their relative isolation and minority of rooms, rural and urban bed and breakfast are the first to open up for tourists out of many types of tourist accommodations in Israel. Accommodation facilities will be held to high standards of cleaning, training workers according to the new guidelines, upgrading air ventilation, reducing crowd-gathering and offering special booking and cancellation terms.

The Israeli Ministry of Health prepared a regulations scheme “Purple Stamp” for the recovery period, and it deals with all aspects of public life. The Ministry of Tourism is responsible to issuing detailed complementary regulations for the different tourism establishments.

In terms of fiscal policy, the Government had announced the allocation of ILS 10 billion as a loan fund in support of businesses hit by the initial stages of coronavirus crisis. This was only a first-aid measure. Naturally, a major number of these were tourism businesses. On 30 March the Government has announced a support plan of ILS 80 billion (USD 22.4 billion) for healthcare, social protections, SMEs affected by the crisis and money for the revival stage. However, up until now, no assistance was offered to the travel industry directly. More funds will be allocated as the crisis unfolds.

The Ministry of Tourism is looking for ways to broaden its marketing fund to include businesses affected by coronavirus. International tourism offices operate series of webinars and online presentations for the Israeli tour operators and for the local tourism suppliers in key source markets in order to strengthen each other’s commitment for future co-operation.

Jobs and training: between mid-March and the end of April, the Ministry has been operating a complex programme of professional webinars and web-based courses, in order to preserve and enrich the human capital of the Israeli tourism industry, including hoteliers, travel agents, tour operators, tour guides, and other travel professionals. The information provided included practical expert guidance for coping with the corona crisis, and planning ahead for post-corona days. On the other hand, other topics requested by the private sector, were also covered, in order to use the crisis as leverage for mastering practices which will be of advantage coming out of the corona crisis. The series presented, inter alia, tools for upgrading the business, marketing, digital, economic and operational infrastructure of the Israeli tourism industry.

The Ministry as well as some local authorities has issued online virtual tours of sites and attractions around the country, in order to raise appetite and keep the postponed tours alive in the memory.

The Ministry initiated a project of using hotels, emptied by the crisis, as temporary quarantine accommodations for non-acute levels of Covid-19 diagnosed patients or those who just have to stay in 14 days confinement.

(Information last updated 9 May 2020)

Following on from preliminary measures set out on 28 February, on 16 March the Council of Ministers approved further measures in aid of tourism and culture that supplement and strengthen the measures for tourism contained in the first decree. The measures are as follows:

  • Extraordinary allowances for tourism and culture workers: Workers in the tourism, culture, entertainment, film and audio-visual sectors will receive special allowances to limit the negative effects of the restrictions due to the coronavirus emergency. The allowances are also extended to workers without social security benefits.

  • Social protection and social safety net: Extension of the social safety net also to seasonal workers in tourism and entertainment and measures in favour of authors, artists, performers and agents.

  • Support for culture, entertainment and tourism businesses: Suspension of withholding tax payments, social security and welfare contributions and compulsory insurance premiums for those who run or organise theatres, concert halls, cinemas, artistic or cultural fairs or events, museums, libraries, archives, historical places and monuments, bars, restaurants, thermal spas, amusement or theme parks, transport services, rental of sports and recreational equipment or facilities and equipment for events and shows, tourist guides and assistants.

  • Emergency fund for performing arts and cinema: Creation of the emergency fund for live entertainment, cinema and audio-visual. EUR 130 million for 2020 to support operators, authors and performers affected by the measures adopted for the COVID-19 emergency and for investments aimed at revitalising these sectors. The modality of distribution and allocation of resources will be established by decree of the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism, taking into account the negative impact on beneficiaries resulting from the measures to contain the COVID-19 contagion.

  • Vouchers for cinema, theatre, museum and concert tickets: Refunds with vouchers already provided for travel and tourist packages cancelled as a result of the COVID-19 emergency are also extended to tickets for shows, cinemas, theatres, museums and other cultural venues.

  • Vouchers also for hotels: Refunds with vouchers already provided for trips and tourist packages cancelled as a result of the Covid-19 emergency are also extended to accommodation contracts and therefore also covering hotels and other accommodation facilities.

  • Relaunching the image of Italy in the world: Preparation of an extraordinary campaign to promote Italy in the world also with tourist and cultural purposes.

Moreover, a special compensation of EUR 600 for March will be granted to tourism seasonal workers who lost their job as a result of the coronavirus.

On 16 March, the Government announced EUR 200 million in measures to support Alitalia and Air Italy. (website40 accessed 9 March 2020)

(Information last updated 31 March 2020)

Compared with January 2019, the total sales amount of the major travel agencies in Japan in January 2020 decreased by 6.8% due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The number of international visitors to Japan was 1.7 million in January 2020 (down from 2.7 million in 2019) and was 1.1 million in February 2020 (down from 2.6 million in 2019).

The travel consumption by international visitors for the January-March period of 2020 is estimated to be JPY 672.7 billion, a decrease of 41.6% from the same period of the previous year. The number of international flights during the third week of April has decreased by more than 90% compared to the period before the spread of COVID-19. The overall occupancy rate of hotels in February 2020 was 53.0%. In addition, the Tokyo Olympic Games were postponed.

Regarding policy measures to support affected industries, the Japanese Government has already expanded employment adjustment subsidies and provided strong liquidity support, including interest-free unsecured loans. On the 7 April 2020, the Japanese Government announced a new Emergency Economic Package, which amounted to JPY 117 trillion (approx. USD 1 trillion), to support the continuation of employment and business in all industries, including tourism, as well as to foster future economic recovery. The emergency economic package includes expansions of the employment adjustment subsidy, the liquidity support, and strong demand stimulation measures for tourism, seeking to support the economy after the COVID-19 pandemic is resolved. The demand stimulus measures include a new subsidy amounting to over USD 10 billion in the form of discounts and vouchers to support tourism, transport, food services, and event businesses to create an immediate post-pandemic recovery.

In addition to the above emergency economic package, the Japan Tourism Agency will spend USD 2.2 billion to attract tourists immediately after the end of the pandemic in an effort to make tourist destinations attractive, improving the travel environment, and carrying out promotions for international tourists.

The Japan Tourism Agency and the Japan National Tourism Organization (JNTO) provide timely information in multiple languages through their respective websites, as well as their official twitter and weibo accounts.

JNTO operates a visitor hotline 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Call for tourist information or assistance in case of accidents and emergencies, including those involving the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Support is available in English, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese.

(Information updated on 23 April 2020)

Being one of the first countries to show rapid increase of confirmed cases to the COVID-19 outside of mainland China, Korea’s tourism sector has been hit hard from global travel restrictions, bans and advisories. Between 1 January 2020 and 17 May 2020, international tourist arrivals and outbound travel departures decreased by 67%, respectively, over the same period last year. This severe drop in tourism demand is estimated to account for a loss of 2.8 billion USD (3.6 trillion KRW) to Korea’s tourism industry as of April 2020. Severe damage has been caused to the tourism sector in Korea resulting in massive layoffs, unpaid leave, and business failures. While companies are struggling to balance operations, recent research shows that the total market value of Korea’s top 30 tourism companies plunged by nearly KRW 15 trillion (approx. USD 12 billion) in about 4 months (between 17 January and 10 April)

The Korean Government has made its own analysis on the COVID-19 impact on the tourism sector and will implement adequate policy measures in accordance with the following scenario:

  • Scenario 1: tourism flows remain shut down for 4 months, starting to recover from July. In this scenario it is expected to receive 10.2 million international inbound tourists (down 7.3 million or 41.7% compared to 2019) and USD 13.3 billion tourism revenue (down USD 4.5 billion or 25.3% compared 2019) in 2020.

