Taxation is a key tool by which governments can influence energy use to contain its environmental impacts. This report provides a systematic analysis of the structure and level of energy taxes in OECD and selected other countries, including China; together, they cover 80% of global energy use.
China needs a new model of urbanisation to match the shift to a new model of growth. For decades, both urbanisation and growth have been based on robust export demand, cheap labour, cheap land and artificially low pricing of environmental externalities. None of these can support growth or urban development in the future. This review examines the major challenges associated with the shift to a new model of urbanisation, looking at a range such issues as social and labour-market policies, land use and transport planning, urban planning, urban governance and public finance. The review presents a new assessment of China’s major cities, which defines functional urban areas based on settlement patterns and commuting zones rather than cities defined as administrative units. The results show, among other things, that China has many more mega-cities, with populations above 10 million, than the official data suggest. The good news for China is that the reforms needed to foster what the authorities call “people-centred urbanisation”, while complex, are coherent with one another and supportive of the broader shift to a growth model that relies more on domestic demand and productivity growth.
China needs a new model of urbanisation to match the shift to a new model of growth. For decades, both urbanisation and growth have been based on robust export demand, cheap labour, cheap land and artificially low pricing of environmental externalities. None of these can support growth or urban development in the future.
English, PDF, 68kb
Water resources allocation determines who is able to use water resources, how, when and where. Capturing information from 27 OECD countries and key partner economies, the report presents key findings from the OECD Survey of Water Resources Allocation and case studies of successful allocation reform.
The Chinese economy has performed extremely well and is now transitioning to slower but healthier growth – the “new normal”.
English, PDF, 4,131kb
A possible policy road map for sustaining China's transition towards a more inclusive, high-productivity and knowledge-based economy - that will ultimately support a transition to high-income status - would include initiatives spanning a broad range of policy domains.
English, PDF, 4,149kb
Rapid growth has changed the face of China, lifting hundreds of millions of people out of poverty, facilitating unprecedented urbanisation and raising living standards. Yet a number of challenges need to be addressed to sustain strong, increasingly inclusive growth, so that benefits of rising prosperity can be shared evenly. This report provides evidence-based analysis, shares international best practices and identifies policy options.
English, PDF, 94kb
This country note from Going for Growth 2015 for China identifies and assesses progress made on key reforms to boost long-term growth, improve competitiveness and productivity and create jobs.
English, PDF, 183kb
Many policy initiatives have been implemented in China, in recognition of the key role quality plays in strengthening health care systems.
English, PDF, 156kb
During the global economic crisis, China’s unemployment rate (in urban areas) remained almost unchanged despite the slowdown in the real economy. The unemployment rate peaked at 4.3% in 2009, only 0.3 percentage points above the pre-crisis level, while the real GDP growth rate fell from 14.2% in 2007 to 9.2% in 2009.