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Settlements procedures may pursue different policy objectives in different OECD jurisdictions. Generally, they reward cooperation from the investigated parties, they create and sustain momentum in the investigation of other conspirators and they allow cartel cases to be resolved quickly. In some jurisdictions, settlements also offer “finality”, i.e. they offer companies certainty as to the outcome of the investigation and allow them
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The financial sector is vulnerable to systemic loss of trust. The current crisis resulted from failures in financial market regulation, not failure of competition. Competition and stability can co-exist in the financial sector: more competitive market structures promote stability by reducing the number of banks that are “too big to fail”. Competition helps make the financial sector efficient and ensure that rescue and stimulus
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Gasoline retailing has changed dramatically over the last 25 years. While refiners often still have extensive networks of gasoline retailers, there is also a large independent sector in many countries. A study of the effects of entry by large general retailers finds benefits to consumers. There has been a vigorous debate about whether vertical separation between gasoline stations and upstream entities should be required. It appears
These Guidelines help governments improve public procurement by fighting bid rigging. They are designed to reduce the risks of bid rigging through careful design of the procurement process and to detect bid rigging conspiracies during the procurement process.
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While there is no presumption of per se illegality of structural links between competitors, minority shareholdings and interlocking directorates can have negative effects on competition depending on the circumstances, either by reducing the individual incentives to compete or by facilitating collusion. In OECD countries, merger review rules are most frequently used to examine the competitive effects of minority shareholdings. However,
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Between 2004 and 2006, the Competition Committee held a series of four roundtables on private enforcement in competition cases. This document summarises those discussions and focuses on general principles and policies as well as a number of specific issues related to private actions for damages.
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This roundtable examined the links between competition policy and energy security, with a focus on natural gas. The discussion began by addressing the questions of the meaning and importance of energy security; and the determinants of energy security, particularly as they relate to competition policy. It continued in dealing with gas supply, transportation, and distribution, addressing five aspects that relate to different aspects
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This roundtable addressed the economics, practice, and policy of vertical merger enforcement. It explored the state of research on vertical mergers and the practical strategies, difficulties, and successes of vertical merger enforcement by competition agencies.
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Competition can improve the functioning of the retail banking sector without harming prudential regulation. Customer mobility and choice are essential to stimulate banking competition; credit ratings and easy, low-cost transaction costs for switching are crucial for promoting customer mobility.
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Regulation of the legal professions, including self-regulation, typically involves many restrictions on entry and professional conduct. Certain restrictions may be a remedy to market failures and may also be based on distributional or paternalistic motives. But other restrictions can be based on rent-seeking and achieve cartel-like effects. The major policy challenge is to identify and remove the restrictions which are unnecessary or