  • Scenario 2: tourism flows remain shut down for 6 months, starting to recover from September. It is expect to receive 7.5 million international inbound tourists (down 10.0 million or 57.1%) and USD 10.3 billion tourism revenue (down USD 10.2 billion or 42.1%) in 2020.

Taking into account of the recovery speed of the tourism market, recovery measures will be first taken in order to boost the domestic tourism market and then to foster the inbound market once the pandemic is over.

The Korean Government has announced its economic support measures (updated four times on 17 February, 18 March, 28 March, and 1 April 2020) for the tourism industry which includes financial/fiscal support, tax relief, and job/employment support:

  • Financing tourism enterprises: A total of KRW 300 billion (USD 243 million) has been mobilised from the National Tourism Fund to support tourism companies. As part of this initiative, funding of KRW 100 billion (USD 81 million) has been allocated so that small and medium-sized tourism companies can access temporary unsecured low interest loans (at a rate of approx. 1%). Also, greater coverage on new general loans to tourism related businesses with a total of KRW 200 billion (USD 162 million) has been made available. In addition, loan extensions or deferments for a period of one year will be made available on previous loans up to a total of KRW 200 billion (USD 162 million). Other financial, fiscal, and tax relief measures for the tourism industry includes the following:

    • An emergency relief fund for all affected SMEs including tourism startups and SMEs valued at a total of KRW 2.2 trillion (USD 1.8 billion)

    • Tax cuts for businesses such as a property tax reduction and a decrease to the comprehensive real estate holding tax imposed on hospitality businesses with support of the local/regional council resolution

    • Extending the hotel tax refund policy for international visitors (from 2020 to 2022)

  • Supporting tourism jobs and skills training: Tourism companies will be able to provide paid leave for their employees since the travel and tourism industry was designated as a ‘special employment support sector. The special employment support provides up to 90% of the leave allowance for six months upon a paid leave and will further provide KRW 500 000 (USD 410) for three months upon unpaid leave. Other measures include further vocational training and subsistence loans provided to job seekers.

  • Boosting demand for domestic tourism: Encouraging local tourism spending by issuing domestic travel and tourism vouchers; and increasing the ‘vacation bonus subsidy’ programme that provides employees of small companies with vacation bonuses partly subsidised by the government (25% of the set amount).

  • Other measures: Measures to prevent the spread of the virus in the industry have been implemented including the distribution of hand sanitisers and face masks to tourism businesses and facilities (hotels, camping facilities, information centres, etc.); and the provision of disinfection services to tourism businesses visited by persons who have tested positive for COVID-19 for further prevention of the virus.

The Korean Government will put forward promotional activities to attract international visitors and is thoroughly preparing in advance to fully recover the inbound market. The following strategies will be pursued in the different phases of the pandemic:

  • Widespread phase: The Government will re-build trust with travellers on Korean tourism (e.g. ‘Korea-friendly’ campaigns with K-pop stars), discover new tourism content and enrich existing tourism content

  • Stabilising phase: The Government will lay the ground work for early recovery (e.g. online and offline marketing of products, ‘Safe to travel, Korea’ campaigns, customized promotional videos for each source market, etc.)

  • Extinction phase: The Government would conduct aggressive marketing and promotional activities that will lead to early recovery of the inbound market

The Korean government plans to make greater use of its digital application initiatives, since it is expected that the COVID-19 pandemic will accelerate the digital transformation, shifting towards a more ‘smart,’ ‘personalised’, and ‘non-contact41’ travel. The ‘Tourism Forecast Service’ is a Big Data solution that aims to assist travel planning with useful travel information of the local destination such as real-time visitors, booking rates on transportation and accommodations, and weather information, etc. For tourists who are reluctant to tour with a guide, the “Digital Storytelling Service” will provide a substitute to in-person tour guides. Users can easily download the application titled “smart tour guide” to a mobile device in Korean, English, Japanese, and Chinese, with additional languages to be added in the near future. As more people tend to avoid busy indoor areas during their travel, the “Durunubi” (Korea Mobility) system that recommends tour routes for trekking, cycling, and driving will become useful to the growing number of tourists seeking for outdoor activities. This tourist information service also provides additional information on the route including popular tourist attractions, cultural heritage sites, transportation, accommodation, and restaurants.

(Information last updated 27 May 2020)

In April, general economic measures were introduced to support the sectors most affected by the crisis, such as tourism. Measures included social distancing and health requirements for operating businesses, social protection measures, aid to companies and tax alleviations.

In May, the Ministry of Economics has started to work on series of support mechanisms for tourism industry, including:

  • introduce a reduced value added tax rate of 5% for catering and tourist accommodation sectors,

  • assess and implement a balanced voucher system to address the situation of tourism operators and agencies in complex tourism services,

  • support measures for the development of local tourism in order to provide special support to local tourism companies and to stimulate local demand, including an informative campaign for local tourism development,

  • attracting new international tourists after the Covid-19 crisis, providing support specifically for the development of MICE,

  • support for those tourism operators who carried out repatriation services in good faith by returning tourists travelling before the conditions of emergency occurred,

  • additional specific health safety guidelines for tourism service providers and travellers are planned to be developed.

(Information last updated 14 May 2020)

In order to manage the crisis and mitigate its impact on the tourism sector, the Ministry of the Economy and Innovation presented to the Government a plan for the tourism sector promotion, which includes measures to reduce the effects of COVID-19, as well as measures to promote the tourism sector after the quarantine, and measures to transform the tourism system. Approximately EUR 45 million from the state budget are planned to be allotted for the implementation of these measures:

  • In order to ensure the liquidity of the tourism sector, a new instrument is planned to provide an interest-free loan to tour operators to enable them to settle immediately with tourists who have refused travel vouchers.

  • To regulate the relations between tour operators and insurers, the Ministry of the Economy and Innovation has initiated amendments to the Law on State Debt proposing a granted financial guarantee to the tour operator. It also provides for a return to the creation of a travel guarantee fund model to compensate for the losses incurred by tourists as a result of the insolvency of tour operators.

  • Compensations will be provided for Lithuanian tour operators for the transportation of tourists from abroad after the declaration of an emergency situation.

  • Marketing measures will be developed to promote tourism on local and priority markets. The measures would be implemented by Travel Lithuania. It is planned that tourists from neighbouring markets would help to recover the inbound tourism. It is therefore important to promote internal tourism consumption and attract tourists from the neighbouring countries traveling by road transport.

  • To encourage the recovery of tourism sector after COVID-19, it is planned to create a system of holiday vouchers for medical people working in Lithuania. The estimated value of a holiday coupon will not exceed EUR 200. The aim of this initiative is to thank the medical people for their work during the quarantine period and to encourage the recovery of the local tourism market.

