By Date


  • 26-September-2014

    English

    Test No. 475: Mammalian Bone Marrow Chromosomal Aberration Test

    The mammalian in vivo chromosome aberration test is used for the detection of structural chromosome aberrations induced by test compounds in bone marrow cells of animals, usually rodents (rats, mice and Chinese hamsters). Structural chromosome aberrations may be of two types: chromosome or chromatid.

    Animals are exposed to the test substance (liquid or solid) by an appropriate route of exposure (usually by gavage using a stomach tube or a suitable intubation cannula, or by intraperitoneal injection) and are sacrificed at appropriate times after treatment. Prior to sacrifice, animals are treated with a metaphase-arresting agent. Chromosome preparations are then made from the bone marrow cells and stained, and metaphase cells are analysed for chromosome aberrations. Each treated and control group must include at least 5 analysable animals per sex. The limit dose is 2000 mg/kg/body weight/day for treatment up to 14 days, and 1000 mg/kg/body weight/day for treatment longer than 14 days.

  • 26-September-2014

    English

    Test No. 487: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Micronucleus Test

    The in vitro micronucleus test is a genotoxicity test for the detection of micronuclei in the cytoplasm of interphase cells. Micronuclei may originate from acentric chromosome fragments (i.e. lacking a centromere), or whole chromosomes that are unable to migrate to the poles during the anaphase stage of cell division. The assay detects the activity of clastogenic and aneugenic test substances in cells that have undergone cell division during or after exposure to the test substance. This Test Guideline allows the use of protocols with and without the actin polymerisation inhibitor cytochalasin B. Cytochalasin B allows for the identification and selective analysis of micronucleus frequency in cells that have completed one mitosis, because such cells are binucleate. This Test Guideline also allows the use of protocols without cytokinesis block provided there is evidence that the cell population analysed has undergone mitosis.

  • 26-September-2014

    English

    Test No. 310: Ready Biodegradability - CO2 in sealed vessels (Headspace Test)

    This Test Guideline is a screening method for the evaluation of ready biodegradability of chemicals.

    The test substance, normally at 20 mg C/L, as the sole source of carbon and energy, is incubated (during 28 days normally) in sealed bottles with aerobic condition containing a buffer-mineral salts medium, which has been inoculated with a mixed population of micro-organisms. In order to check the test procedure, a reference substance (aniline, sodium benzoate or ethylene glycol and 1-octanol) of known biodegradability should be tested in parallel. It is recommended that triplicate bottles be analysed after a sufficient number of time intervals. Also at least five test bottles (from test vessels, blank controls, and vessels with the reference substance) are analysed at the end of the test, to enable 95% confidence intervals to be calculated for the mean percentage biodegradation value. The CO2 evolution resulting from the ultimate aerobic biodegradation of the test substance is determined by measuring the Inorganic Carbon (IC) produced in the test bottles in excess of that produced in blank vessels containing inoculated medium only. The extent of biodegradation is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical maximum IC production (ThIC), based on the quantity of test substance added initially. Biodegradation >60% ThIC within the 10-d window in this test demonstrates that the test substance is readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions.

  • 26-September-2014

    English

    OECD Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology

    This advisory document provides guidance on how pathology peer reviews should be planned, conducted and reported within the context of OECD Good Laboratory Practice.

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  • 25-September-2014

    English

    OECD launches its knowledge base on Adverse Outcome Pathways

    The OECD is pleased to announce, together with the U.S Environmental Protection Agency and the European Commission Joint Research Centre, the Adverse Outcome Pathway Knowledge Base (AOP KB). This is a web-based platform which aims to bring together all the knowledge on how chemicals can induce adverse effects, therefore providing a focal point for AOP development and dissemination.

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  • 15-September-2014

    English

    Report on OECD Workshop on Children’s exposure to chemicals

    This document presents the results of the workshop on children’s exposure to chemicals on 7-8 October 2013 in Utrecht, the Netherlands. The main outcomes are 1) a decision tree to enable risk assessors to decide when they should perform children specific exposure and risk assessment, and 2) recommendations for further work on specific exposure assessment issues.

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  • 3-September-2014

    English

    OECD Guidance on Pesticide Compliance and Enforcement Best Practices

    This Best Practices Guidance addresses compliance and enforcement issues as they relate to pesticides and associated health and environmental risks. The objective of this document is to provide guidance for promoting and monitoring compliance and for assessing and mitigating risks of non-compliance. It is targeted primarily at pesticide regulators, but may also interest policy makers as well as regulated parties (i.e. pesticide industry). This document addresses the following areas of the pesticide life-cycle: manufacturing and product integrity; distribution (including transportation and sale); product use; product storage; and container recycling and disposal.

  • 3-September-2014

    English

    The Guidance Document for Using the OECD (Q)SAR Application Toolbox to Develop Chemical Categories According to the OECD Guidance on Grouping Chemicals

    This document provides guidance on how to use the OECD (Q)SAR Application Toolbox to build chemical categories according to the OECD Guidance on Grouping of Chemicals. It is part of an overall effort to provide guidance on the use of the (Q)SAR Application Toolbox.
     

  • 3-September-2014

    English

    Detailed Review Paper on the State of the Science on Novel In Vitro and In Vivo Screening and Testing Methods and Endpoints for Evaluating Endocrine Disruptors

    This document describes some endocrine pathways that have been shown to be susceptible to environmental endocrine disruption and whose disruption could contribute to increasing incidents of some disorders in humans and wildlife populations, such as obesity/diabetes/metabolic syndrome, reproductive dysfunction, and neuro-developmental abnormalities. Assays and endpoints are described that could be used in new or existing OECD Test Guidelines for evaluating chemicals for endocrine-disrupting activity. Endocrine pathways evaluated are the hypothalamus:pituitary:adrenocortical (HPA) axis, the hypothalamus:pituitary:gonad (HPG) axis, the somatotropic axis, the retinoid signaling pathway, the hypothalamus:pituitary:thyroid (HPT) axis, the vitamin D signaling pathway, and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway.

  • 3-September-2014

    English

    Report of the OECD workshop on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) - Strategies for the adoption and Implementation of IPM in Agriculture Contributing to the Sustainable Use of Pesticides and to Pesticide Risk Reduction

    This document is the report of the “OECD Workshop on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) -
    Strategies for the adoption and implementation of IPM in agriculture contributing to the sustainable use of
    pesticides and to pesticide risk reduction”, that took place on 16 19 October 2011, in Berlin, Germany, and
    was chaired by Dr. Wolfgang Zornbach of the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and
    Consumer Protection.

    The developed detailed recommendations for promoting and facilitating the adoption and implementation of IPM strategies and for encouraging appropriate stakeholders to use IPM tools and measures. The workshop was planned in the framework of the “OECD Strategic Approach in Pesticide Risk Reduction”. It addressed the following four main issues: technology and Information, economics and market access, policies and strategies and measurements and impact.  This report includes the outcomes of the workshop discussions, as well as the overall workshop conclusions (Section 4) and recommendations (Section 5) targeted at governments, all stakeholders and OECD.
     

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