Canada has implemented a combination of regulatory and voluntary actions to reduce the risk of certain long-chain PFASs. In 2006, Canada launched their “Action Plan for the Assessment and Management of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids and their Precursors”. For their regulatory approaches, Canada has prohibited the manufacture, use, sale, offer for sale, and import of four fluorotelomer-based substances and PFOS with some exemptions.
Canada has published proposed regulations that would prohibit the manufacture, use, sale, offer for sale and import of PFOA and long-chain PFCAs with some exemptions. In addition, Canada has issued prohibitions on any new long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) precursors that are notified under the New Substances Notification Regulations. The regulations are a result of efforts by Environment Canada and Health Canada. Both departments also play an integral role in the country’s current voluntary program which seeks to reduce residual PFCA through annual industry reporting on progress made towards eliminating residual PFOA, C9-C20 PFCAs, and precursors in products sold in Canada.
|RISK REDUCTION APPROACHES FOR PFASs|
|Action||Path taken||BEPs Implemented||Category of PFASss addressed||Articles covered?||Life cycle stage(s) addressed||Method of approach||Public- private partnership encouraged?||Level of constraint|
Four fluorotelomer-based substances added to the Prohibition of Certin Toxic Substances Regulations
Link to Amendment
|Prohibit the manufacture, use, sale, offer for sale and import||Minimisation of use of precursors||fluorotelomer- based substances||No||Manufacture, use, sale, and import||Regulatory||No||Full prohibition (excluding manufactured items)|
Ministerial prohibitions on any new long-chain PFCA precursor that are notified under the New Substances
Notification Regulations, as appropriate and consistent with existing restrictions
Link to regulations
|Prohibit the manufacture, use, sale, offer for sale and import||Minimisation of use of precursors||Long-chain PFCA precursors||No||Manufacture, use, sale, and import||Regulatory||No||Full prohibition (excluding manufactured items)|
Environmental Performance Agreement reached to encourage action from industry to significantly reduce residuals from perfluorinated products sold in Canada
Link to agreement
|Manage manufacture and import||Minimisation of residual PFOA, C9- C20 PFCAs and precusors in perfluorinated products sold in Canada||PFOA, C9- C20 PFCAs, and precursors||No||Product manufacture and import||Voluntary||Yes||Signed agreement requires annual reporting of progress|
Proposed Regulations Amending the Prohibition of Certin Substances Regulations
Link to the proposed regulations
|Prohibit the manufacture, use, sale, and import||Minimisation of PFASs used||PFOA, C9- C20 PFCAs, their salts and their precursors (exclude aqueous film forming foam for fire-fighting applications, and manufactured items)||No||Chemical and product manufacture, use, sale and import||Regulatory||No||Full prohibition (excluding manufactured items)|
Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and its Salts and Certain Other Compounds Regulations
Link to regulations
|Prohibit the manufacture, use, sale, and import||Minimisation of use||PFOS its salts and its precursors||Yes||Chemical and product manufacture, use, sale and import||Regulatory||No||Prohibition with exemptions|
In 2010, Environment Canada, Health Canada and four companies (Arkema Canada Inc., Asahi Glass Company Ltd., Clariant Canada Inc., and E.I. DuPont Canada Company) signed an Environmental Performance Agreement that is in effect until 31 December 2015. This agreement is a key component of a comprehensive risk management strategy for PFCAs. In regards to the measured benefits, signatories of Canada’s voluntary program have reported reductions in the content of PFOA, C9-C20 PFCAs, their salts, and precursors.
The reductions that have been reported from baseline years range from 66% to 100%. A success of the risk reduction voluntary approach is that the signatories have stated they expect to reach full elimination of these chemicals by the end of 2015. Another benefit of the voluntary approach was its ability to allow Canada to address one of its key challenges in developing and implementing risk reduction approaches – the availability of scientific data. Specifically, the Government of Canada took a tiered approach of using early voluntary risk management actions while additional risk assessment analysis was undertaken to support the development of additional regulatory risk management action.
In 2006, Canada initiated monitoring of PFOA, PFCAs, PFOS, their salts and their precursors in several media including air, water, sediment, aquatic and terrestrial biota, wastewater and biosolids. In addition, Canada has also undertaken biomonitoring of these substances as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. These results provide an important piece of information to be used by the Government of Canada in evaluating their risk reduction approaches for these substances.