The transformation of the tourism sector will be pursued by promoting innovation and digital technologies through the development of tourism services and products. To this end, the ‘E-business model’ tool will be used to finance new business models created via introducing e-business solutions, as well as the ‘Retraining of Enterprise Workers’ tool and the ‘Innovative Checks’ tool, which will finance the purchase of services of publishing, voice-reading, translation, photography, filming, design, communication, etc.

Also, there are plans to increase the financing of existing EU investment instruments which would enable the development of new tourism services. The ‘Innovative cheques’ is one of such measures aimed to finance the implementation of R&D projects.

In order to promote tourism, the proposed measures include accelerating the protracted reconstruction of the Sport Palace into the National Congress Centre. The Congress Centre would help Lithuania become competitive in the field of business tourism, reduce seasonality, create new jobs and enable the tourism sector to be prepared to organise major conferences and congresses in the centre of Vilnius in the future.

Measures aimed to recover tourism are included in the Government’s plan to promote the economy and reduce the effects of the spread of Coronavirus (COVID-19).

(Information last updated 6 May 2020)

The scenario in the fall in tourism GDP would be half a percentage point, dropping its participation from 8.7% of Mexico’s GDP to 8.2%. Based on estimates made, it is expected that in 2020 tourist arrivals at hotels will register a reduction that goes from 4.3% to 7.7%, in relation to what was observed in 2019.

A loss in the Mexican ports of the Caribbean and Pacific of almost 829 000 cruise passengers is estimated, equivalent to a reduction in income of USD 57 million.

On 12 March, 2020, the Tianguis Turístico de México tourism fair was officially postponed to 19-22 September, 2020, in Mérida, Yucatán.

On 18 March, 2020, the Secretary of Tourism met with the Tourism Executive Committee of the National Conference of Governors, in order to co-ordinate joint work with the private sector of the tourism industry to face the effects of the pandemic of the COVID-19 in the sector.

On 20 March, the Secretary of Tourism released the first video of several that will be disseminated, as part of a campaign that seeks to project the strength of Mexico as a tourist power.

(Information last updated 24 March 2020)

In order to deal with the economic consequences of COVID-19 and to support the affected sectors, the Netherlands has introduced a broad economic package, which includes both measures to prevent unemployment as well as to provide liquidity for businesses, with an emphasis on supporting SMEs. While not specifically designed for the tourism industry, these measures do give a helping hand to a large part of the tourism industry as well.

The following are the most relevant measures for the tourism sector:

  • To support firms that are affected by the Dutch Government’s health-related measures in response to the COVID19 outbreak - for example the closure of restaurants - an emergency desk was introduced in an effort to financially help entrepreneurs in the most affected sectors. With this arrangement firms can receive a one-off lump sum allowance of EUR 4 000. This support is applicable to most companies in the tourism industry.

  • Employers who expect a decline of at least 20% in revenue can request an allowance for a period of 3 months of maximally 90% of the total wage sum. The Employee Insurance Agency will pay a deposit beforehand, and it will be determined afterwards whether a firm has received too much or too little support. Employers using the scheme must commit to not fire their employees on economic grounds, and to continue paying the full salaries of their employees, including those with a flexible contract. This is especially important for the tourism and hospitality industry as these industries consist of a lot of employees with temporary and flexible contracts.

  • A guarantee facility for SME loans (BMKB) is already in place and working. SMEs can use the BMKB scheme for bridge loans or to increase the overdraft limit on their current account, despite not having the required collateral.

Additionally, the Dutch national destination marketing organisation NBTC (‘Holland Marketing’,) is working with local marketing organisations on a national recovery strategy to stimulate a sustainable recovery of the tourism industry.

In addition, the Government is currently looking for sectoral measures specifically for affected sectors (like tourism industry, restaurants etc). This will probably be announced in early May.

The Dutch Government has regular and intensive contact with firms in the tourism and hospitality industry and their sector organisations. The measures taken, as well as their effects, are closely monitored and evaluated by the Dutch Government.

(Information last updated 24 April 2020)

On 17 March 2020, the New Zealand Government announced its COVID-19: Economic Response Package, to support New Zealanders, their jobs and their businesses from the global impact of COVID-19, and to ready the economy to recover. The overall investment in the Economic Response Package is NZD 12.1 billion across the forecast period. This cash injection is on top of a NZD 12 billion New Zealand Upgrade Programme that was announced in January 2020. The package includes a substantial package to cushion the impact of the economic shock on businesses and workers, and support confidence in the near term. The package also included a NZD 900 million loan facility for Air New Zealand from Government.

On 23 March 2020, the Government made further announcements, such as agreeing to remove the cap on the Government’s wage subsidy scheme, which will inject a further NZD 4 billion into the economy over eleven weeks. The Government’s ultimate recovery package will go beyond the measures announced in the Economic Response Package on 17 March 2020, and the additional measures announced on 23 March 2020.

Ministers will also review the International Visitor Conservation and Tourism Levy (IVL) Investment plan to understand how the IVL revenue can best be used to help rebuild the tourism sector in New Zealand.

On 14 May, the Government announced the Budget for 2020. As part of Budget 2020, there will be a NZD 4 billion business support package, which includes a targeted NZD 3.2 billion in a wage subsidy extension. There were strong calls from the tourism industry in pre-Budget consultation for further support for staff costs. The extension to the Wage Subsidy Scheme will help businesses cover staffing costs and protect jobs, while we ramp up a domestic tourism campaign.

Budget 2020 also includes NZD 400 million which has been allocated to a Tourism Recovery Fund (TRF). This response package includes:

  • Tourism Transition Programme which will deliver advice and support for pivoting businesses towards domestic and Australian markets, hibernating a business, or other options. Tourism New Zealand (TNZ) will provide customer insight and views of overseas market conditions.

  • Strategic Tourism Assets Protection Programme. This fund will identify key tourism assets that play a vital part in New Zealand’s domestic tourism offerings and international brand and provide them with the protection and assistance they need.

  • Tourism Recovery Ministers Group. This group will be established to oversee the TRF and the tourism industry’s recovery.

  • New Zealand Futures Tourism Taskforce. This public-private taskforce would lead the thinking on the future of tourism in New Zealand, and will consist of cross-government and tourism sector representatives. It will prioritise the current and future issues that would shape and impact tourism, and lead recommendations on further policy and regulatory reform in the sector.

In addition to these measures, on 1 May, the Government announced that it will provide interest free loans for a year to small businesses impacted by the COVID-19 economic shock to support their immediate cashflow needs and meet fixed costs. The Small Business Cashflow Loan Scheme (SBCS) will provide assistance of up to NZD 100 000 to firms employing 50 or fewer full time equivalent employees. Loans will be interest free if they are paid back within a year. The interest rate will be 3% for a maximum term of five years. Repayments are not required for the first two years.

The eligibility criteria are the same as for the Wage Subsidy Scheme. Businesses will also have to declare that they are a viable business, they will use the money for core business operating costs and enter into a legally binding loan contract.

