Norway listed several long-chain PFASs on its national list of priority substances starting in 2003, based on monitoring data that showed high levels of these substances in the environment as well as their toxicological profiles. Norway’s approach to risk reduction has primarily been a combination of information dissemination and regulatory measures, administered by the Norwegian Environment Agency under the Ministry of Climate and Environment.
Regulatory measures on PFASs have been developed in communication with industry. All regulatory measures must be supported by risk assessments and cost-benefit analysis, which consider the availability of alternatives.
|RISK REDUCTION APPROACHES FOR PFASs|
|Action||Path taken||BEPs Implemented||Category of PFASss addressed||Articles covered?||Life cycle stage(s) addressed||Method of approach||Public- private partnership encouraged?||Level of constraint|
Monitoring and screening of PFASs in the environment
Link to Lakes in Norway 2013
|Continuous monitoring||Not relevant||Varies from year to year||No relevant||Discharges from all life cycles are addressed||Analysis||No||None|
Discharge permits for waste treatment plants (WTP)
|WTP must apply for permission to discharge selected PFASs||Under development||Primarily PFOS, PFOA, C9-C14 PFCA||Not relevant||End of life- stage||Regulatory||No||WTP must screen and report levels of PFASs in their discharges, and must apply for permission for discharges|
Monitoring and clean-up of PFAS polluted soil at airport fire drill
|Airports must monitor levels of PFAS at their fire drill sites and propose measures to reduce pollution||Under development||PFOS and other relevant PFASs from AFFF||No||End use||Regulatory||No||Airports must screen and report levels of PFASs in their soil, and must propose measures to reduce pollution|
|Follow-up of the PFOS regulation under the Stockholm Convention, with an aim to minimise exemptions||Continuous assessment of the necessity of exemptions from the PFOS ban in the Stockholm Convention||Guidelines implemented for acceptable purpose applications under the Stockholm Convention||PFOS and PFOS related substances||Yes||All||Regulatory||No||Fewer exemptions|
|Ban on manufacture, production, import and retail of consumer products containing PFOA (as of June 2014)||Ban||Not relevant||PFOA and some closely related substances||Yes||All, except waste||Regulatory||No||Ban|
Analysis of PFAS in products
Link to PFASs in fire fighting foam
Link to footnote 34
Link to footnote 35
|Compliance and monitoring||Minimisation of PFASs used||Compounds subject to national regulation and other PFAS||Yes||Use in products||Enforcement, monitoring||No||Enforcement|
|Listing of PFOS, PFOA and C9-C14 perfluorinated carboxylic acids on the national priority list||Political target to reduce the use and emissions of compounds ofn the priority list||Minimisation of PFASs used||PFOS, PFOA and C9-C14
perfluorinated carboxylic acids
|Yes||All, including waste||Policy||No||Political|
Regulatory measures include monitoring and clean-up of PFAS polluted soil at airport fire drill sites, waste treatment plant (WTP) discharge permits for select PFASs, analysis of PFAS in consumer products, and a national ban on the manufacture, production, import, and placing on the market of consumer products containing PFOA. To measure benefits associated with implementation, Norway performs a yearly analysis of the discharge, use, and levels found in the environment of its national priority substances.
Levels of PFASs are measured in consumer products as part of compliance checks of the Norwegian ban on those substances. However, as the ban relates to many different product groups with manufacturers all over the world, information collection and compliance checks have been challenging for Norway.
In terms of successes to date, levels of PFASs have generally shown a decreasing trend in environment and humans. However, a large proportion of the PFAS pollution in Norway is likely caused by long-range transport and it is therefore difficult to establish which specific actions are responsible for the decline. The Norwegian ban of PFOA in consumer products has prompted manufacturers to speed up the process of phasing out PFOA.