English, PDF, 350kb
Fostering competition can be a challenge given the small size of the Icelandic economy. In a number of important sectors, such as financial services, food and telecoms, only a few firms operate.
English, PDF, 367kb
Recent structural reforms have improved Portugal’s competitiveness and long-term growth prospects. However, this generally positive message conceals significant variations between sectors and also obscures the very substantial opportunities that further reforms can bring.
English, PDF, 659kb
The September 2014 update on the BEPS Action Plan, including the delivery of the first set of measures from the BEPS Project as well as enhanced engagement with developing countries.
English, PDF, 509kb
BEPS strategies often take advantage of the interaction between the tax rules of different jurisdictions, so only an internationally co-ordinated effort can effectively respond to this issue. The BEPS Action Plan is based on three core principles: coherence, substance and transparency, and sets forth 15 actions to fundamentally change the rules for the taxation of cross-border profits.
English, , 354kb
Global current account imbalances widened markedly in the years preceding the global economic crisis.
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Governments have long been engaged in providing goods or services to their citizens that could, in some form, be provided by the private sector. The trend over the past few decades, however, has been to transfer these functions, and the state-owned assets used to provide them, to private hands. The most common method, and the one usually preferred, is privatisation, or outright sale or transfer of ownership of the relevant assets to
English, , 169kb
Cartels are agreements among competitors fixing prices, allocating markets or rigging tenders (bids). They are the most harmful of all types of competition law violations and should be sanctioned severely. Cartel cases are unique. The most important part of a cartel case is simply proving that such an agreement existed. But getting direct evidence of a cartel agreement can be difficult. Cartel operators work in secret and often do not
English, Excel, 142kb
Before a firm can compete in a market, it has to be able to enter it. Many markets have at least some impediments that make it more difficult for a firm to enter a market. A debate over how to define the term “barriers to entry” began decades ago, however, and it has yet to be won. Some scholars have argued, for example, that an obstacle is not an entry barrier if incumbent firms faced it when they entered the market. Others contend