(Information last updated 14 May 2020)

As of 30 March, most tourism activities are closed, including all kinds of events. Surveys from business organisations show that 80-90% of employees in the industry (both HORECA and aviation/cruise) are temporarily unemployed.

Tourism businesses will benefit from general economic measures, such as fiscal measures aimed at business and industries, and guarantee and loan schemes for businesses. Industry-specific measures with impact to the travel and tourism industry include the low VAT rate, which applies to passenger transport, accommodation and the majority of cultural events and attractions, is reduced from 12% to 8% until 31 October 2020. This rate may be lowered further by Parliament.

For the aviation industry the following measures are undertaken:

  • Suspension of the tax on air passengers, for flights until 31 October 2020.

  • Suspension of payments of aviation charges (no end date set).

  • Purchase of domestic air routes where there is no basis for commercial operations due to the crisis.

  • Introduction of an aviation guarantee scheme totalling NOK 6 billion, with a 90% Government guarantee on each loan.

For organisers of cultural and sports events, a compensation scheme of NOK 900 million (around EUR 80-90 million) for cultural and sports events that were cancelled due to state restrictions.

Norway has entered the second phase of implementing financial measures related to the coronavirus outbreak. In this phase, more industry-specific measures are expected. Some specific issues that may arise in the tourism sector, requiring policy responses, are the following:

  • The tour operators' need of financial assistance is still urgent.

  • Some of ski resorts are also vulnerable to bankruptcies, due to the closure of alpine installations in the peak season. The losses are considerable, as most companies in ski resorts take in a large part of their income in the period March-May.

  • The need to ensure the functioning of the destination management organisations (DMOs) as a part of the rebuild-up process of Norwegian destinations, in the "post-corona" phase. With no tourism company activity, DMOs no longer have a source of income, and are forced to halt their activity as network builder and hub of knowledge and competency.

  • Increased funding of generic marketing of Norway as a destination.

(Information last updated 30 March 2020)

Polish Airlines LOT established an initiative “LOT do domu” (Fly home), organising charter flights in order to repatriate tourists abroad.

The Polish Tourism Organisation initiated a campaign “Poland Don’t Cancel Postpone”, to ensure that tourists will be able to use the services they have already purchased in convenient date. This measure aims to help the tourism industry to get through the difficult time.

As a legislative measure, on 2 March, the Parliament adopted the Act on Special Solutions Related to COVID-19. The Act contains a regulation on the basis of which tour operators will be able to obtain a refund of contributions paid to the Tourist Guarantee Fund for package tours which have been cancelled by travellers or which have been terminated for reasons directly related to the outbreak of the epidemic.

The Tourist Guarantee Fund is part of a system intended to protect the traveller (consumer) against the effects of the tour organiser’s insolvency. Tour operators are obliged to make timely contributions to the Fund. The purpose of this regulation is to enable tour operators to recover their contributions to the Fund if the package tours for which the said contributions have been paid did not take place. The maximum contribution, as defined by law, amounts to PLN 30 and is calculated for each traveller in accordance with the package tour participation contract they have signed. The current support of the organisers is to enable them to continue their activities, including covering existing obligations towards travellers (consumers).

On 31 March, the Government implemented a shielding package for entrepreneurs who have found themselves in a crisis situation as a result of an outbreak, which benefits also tourism businesses. The Act contains proposals for entrepreneurs in the field of: possible relief for the payment of taxes and social security contributions, instruments for improving financial liquidity of companies, issues of protection and support of the labour market, including solutions for companies forced to stop working. The Department of Tourism of the Ministry of Economic Development has also undertaken other actions, apart from legislative ones, to identify the basic needs of the industry at the moment and plan for potential future aid and assistance.

On March 9, a meeting between the Minister of Economic Development and the representatives of national industry and consumer organisations took place, devoted to the coronavirus epidemic’s impacts on the tourism industry. The Department of Tourism has developed a guide containing answers to the questions most frequently asked by travellers and tour operators. This guide points to regulations which define the rights of tourism market entities, with particular emphasis on those regulations that may apply in the current situation. It includes explanation of such terms as "extraordinary and unavoidable circumstances", the concept of "withdrawal from the contract of participation in a package tour", the time range of such withdrawal, the rights that a traveller has in such situation, and rights belonging to a tour operator. Concerning sanitary guidelines for entrepreneurs providing hotel services, “Operating Manual for Hotel Facilities" has been prepared by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and published on the Ministry’s website.

(Information last updated 15 April 2020)

In a report published on 12 March, the AHP hotels association reported that the hotel sector in the tourism-dependent country could lose 30%-50% of its revenues, or up to EUR 800 million, between March and June. TAP – the national airline carrier - rescheduled 2 500 flights in April-May, after cancelling 1 000 flights. This accounts for 7% of TAP's scheduled flights in March, 11% in April and 19% in May. Another sectoral association, AHRESP, reported that half of the accommodation companies registered occupancy drops above 40%, following the development of the new coronavirus, a percentage that also applies to the catering companies.

On 18 March, the Government announced EUR 9.2 billion package. This includes EUR 3 billion in state-backed credit guarantees to provide liquidity for companies affected by the coronavirus outbreak, of which EUR 900 million are for hotels and accommodations (EUR 75 million of which are for micro and small businesses), EUR 200 million for travel agencies, recreational services and events organisers, and EUR 600 million for restaurants (EUR 270 million of which for micro and small businesses). These credit lines include a four year repayment term, including a grace period until the end of the year.

Turismo de Portugal launched several specific measures to support the tourism sector, with the objective of minimising the impact of the temporary reduction in demand levels in tourism, due to the crisis caused by COVID-19:

  • The Support Line for Tourism Microenterprises Liquidity - COVID-19, with an allocation of EUR 60 million, it is a new line of financing aimed at tourist micro-enterprises that show little capacity to react to the strong retraction in demand that has been registered.

  • It was also decided to support the reimbursement of costs incurred by events organisers whose events in 2020 were postponed or cancelled due to the COVID-19 crisis.

  • These investment support measures were further reinforced with measures to accelerate payments and reimbursements within the scope of the QREN and Portugal 2020 (EU Funds) and also to postpone the fulfilment of some tax obligations.

In addition to financial support for companies, advisory services were created for tourism entrepreneurs, and tourists:

  • Upgrading the information and advisory team at Turismo de Portugal: Development of phone and online channels to support companies regarding advice on financial support instruments created to deal with the COVID-19 crisis.

  • Specialised online support to companies by the Portuguese Tourism Schools: Turismo de Portugal provided a specialized online support service, provided by a team of 60 trainers from the Hotel and Tourism Schools who are available to help companies to provide support in dealing with specific operational issues, helping to minimize the impact Contingency Plans for COVID-19.

  • Updated data on International Source Markets to Portugal: Daily update of market information for enterprises (air transport, reservations, tour operators and travel restrictions), produced by the offices of Turismo de Portugal worldwide and publicly available on Turismo de Portugal’s knowledge management platform – TravelBI (https://bit.ly/2WGgLoM).

  • Monitoring the flow of tourists to Portugal, using mobile and airlines data.

