Assessment of chemicals

Introduction to Emission Scenario Documents

 

What is an Emission Scenario Document?

Emission Scenario Documents (ESDs) describe the sources, production processes, pathways and use patterns. ESDs aim to quantify the emissions of a chemical into water, air, soil and/or solid waste. An ideal ESD should include the following stages:

  • (1) production
  • (2) formulation
  • (3) industrial use
  • (4) professional use,
  • (5) private and consumer use
  • (6) service life of product/article
  • (7) recovery, and
  • (8) waste disposal (incineration, landfill)


ESDs are used in risk assessments of chemicals to establish the conditions on use and releases of the chemicals. These are the basis for estimating the concentration of chemicals in the environment.

ESDs have been widely used in national and regional contexts. For example, European Chemicals Agency (ECHA)’s guidance document on environmental exposure estimation refers to existing ESDs developed by both OECD and the European Commission. Other OECD member countries have developed their own ESDs and the USEPA has developed a number of generic scenarios to be used as default release scenarios in risk assessment.

The OECD Working Party on Exposure Assessment therefore develops ESDs in order to reflect conditions on production, use etc. that are different between countries, and so avoiding duplicative efforts by Member countries and industry.

How is an OECD ESD developed?

A project proposal specifying the industry categories and/or use categories from member countries is first submitted. Once approved by the Working Party on Exposure Assessment, the lead country drafts the document, which is then circulated to members of the Working Party for their comments. Taking the comments into account, the drafts are amended and published by the OECD.
 
Comments on published ESDs

Users are encouraged to provide comments and new or updated information regarding estimation of chemical emissions outlined in OECD Series on ESDs to the Secretariat. The OECD Working Party on Exposure Assessment reviews the comments received and considers the revision of ESDs.

Following comments/additional information have been received: Canadian scenarios on wool mills, women mills, carpet mills, and knit mills (2014)

ESDs under preparation

The following ESDs are currently being developed or updated (as of September 2017):

  • Plastic additives during the use of end products
  • Smelting and disposal of metals used in electrical and electronic products
  • Chemical additives used in automotive lubricants
  • Use of vapor degreasers
  • Use of fluorocarbon substitutes
  • Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF)
  • Chemicals in fabric finishing
  • Chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing
  • Compounding of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in plastics

 

Categories used in the OECD ESDs

The industry categories and/or use categories shown below have been applied for the development OECD ESDs:

Industry categories

  • 1 Agricultural industry
  • 2 Chemical industry (basic chemicals)
  • 3 Chemical industry (chemicals used in synthesis)
  • 4 Electrical/electronic industry
  • 5 Personal/ Domestic
  • 6 Public domain
  • 7 Leather processing industry
  • 8 Metal extraction, refining and processing industry
  • 9 Mineral oil and fuel industry
  • 10 Photographic industry
  • 11 Polymers industry
  • 12 Pulp Paper and board industry
  • 13 Textile processing industry (e.g. Dyestuffs, flame retardants)
  • 14 Paints, lacquers and varnishes industry
  • 16 Engineering industry: civil and mechanical
  •  0 Others

 

 Use Categories

  • 1 Absorbents and Adsorbents
  • 2 Adhesive, binding agents
  • 3 Aerosol propellants
  • 4 Anti-condensation agents
  • 5 Anti-freezing agents
  • 6 Anti-set-off and anti-adhesive agents
  • 7 Anti-static agents
  • 8 Bleaching agents
  • 9 Cleaning/washing agents and disinfectants
  • 10 Colouring agents
  • 11 Complexing agents
  • 12 Conductive agents
  • 13 Construction materials additives
  • 14 Corrosion inhibitors
  • 15 Cosmetics
  • 16 Dust binding agents
  • 17 Electroplating agents
  • 18 Explosives
  • 19 Fertilisers
  • 20 Fillers
  • 21 Fixing agents
  • 22 Flame retardants and fire preventing agents
  • 23 Flotations agents
  • 24 Flux agents for casting
  • 25 Foaming agents
  • 26 Food/foodstuff additives
  • 27 Fuel
  • 28 Fuel additives
  • 29 Heat transferring agents
  • 30 Hydraulic fluids and additives
  • 31 Impregnation agents
  • 32 Insulating materials
  • 33 Intermediates
  • 34 Laboratory chemicals
  • 35 Lubricants and additives
  • 36 Non-agricultural pesticides
  • 37 Odour agents
  • 38 Oxidising agents
  • 39 pH-regulating agents
  • 40 Pesticides
  • 41 Pharmaceuticals
  • 42 Photochemicals
  • 43 Process regulators
  • 44 Reducing agents
  • 45 Reprographic agents
  • 46 Semiconductors
  • 47 Softerners
  • 48 Solvents
  • 49 stabilisers
  • 50 Surface-active agents
  • 51 Tanning agents
  • 52 Viscosity adjusters
  • 53 Vulcanising agents
  • 54 Welding and soldering agents
  • 0 Others

 

Further READING

 

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