This book examines the concept of the compact city and the implication of the current urban context for compact city policies. It explores their potential outcomes, particularly in terms of how it can contribute to Green Growth and looks at developing indicators to monitor compact city and track policy performance. It reviews compact city policies currently being implemented across the OECD in relation to the pursuit of Green Growth objectives and provides ideas to achieve better outcomes. And it assesses the key governance challenges faced by decision-makers as they seek to implement practical compact city strategies. This report is thus intended as “food for thought” for national, sub-national and municipal governments as they seek to address their economic and environmental challenges through the development and implementation of spatial strategies in pursuit of Green Growth objectives. It also illustrates best practices (which present key elements of successful compact city policies) based on empirical evidence that can be shared across OECD member countries.
|Foreword and Acknowledgements|
|Acronyms and abbreviations|
|The compact city concept in today's urban contexts|
|How can compact city policies contribute to urban sustainability and green growth?|
|Measuring the performance of a compact city|
|Current compact city practices in OECD countries|
|Key compact city policy strategies|
|Key compact city governance strategies|
|Compact city policies|
key policy issues
Compact cities lessen the impact on the environment, with shorter intra-urban distances and less automobile dependency. They play a part in the economy by increasing the efficiency of infrastructure investment and by giving residents easier access to services, jobs, and social networking.
Two types of indicators are used to measure compact city policy outcomes: those that represent "compactness" (density, proximity, public transport systems and accessibility to local services and jobs), and those that measure a compact city's performance in relation to other cities.
This report examines differences in policy practice in five case study areas, and underscores the need for tailoring policies to specific needs. For example, fast-growing regions where there is pressure for development, regulatory tools are important to prevent uncontrolled urban expansion.
Recommendations for compact city policy strategies: set explicit compact city goals; encourage dense and contiguous development at urban fringes; retrofit existing built-up areas; enhance diversity and quality of life in urban centres; minimise adverse negative effects.