  • Regarding tourists, specific initiatives were developed in the area of ​​communication, with information on consumer rights in the context of the crisis on the Turismo de Portugal’s corporate website, a page dedicated to international tourists at visitportugal.com (which transformed its website into Portugal Tourism Response) with useful and up-to-date information on protection advice to tourists, restriction measures in force in the country and useful contacts for those who are at the destination (airports, airlines, security, etc.) as well as suggestions to navigate at web discovering a different Portugal.

  • Turismo de Portugal transformed its destination’s communication from #CantSkipPortugal to #CantSkipHope, a message of hope for all and adjusted to the moment of uncertainty in which we live (video available here: https://youtu.be/lFlFkGV207A).There has also been a refocus from marketing departments and all the delegations abroad: collecting more information on the markets and providing this information on a weekly basis to companies, developing digital contents for e-training the national operators in each market.

  • All Turismo de Portugal’s Tourism Schools are now delivering classes fully online and the tuition fees were suspended during this period.

  • Turismo de Portugal is collaborating with #Tech4COVID19, a platform to recruit accommodation (hotels and short-term rental) for use by health professionals who are unable or unwilling to return home for fear of contagion to the family. In this context, together with private sector associations such as ALEP, AHRESP and AHP, Turismo de Portugal will promote the platform to units that want to participate in this initiative, while having made available a fund of EUR 250 000 to support - through sector associations - accommodation and hotel owners, with electricity, water, gas and cleaning costs.

(Information last updated 28 March 2020)

It was estimated that 450 hotels would be closed by the end of March for a period of at least 3 months. The occupancy rate of hotels nationwide decreased in the first week of March, compared to the same period last year, from 64% to 22%. The information is based on data analysis from 7 000 rooms out of the 12 000 existing in Bucharest. It is estimated that 70 000 people will lose their jobs from March–April (data reported on 23 March).

At the level of the Ministry of Economy, Energy and Business Environment – General Directorate for Tourism, a crisis cell has been created on the 5 March, in which proposals are elaborated for measures aimed at stimulating tourism and which could allow operators to operate and have continuity.

Economic measures were established on the 25 March, including the payment of the technical unemployment from the Ministry of Labour, covering 75% of the average gross salary. These measures will benefit the category of employers that has been directly affected by restrictive measures that have been ordered by authorities in the emergency situation, including hotels, restaurants, cafes, entertainment institutions)

On the 11 April, an aid scheme worth RON 16 billion (approximately EUR 3.3 billion) was introduced to support small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This will benefit tourism businesses as well.

(Information last updated 14 April 2020)

It is difficult to estimate the precise impact that the pandemic will have on KSA tourism but the spread to a number of KSA’s key source markets, including China and many European countries, means that the targets initially set for 2020 will need to be revised. The overarching objectives of a 3.8% contribution to national GDP, a total of 615k direct jobs in the tourism industry and a total of 633k room keys are all currently being reassessed based on the latest input.

On the 3 April, Saudi Arabia announced a SAR 9 Billion (USD 2.4 billion) package as additional subsidies to private sector salaries for national employees working in companies most affected financially by COVID-19. This includes the tourism sector (corporations as well as SMEs) as they have been heavily affected. This comes in follow-up to additional measures the government of Saudi Arabia has taken to mitigate the impact of Coronavirus on private sector economic activity, most notably employment.

The Government has approved a gradual easing of coronavirus lockdown restrictions starting from Thursday, 28 May, 2020. This will be implemented in three phases (with the third beginning on 21 June) while continuing to adhere to the precautionary and social-distancing guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health. Umrah and international flights will remain suspended until further notice.

Other measures implemented by the Saudi Ministry of Tourism and other government agencies to ensure public safety by preventing the spread of COVID-19, and with specific impacts for tourism, include:

  1. 1. Temporary suspension on Tourists-Type Visa facility to the most effected countries by the coronavirus based on the health standards from the Saudi health authorities.

  2. 2. Cancellation & postponement of Conferences, exhibitions and events in an attempt to limit the spread of the virus and the harm it may cause.

  3. 3. Anyone returning from outside the Kingdom, will be quarantined for 14 days at home before returning to work or being allowed to go out in public.

  4. 4. Suspending all flights in/out of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

  5. 5. Prohibiting movement between the boundaries all 13 provinces except for emergency situations and travelers with prior approval.

(Information last updated 28 May 2020)

According to the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic, in March 2020 the total number of visitors in accommodation establishments decreased by 65 %, of which domestic visitors decreased by 63.9 % and international visitors by 66.9%, compared to the same period in 2019. The number of overnight stays was lower by 56% year-on-year. Overnight stays by domestic visitors accounted for more than 70%. Visitors spent an average of 3.4 nights in the accommodation establishments, including domestic visitors 3.6 nights and foreign ones 2.9 nights.

The balance of the entire first quarter was significantly affected by the March declines in the number of visitors, as well as overnight stays in connection with anti-coronavirus measures. In the first three months of 2020: 1.1 million visitors were accommodated in Slovakia, which represents a decrease of 13.7 % compared to the same period last year. The number of overnight stays decreased by 10.6 % to 3.1 million. Accommodation establishments were visited by 699 572 domestic visitors, their number decreased by 12.9 % year-on-year. They spent 2.0 million nights in tourism establishments. The number of international visitors decreased by 14.9 % to 383 018 visitors, the number of overnight stays reached 1.0 million, which represents a year-on-year decrease of 12.2%.

As of 7 April, according to the Slovak Hotels and Restaurants Association (AHRS), the jobs of almost 68 000 employees (63% of employees in accommodation and catering services) are directly at risk. Hotels and restaurants have been closed by a government order. All accommodation facilities and more than 90% of catering facilities have no income. AHRS expects this year a decline in demand of domestic tourists by 50% and foreign tourists by 60%. It means a decrease by almost 9.5 million overnights in comparison to 2019.

The Government approved on 29 March 2020 the “First-aid” economic package due to coronavirus, which will benefit tourism businesses shut down. The State is planning to refund 80% of salaries received by people employed in facilities that have been obliged to close. Compensation will also be offered to the self-employed and employees depending on the drop in revenues of the affected businesses. In addition, EUR 500 million bank guarantees will be provided per month to allow banks to refund businesses’ expenditures under advantageous conditions.

From 21 May 2020 all persons with permanent or temporary residence in the Slovak Republic, who will travel to Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia and Switzerland will be exempt from quarantine requirements and the need to submit a negative RT-PCR test for COVID-19 on condition that they will return to the territory of the Slovak Republic within 24 hours. Before, each person shall fill in the form on the time of departure, which shall be confirmed at the border by the member of the police force. The option to make short trips of up to 24 hours to eight foreign countries without mandatory quarantine upon return will be extended to 48 hours as of May 27. The extension to 48 hours can open the way for example to make visits to family, relations in more remote destinations, etc.

On 20 May, the Government approved an order from the Ministry of the Interior, according to which entry into the territory of the Slovak Republic will continue to be possible only at selected border crossings and airports. The number of people allowed to cross the border will increase as compared to the previous period. Slovak border checks with Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary have been extended until 26 June.

Civil flights to/from Bratislava Airport are prohibited as of 13 March, 2020, until further notice, or at least until 28 May, 2020.

