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Cartels are agreements among competitors fixing prices, allocating markets or rigging tenders (bids). They are the most harmful of all types of competition law violations and should be sanctioned severely. Cartel cases are unique. The most important part of a cartel case is simply proving that such an agreement existed. But getting direct evidence of a cartel agreement can be difficult. Cartel operators work in secret and often do not
English, Excel, 142kb
Before a firm can compete in a market, it has to be able to enter it. Many markets have at least some impediments that make it more difficult for a firm to enter a market. A debate over how to define the term “barriers to entry” began decades ago, however, and it has yet to be won. Some scholars have argued, for example, that an obstacle is not an entry barrier if incumbent firms faced it when they entered the market. Others contend
This working paper sugggest that much scope remains to make regulation of product markets more conducive to competition - notwithstanding progress in recent years - with substantial benefits for consumer welfare, productivity and employment.
This working paper looks at the housing market and the risks that it poses to the Irish economy.
This working paper discusses ways to strengthen competition in order to boost productivity growth and help restrain inflation in Ireland.
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This roundtable addressed how to define entry barriers, whether a precise definition is really required, how various types of barriers affect the likelihood, timing, and extent of entry, and how competition agencies assess entry conditions.
This working paper suggests that French growth can be improved by removing restrictions on competition, chiefly in service sectors.
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This 2005 report examines the progress in the ongoing fight against cartels; it focuses on enforcement action; public awareness; effective sanctions, in particular sanctions against individuals; and international cooperation in cartel cases.
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These Best Practices aim to identify safeguards that member countries should consider applying when they authorise competition authorities to exchange confidential information in cartel investigations.
This working paper assesses the potential economic benefits from structural reforms in Greece.