This paper provides a broad overview of policy goals and instruments and commonly used performance and policy indicators related to land transport.
In the 2000s, Turkey has enjoyed rapid catching–up. This was possible despite the adverse business environment, as the semi–formal and informal economy had a significant contribution to the expansion of the private sector.
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During the financial crisis many governments aided both the financial and non-financial sectors in their countries on an unprecedented scale. These emergency measures have in some cases taken precedence over competition rules. In particular the fact that governments helped some banks but not others has weakened competition in some markets, with “too big to fail” institutions commanding a higher market share than previously. This has
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This document reviews the competition policy implications of increasing penetration of renewable energy. It includes submissions from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, the European Union, France, Greece, Hungary, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Russia, Spain, the United Kingdom, the United States and business.
In his remarks to "Making Reform Happen", Angel Gurría said that "well-designed and well-implemented reforms yield a triple dividend. They lift output and employment; they strengthen public budgets and they rebalance global demand."
Indonesia’s infrastructure is in poor shape, having suffered from protracted under-investment since the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s, and constraints growth potential.
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Collusion and corruption are distinct problems within public procurement, yet they may frequently occur in tandem, and have mutually reinforcing effect. They are best viewed, therefore, as concomitant threats to the integrity of public procurement.The distinctiveness of public procurement and its context makes the process particularly vulnerable to collusion and corruption, while also increasing the magnitude of harm that these
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Collusion and corruption are distinct problems within public procurement, yet they may frequently occur in tandem, and have mutually reinforcing effect. They are best viewed, therefore, as concomitant threats to the integrity of public procurement. The distinctiveness of public procurement and its context makes the process particularly vulnerable to collusion and corruption, while also increasing the magnitude of harm that these
In this paper the recently updated product market regulation (PMR) indicators are extended beyond OECD member countries - including accession and enhanced engagement countries.
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Credit ratings provide an opinion on the relative ability and willingness of parties with debt obligations to meet financial commitments. They have three functions: to measure the credit risk of the issuer, to provide a means of comparison and to provide a common standard. The credit rating market is a natural oligopoly, with three Credit Rating Agencies (CRAs) accounting for more than 90% of the market. The recent financial crisis