On 20 May, the last phase of the loosening of coronavirus-related restrictions began. It means that: all shops, including shopping malls, are allowed to open with a limit on the number of people (1 person per 15m2); shops and restaurants can be open until 10pm; indoor sport facilities may open to sport clubs and their members (not to the public); outdoor sport facilities may be open to the public; theatres and cinemas may be open with a limit of 100 people; and restaurants can open their indoor premises with a maximum of 2 people or one family at each table. Shops will not open on Sundays as of yet, and kids corners within shopping malls remain closed for the time being.

(Information last updated the 25 May 2020)

As of 23 March, there is practically no tourist business activity in Slovenia due to the lock down. Official figures on the status of Slovene tourism will be available in June 2020.

The Ministry of Economic Development and Technology is in constant contact with key national industry associations to monitor the situation and to discuss the possible measures to mitigate the COVID-19 impact to the different sectors, particularly tourism. The special Governmental and Experts Task Force has been established to prepare the first package of the legislative measures to help SMEs in all the most vulnerable economic sectors, including the tourism sector. It will be followed by a second package of the Government measures, which will be more specifically focused to specific sectors of the economy and based on the already estimated real damage and data.

The first package of measures will be relevant for tourism businesses and concerns fiscal legislation (temporary prolongation of payments of the corporate tax, payments of income tax prolongation, payments of all health and pensions assurances for employees who cannot work will be covered by the State), banking legislation (credit schemes for maintaining corporate liquidity), measures in the field of Labour legislation.

(Information last updated 27 March 2020)

The Tourism Relief Fund, available from the 7 April, provides once-off capped grant assistance to Small Micro and Medium Sized Enterprises in the tourism value chain to ensure their sustainability during and post the implementation of government measures to curb the spread of Covid-19 in South Africa. Capped at ZAR 50 000 per entity, grant funding can be used to subsidise expenses towards fixed costs, operational costs, supplies and other pressure cost items. Categories eligible to apply for the Tourism Relief Fund include accommodation establishments, hospitality and related services, travel and related services.

(website accessed on 7 April)42

The Spanish Government has adopted. Four main packages of economic and social measures to fight the pandemic have been adopted so far, on 12, 17, 31 March and 21 April. Measures include:

  • Increased flexibility of the tax deferral regime within 2020: possibility for SMEs and self-employed workers, upon request, to defer tax payments for six months, and benefit from interest rate subsidies (relief of up to EUR 14,000 million estimated).

  • Extension until May 20th of the April deadline for tax filings by SMEs and self-employed workers (estimated by the authorities to provide liquidity injection of up to 3,558 million).

  • 50% exemption from employer’s social security contributions, from February to June 2020, for workers with permanent discontinuous contracts in the tourism sector and related activities.

  • Publication of sectoral guidelines: (i) guidelines by the Ministry of Labour and Social Economy on how to operate in labour related aspects in the context of Coronavirus, and (ii) Guidelines by the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism on good practices for businesses and workers in the tourism sector.

  • Specific ICO financing facility amounting to EUR 400 million to support, through liquidity provision, firms and self-employed workers in the tourism sector affected by COVID-19.

  • Measures to support the tourism sector and related activities: the aforementioned ICO financing facility and the aforementioned exemption from employer’s social security contributions for workers with permanent discontinuous contracts in the tourism sector and related activities.

  • The Government has opened a new line of guarantees via the national development bank (Instituto de Crédito Oficial) of up to EUR 100 billion so that the financial sector provides liquidity to firms and self-employed workers to fund working capital, payment of bills and other needs to maintain operations and protect economic activity and employment. On April 21st, the ICO State Guarantee Line was extended to cover Alternative Fixed-Income Market (MARF) commercial paper.

  • Deferral of the reimbursement of principal and/or interest of loans received from the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism if COVID-19 has caused disruptions to the beneficiary firm. Flexibility in procedures for accessing and repaying loans or aid from the Ministry of industry was enhanced on March 31st.

  • Suspension of interest and principal payments of loans previously granted by the Secretariat of State for Tourism.

  • Postponement of payments interest and/or principal of loans by regions to companies and self-employed workers affected by the crisis.

  • Improved protection for workers under precautionary confinement and/or suffering from COVID-19: workers and civil servants under precautionary confinement or affected by coronavirus will benefit from the regime applicable to leave due to workplace accidents instead of leave due to a regular sickness.

  • Changes in the temporary employment adjustment schemes (ERTEs - Expedientes de Regulación Temporal de Empleo) in order to avoid (and forbid during the lockdown) outright dismissal by promoting temporary unemployment (the suspension of employment) or reductions in working time.

(Information last updated 29 May 2020)

As of 21 March, the Hotel and Restaurant Union reported that 10 000 hotel and restaurant workers had been put on notice and another 10 000 hourly and probationary workers will lose their job. Apart from these numbers there are other sectors connected to different services and also within the cultural area that are widely affected but no statistics are available. Also within the transport sector there are big problems. For example, SAS has temporarily laid off 90% of workforce, affecting 10 000 jobs but it is critical also for passenger traffic within buses, taxis, ferries etc.

Hotels in the three largest cities reported decreases in occupancy rates. In Stockholm the occupancy rate in March was 12%, compared to 84% at the same time last year. Similarly, the occupancy rate in Gothenburg was 17% (compared with 79%) and 22% in Malmo (compared with 73%).

The Swedish Government announced what could amount to a SEK 300 billion crisis package to help struggling businesses. Besides measures aimed at businesses, including tourism, the package includes credit guarantees for airlines in 2020 amounting to a maximum of SEK 5 billion, of which SEK 1.5 billion is intended for SAS.

(Information last updated 21 March 2020)

In 2020, the Swiss tourism sector is expected to experience a decline in overnight stays and turnover on a scale not seen for decades. Based on the tourism forecasts of the 28 of May 2020 by the Economic Research Institute of Technology KOF, SECO is assuming a 31% decline in hotel overnight stays in Switzerland for the tourism year 2020 (November 2019 to October 2020). For the tourism year 2021 a growth in hotel overnight stays of 42% is expected. This means that hotel overnight stays in 2021 will probably be slightly below the level of 2019.

Immediate measures have already been implemented since February within the framework of tourism policy promotion instruments. The focus was on information and advisory activities as well as measures to bridge liquidity bottlenecks.

Since the 9 of March 2020, the Swiss Society for Hotel Credit SGH has been offering its customers the suspension of amortisation (maximum 12 months) and retrospective financing of investments (generally a maximum amount of CHF 500 000), which the lodging companies have made in 2018 and 2019 via their own cash flow, in order to ease liquidity bottlenecks. By 20 May 2020, two thirds of SGH's customers had taken advantage of these offers (Amortisation suspensions: total CHF 11.7 million for 150 commitments; financing investments 2018/19: total CHF 7.2 million for 23 commitments). Furthermore, on 20 March 2020, the Federal Council decided to refrain from a repayment of the additional loan in order to support the measures of the SGH. This decision will permanently increase the refinancing of SGH by CHF 5.5 million.

