A moderate recovery is underway in the major advanced economies, according to the OECD’s latest Interim Economic Assessment. Growth is proceeding at encouraging rates in North America, Japan and the UK. The euro area as a whole is out of recession, although output remains weak in a number of countries.
China’s exceptional economic expansion has led to rising energy demand and pollution as well as other environmental pressures. Strong efforts by the government have moderated emissions of some types of air and water pollution from high levels but others, including greenhouse gas emissions, continue to rise. Poor air and water quality threaten human health, create other costs and reduce well-being.
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China’s new leadership has signalled that it is time to step up the pace of reform, building on the remarkable economic and social achievements to date while recognising the pressing need for deep structural changes. Indeed, far-reaching reforms are necessary for continuing to raise living standards and well-being, even as China is poised to become the world’s largest economy by around 2016.
The main features of China’s current sub-national finance arrangements date back to the 1994 tax reform. China has a multi-level government structure that shares national tax revenues through a system of tax sharing and transfers, and divides spending assignments and responsibilities.
This paper explores the productivity impact of trade, product market and financial market policies over the last decade in China – a fast growing country where, despite significant reform action, regulatory stance remains still far from OECD standards.
The single most important challenge China is facing is that of the shift from export-led growth to an economic and growth model driven by domestic consumption and a better quality of life for its citizens, according to OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría.
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如今，中国成为全球第二大经济体，它的需求对于拉动诸多国家的复苏而言发挥着举足轻重的作用。本文借鉴了OECD 几个星期前刚刚发布的中国经济全面评估报告，希望对中国发展高层论坛2010 年会“中国和世界经济：增长·调整·合作”有所贡献。中国的经济增长在不断刷新历史记 录，本文不仅着重探讨了这种增长表现得最为突出的特点，而且指出了中国希望维持快速增长时应该解决的问题。
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The world’s second-largest economy is helping drive the global recovery. But to sustain high growth and social cohesion, China needs to continue rebalancing its economy by boosting public spending on human capital and social services, and further reforming pensions and health care.
In a speech given in Beijing, Angel Gurría recommended that China boost public spending on social infrastructure, including education, health, pensions and social assistance, in order to reduce inequalities, and suggested a more flexible exchange rate regime to avoid looming inflationary pressures.