In an extraordinary session at the beginning of May, the Swiss Parliament approved additional federal funding of CHF 40 million for Switzerland Tourism (ST) for the years 2020 and 2021. As a general condition for the use of the funds, it was stipulated that half of the funds be used to relieve the burden on ST's tourism partners. Moreover, the additional funds are used to promote sustainable tourism with a focus on domestic tourism. Further, it was noted that the additional funds must be used to provide attractively priced offers, in order to make sure that everybody can afford holidays in Switzerland.

In Switzerland, a temporary legal standstill for the travel agency industry regarding customer claims arising from the default of a travel service came into force on the 21 of May. The legal standstill is valid until 30 September 2020 and gives the Federal Council time to work out possible solutions for the travel agency sector and to submit a proposal to parliament.

In addition, the Federal Council has decided to support the airlines. In doing so, parliament has imposed conditions on the support. The Federal Council must ensure that Swiss International Air Lines Ltd. (Swiss) and Edelweiss Air Ltd. (Edelweiss) give a written assurance that they will reimburse travel agencies the money paid for cancelled flights due to the coronavirus by the 30 of September 2020 (end of legal standstill), subject to a uniform European solution regarding the repayment modalities.

General economic measures with relevance for the tourism industry: Due to the closure of companies and reductions in demand, many companies have shrinking liquid funds to cover their running costs despite short-time work compensation. A package of complementary measures, in the form of guaranteed COVID bridging loans is designed to prevent fundamentally solvent companies from getting into trouble: The Federal Council set up a CHF 40 billion guarantee program to ensure that affected SMEs (sole proprietorships, partnerships, legal entities) receive bridging loans from the banks. Affected companies should be able to obtain credit amounts of up to 10% of turnover or a maximum of CHF 20 million quickly and easily. In addition, the instrument of short-time work compensation makes it possible to compensate for temporary employment losses and to maintain jobs. Due to the current exceptional economic situation, people who work on a fixed-term, temporary or employer-like basis as well as people who are in an apprenticeship are also severely affected. For this reason, the entitlement to short-time work compensation will be extended and the application process simplified.

(Information last updated 27 May 2020)

The following measures are in place in Turkey to support tourism businesses in the COVID-19 crisis:

  • Bank loans are provided for reimbursement of advance payments for early bookings.

  • Social Security payments are postponed for 6 months.

  • Ministry-certified travel agencies are allowed to work online without opening their workplaces, until the end of April.

  • The debts of tourism facilities located on public lands were delayed for 6 months.

  • The activities of day-trip excursion boats, certified by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, were stopped.

  • The schedule to submit the relevant documents to obtain a Certificate from the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to open service and tourism establishments is frozen for tourism investments located on public lands with a due date of 1 April 2020.

  • Swift bank loans offered for small scale tourism agencies without need of repayment for 6 months.

  • The accommodation tax in hotels and tourism facilities is waived until November 2020.

(Information last updated 14 April 2020)

VisitBritain and the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport have been working closely with the industry to monitor and respond to the COVID-19 outbreak. The Tourism Industry Events Response Group (TIER) and the Tourism Industry Council have both been meeting weekly.

VisitBritain is also providing advice for tourism and events businesses affected by COVID-19 through an advice hub. This sector specific information supplements a range of UK Government sources of advice for businesses, employees and consumers (e.g. COVID-19: guidance for employers and businesses).

The Prime Minister set out the UK Government’s COVID-19 recovery strategy on 11 May. The majority of tourism and hospitality businesses fall within step 3. The Government’s current planning assumption is that this step will be no earlier than 4 July, subject to the five tests justifying some or all of the measures below, and further detailed scientific advice, provided closer to the time. Furthermore, three of five new ministerial-led taskforces established to plan how closed sectors can reopen safely, focus on pubs and restaurants, recreation and leisure, including tourism, culture and heritage, libraries, entertainment and sport, and international aviation, reflecting the unique challenges that sector is facing. The Recreation and Leisure Sectoral Working Groups will be tasked with:

  • Identifying and resolving practical, sector-specific guidance-related issues

  • Developing a sector-wide plan for dissemination and implementation of guidance

  • Providing a forum for sector specialist experts to update and feed into the development of guidance

  • Discussing actions/updates from the Recreation and leisure taskforce

  • Giving stakeholders the opportunity to present guidance-related questions/suggestions directly to Ministers

The UK has also announced that there will be a 14 day quarantine for passengers arriving in the UK. Further policy details will be set out shortly and there will be regular review points to ensure the measures are proportionate. As agreed in the Extraordinary G20 Tourism Ministers' Meeting in April, the UK will continue to work through forums such as the G20 and OECD to ensure that the introduction and removal of travel restrictions are coordinated and proportionate to the national and international situation, and to ensure the safety of travellers.

VisitBritain is currently working with the UK Government to develop a recovery campaign to promote UK tourism after the pandemic is over. The UK tourism industry is made up of 200,000 SMEs and employs 1.6m people directly. The impact is almost immediate and tourism jobs are already being lost despite government support such as the Jobs Retention Scheme.

The impact during the outbreak is the immediate concern for all businesses, and visitors globally are in lock down. Recovery packages must look at consumer sentiment, business support, product support, marketing, and industry coordination. The domestic market is likely to return first, but focus must remain on the very viability of the sector.

VisitEngland has administered a GBP 1.3m fund to support Destination Management Organisations (DMOs) during the COVID-19 period. This scheme will help to ensure DMOs can continue to provide crucial support and expert guidance to the hundreds of thousands of small-to-medium sized businesses that make up England’s tourism sector. The scheme covers costs of up to two members of staff with an upper threshold of GBP 2,500 per employee per month and up to GBP 5,000 towards operating costs over a three-month period. The scheme must support frontline business engagement and communication posts (not marketing or other functions).

Government support for tourism and hospitality businesses fall broadly under the headings of Employment protection support and liquidity support. Examples include:

  • A Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme where small and large employers will be eligible to apply for a government grant of 80% of workers’ salaries up to GBP 2,500 a month. The scheme will be backdated to 1 March. On 12 May the Chancellor extended the scheme until the end of October 2020 and more detail will be shared by the end of May.

  • On 17 March the UK Government announced a GBP 330 billion financial rescue package to support and protect businesses affected by COVID-19, including those in the retail, hospitality and leisure sectors. This includes:

    • The Coronavirus Business Interruption Loan Scheme (CBILS) will make it easier for SMEs with a turnover of up to GBP 45 million access vital financial support. The Government has increased the amount businesses can borrow through the Coronavirus Business Interruption Loan Scheme from GBP 1.2m to GBP 5m, and ensured businesses can access the first months of that finance interest free, as the Government will cover the first 6 months of interest payments.

    • A Bounce Back Loans scheme to provide loans of up to £50,000 to benefit small businesses with a 100% government-backed guarantee for lenders. Bounce Back Loans are now open for applications from small and micro businesses affected by the COVID-19 outbreak.

  • Deferral of the next quarter of VAT payments for firms, until the end of June - representing a GBP 30bn injection into the economy. That means no business will pay any VAT in March, April or May; and they will have until the end of the financial year to repay those bills.

  • £20bn of direct fiscal support for businesses in England through tax relief and cash grants to help business manage cash flow.

The Devolved Administrations have also implemented support for businesses:

  • Scotland: Launched a £20m Creative, Tourism and Hospitality Enterprises Hardship Fund distributing GBP 3,000 grants to businesses ineligible for rates relief with fewer than 50 employees, or grants of up to GBP 25,000 ‘where it can be demonstrated that support is needed.’

  • Wales: Launched a GBP 100m fund for micro businesses that provides grants of GBP 10,000 to businesses ineligible for business rates relief with less than 10 employees, including tourism employees.

  • Northern Ireland: GBP 40 million is to be made available for a new Hardship Fund aimed at microbusinesses which have not been able to avail of the existing support schemes and which require financial support due to the impact of COVID-19.

(Information last updated 18 May 2020)

The Government launched an USD 2 trillion stimulus package open to all businesses, with travel at the forefront, with legislators creating special piles of money for industries hit hardest, including airlines, airports, and travel agents. US passenger airlines will have access to approximately USD 50 billion, half in grants and half in loans. After airlines accept federal money, the Act bars them from laying off or furloughing frontline employee. Airports also will receive USD10 billion from the Government. Hotels can also access loans, capped at 250% of a hotel’s monthly payroll. Loans are subject to forgiveness, meaning they don’t have to be paid back, if hoteliers re-hire employees by June 30. There are several facets in the bill that help travel advisors, but a key item was securing the eligibility of travel advisors to apply for USD 25 billion in loans, loan guarantees, and investments reserved for passenger airlines, other related aviation businesses, and “ticket agents”.

(article accessed on 6 April)43

The European Union is supporting the tourism ecosystem through liquidity support measures:

  • The Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative will allow public authorities to redirect unused amounts under the European Structural and Investment Funds to inject liquidity into the most affected businesses, including in the tourism industry. This instrument provides exceptional flexibility: 2020 allocations can be moved between funds and regions, can be used where they are needed most, irrespective of the usual requirements for thematic concentration. Co-financing can temporarily be increased to 100%.

  • The Commission unlocked EUR 1 billion as a guarantee for the European Investment Fund to issue special guarantees for available financing of up to EUR 8 billion, incentivising banks and other lenders to provide liquidity to 100 000 European SMEs and small mid-cap companies.

  • The temporary initiative SURE - Support to mitigate Unemployment Risks in an Emergency helps Member States cover the costs of national short-time work schemes through financial assistance of up to EUR 100 billion It is clear that the EU budget support cannot replace but must complement the measures taken by each of your countries.

  • The Commission recognised the need for making full use of the flexibility that exists in the Stability and Growth Pact.

On 13 May, the Commission presented a package of guidelines and recommendations to help Member States gradually lift travel restrictions and allow tourism businesses to reopen, after months of lockdown, while respecting necessary health precautions. The guidance aims to offer people the chance to get some well-needed rest, relaxation and fresh air. As soon as the health situation allows, people should be able to catch up with friends and family, in their own EU country or across borders, with all the safety and precautionary measures needed in place. The package also aims to help the EU tourism sector recover from the pandemic, by supporting businesses and ensuring that Europe continues to be the number one destination for visitors.

The Commission's Tourism and Transport package includes:

  • An overall strategy towards recovery in 2020 and beyond;

  • common approach to restoring free movement and lifting restrictions at EU internal borders in a gradual and coordinated way;

  • framework to support the gradual re-establishment of transport whilst ensuring the safety of passengers and personnel;

  • recommendation which aims to make travel vouchers an attractive alternative to cash reimbursement for consumers;

  • Criteria for restoring tourism activities safely and gradually and for developing health protocols for hospitality establishments such as hotels.

(Information last updated 13 May 2020)

This annex provides links to pages set up by International Organisations and private sector associations on the evolution of the impact of the COVID-19 on the tourism sector.

Contact

Jane Stacey (✉ jane.stacey@oecd.org)

Notes

← 1. Le tourisme international désigne les activités touristiques des personnes ayant franchi une frontière nationale à cet effet (tourisme de loisirs, tourisme d’affaires, etc.). Les estimations de l’OCDE se fondent sur les arrivées de touristes internationaux dans la zone OCDE.

← 2. Le tourisme interne désigne les activités touristiques des résidents d’un pays qui voyagent au sein de ce pays.

← 3. OCDE (2020), Tendances et politiques du tourisme de l'OCDE 2020, Éditions OCDE, Paris, https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/industry-and-services/tendances-et-politiques-du-tourisme-de-l-ocde_20769636.

← 5. OCDE (2020), OECD Tourism Trends and Policies 2020, Publication OCDE, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/6b47b985-en.

← 6. Les données complètes concernant les pays de l’OCDE sont disponibles à l’adresse suivante : http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888934076134. Les données pour le Mexique, le Portugal se rapportent à l’année 2018, celles concernant l’Espagne et l’islande à 2017.

← 7. Les chiffres pour l’Islande, l’Espagne et la Grèce se rapportent à l’année 2018, alors que ceux de l’Irlande se rapportent à 2017 et ceux su Portugal à 2016. Les données complètes pour les pays de l’OCDE sont disponibles à l’adresse suivante : http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888934076134

← 9. Déclaration des ministres du Tourisme du G20, https://g20.org/en/media/Documents/G20_Tourism%20Ministers%20Meeting_Statement_EN.pdf, 23 avril 2020

← 12. Note sectorielle de l’Organisation international du travail, COVID-19 and the tourism sector, 9 avril 2020

← 14. Webinaire STR, Europe Forecast, 2 avril 2020

← 16. Financial Times Global Economic Crisis - What Now? Global Digital Conference, 12-14 mai 2020, “What is the future of travel and tourism after COVID-19?”, 12 mai 2020

← 21. JRC-B3 Territorial Development, Barranco, R., Rainoldi A., Lavalle C., EU Regional impact on GDP from travel restrictions for non-residents, avril 2020

← 26. Visit Weston-super-Mare https://www.visit-westonsupermare.com/, 18 mai 2020

← 33. Par exemple, « WildEarth » propose deux fois par jour des safaris en direct et interactifs retransmis depuis la réserve Djuma Game Reserve en Afrique du Sud, via youtube.com (www.wildearth.tv)

← 36. OCDE (2020), COVID-19: Tourism Policies Responses, dernières mises à jour le 15 avril 2020

← 41. The term ‘Untact [sic]’ meaning “no contact” emerged out of the widespread social distancing in Korea. ‘Non-contact tourism’ refers to a new travel trend that avoids crowded places or indoor activities, but prefers outdoor attractions with plenty of space.

Disclaimer

Ce document est publié sous la responsabilité du Secrétaire général de l’OCDE. Les opinions et les arguments exprimés ici ne reflètent pas nécessairement les vues officielles des pays membres de l'OCDE.

Ce document, ainsi que les données et cartes qu’il peut comprendre, sont sans préjudice du statut de tout territoire, de la souveraineté s’exerçant sur ce dernier, du tracé des frontières et limites internationales, et du nom de tout territoire, ville ou région.

© OCDE 2020

L’utilisation de ce contenu, qu’il soit numérique ou imprimé, est régie par les conditions d’utilisation suivantes : http://www.oecd.org/fr/conditionsdutilisation.