Building Local Inclusive Growth and Jobs
The LEED Programme of Work will unfold in 2013-14 on the theme of “Building Local Inclusive Growth and Jobs”.
It will build on the strengths and methods developed during the 2011-12 Programme of Work, contribute to the OECD strategic objectives and achieve LEED’s mandate to nurture the creation of more and better quality jobs.
Local job creation: How labour market policies can help: This cross-country comparative project involving country reviews examines how labour market policy and skills development activities can best support good quality job creation locally. The work reviews the co-ordination and synergies between employment, skills and economic development policies as well as their adaption to new contexts and opportunities. It examines the ability of employment services and training providers to contribute to a long-term strategy which can yield returns in terms of resilience of the local economy, skills levels and job quality. Read more
Injecting local flexibility in education and training systems: The OECD Skills Strategy has identified that building greater flexibility into national skills strategies helps to integrate human-resource and economic development policies and improves partnerships between industry and education at the local level. Previous OECD research has shown that flexibility in managing policies stimulates policy co-ordination among the various levels of governments. The Secretariat will analyse the ability of national governments and social partners to inject local flexibility into education and vocational training systems, while retaining accountability and achieving national policy goals. Read more
Skills for greener jobs: A transition to a low carbon economy is only possible by developing the skills, knowledge and competences required by resource-efficient, sustainable processes and technologies; and integrating these into our businesses and communities. Different green skills, the right mixture of transversal and specific, are needed by different industry clusters. While a significant body of knowledge has been developed on the transversal skills, less is known about the industry-specific skills needed to speed up transition to a low-carbon economy. Early identification of those is likely to play a significant role in the seizing of sustainable development locally. The work will identify successful cases of green industries in particular local areas and examine the specific skills needed to support green growth and how policies and practices for greening jobs can be accelerated in different industry sectors. Read more
Building statistical evidence to understand local labour market differentiation and support more effective policies: Adapting employment and skills policies to local needs requires a robust evidence base at the local level. However many official indicators are too aggregated to provide satisfactory evidence. As part of the 2011-12 programme of work, data was collected on the skills supply and demand at the level of local labour markets, integrated in the OECD Skills Strategy, and is accessible on the Skills.oecd website. This new project will enrich this data base with further evidence on local labour markets and identify new ways of presenting data collected in various LEED projects. In addition it will analyse more broadly the strengths and weaknesses in terms of data disaggregation in participating countries, while assessing how the evidence base can better drive differentiation in policy implementation in different local labour markets. A series of benchmarks on the local development capacity of countries will be developed, based on cross-country comparative projects. Read more
Tackling disadvantage at a time of limited resources: Tackling labour market disadvantage (e.g. youth/NEETs, long-term unemployed, immigrants, 2nd - 3rd generations, ethnic minorities/aboriginals) is a challenging task even during periods of economic growth. In downturns and periods of austerity, greater innovation is required in the use of policy levers and more attention needs to be devoted to local governance mechanisms which increase efficiency in the use of scarce public resources. This project will investigate state-of-the-art approaches to tackling disadvantage through multi-stakeholder and multi-level governance approaches, and innovative financing mechanisms, building on the 2011-12 project on tackling long-term unemployment amongst vulnerable groups. It will collect data on variation in the labour market disadvantage of certain groups across local labour markets. Read more
Delivering smarter local economic development: The way in which economic development efforts are designed and implemented has a significant impact on policy and strategy outcomes. In the face of fiscal consolidation it is essential now to adapt and re-align local economies to external changes in markets, technologies, and framework conditions. This requires longer term thinking and strategic planning by localities in concert with citizens, stakeholders, and national governments, to better use market investments, public sector restructuring, macro-economic reforms, and catalysts for local development to achieve growth. The implementation of local economic development will require a focus on smart institution building, investment tools and mechanisms, and alliances amongst non-governmental actors as local leaders seek to restructure, revalidate, or re-engineer local assets and platforms. Read more
Ageing labour markets and local economic strategies: Demographic changes and the pressing consequences of the ageing society on how we live and work require long-term strategies that take into account the combination of global processes and local configurations. Transitions in the labour market demand new practices and flexible arrangements for businesses and institutions to maintain an older workforce motivated and productive. Training and skills development models, recruitment practices, work culture and incentives for attracting talent may need to be revisited. New elements may play a useful role in integrated strategies to maintain industrial competitiveness and innovation, such as skills ecosystems and knowledge intensive activities for skilling-up an ageing workforce, particularly in SMEs. The work will identify the policy levers and instruments that can be helpful in the design of strategies to accompany transition to older local labour markets, and identify how national policy frameworks can best support these transformations. Read more
Boosting local entrepreneurship and enterprise creation / Boosting social entrepreneurship and social enterprise creation: This cross-country comparative project involving country reviews examines entrepreneurship (including social entrepreneurship), SMEs and local development in participating countries. The aim is to examine how policies can better promote the creation and growth of new and small enterprises at the local level, addressing issues of equity as well as growth. Case studies could focus on the specific issue of support for entrepreneurship skills development and promotion in universities and vocational training colleges. The reviews on Boosting social entrepreneurship and social enterprise creation provide policy recommendations on the enabling environment for social enterprises to flourish. The reviews examine vital aspects of social entrepreneurship: skills, access to finance and markets, support tool and legal and administrative frameworks. They identify good practice at both national and sub-national levels. Cross-country comparative lessons will be drawn from the reviews undertaken since 2011. Read more
Nurturing inclusive entrepreneurship: This joint project with the European Commission will monitor and report on the social and employment aspects of entrepreneurial activity and related public policies, including self-employment and entrepreneurship by economically and socially disadvantaged groups. It will develop an evidence base on the state, development and impact of self-employment and entrepreneurship by under-represented and disadvantaged groups and provide information on policy actions undertaken at local level to promote job creation and social cohesion through entrepreneurship. The work will include examination of relevant entrepreneurship policy measures such as financing and mentoring and of entrepreneurship by relevant social groups such as women, ethnic minorities and the unemployed. Read more
Accelerating local growth: Governments and economic development agencies provide a wide range of support structures aimed at promoting enterprise development in both new and existing enterprises, with a particular focus on supporting innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship. These local business development centres operate under a wide range of names such as one-stop shops, incubators, accelerators and growth houses. They offer services such as enterprise diagnostics, advice, counselling, incubation space and direct or indirect access to finance, training and innovation support. Guidance on the design features of such centres will be provided, including how they identify and select firms and entrepreneurs, the support and incentives offered, their methods of financing and operation and the impacts they have. Read more
Capacity development for policy makers:The OECD LEED Trento Centre for Local Development develops the capacities of policy makers in the various areas of LEED expertise. Taking an integrated approach in the design, implementation and evaluation of local economic and employment development strategies and policies requires high skills and abilities. Capacity building sessions and a local development capacity assessment exercise targets policy makers and practitioners in member and non-member countries, with a focus on Key Partner countries and other emerging economies. A particular focus will be made on capacities to build local economic intelligence as a prerequisite to sound integrated local development in 2013-14. The activities of the Centre contribute to the OECD Strategy on Development. Read more
Dialogue with and exchange among practitioners: A joint project with the European Commission, the OECD LEED Forum on Partnerships and Local Governance facilitates the exchange of experiences between the LEED Directing Committee, the broader policy-making community and practitioners worldwide. It aims to enhance dissemination of the results of LEED work, improve its relevance through feedback from stakeholders involved in policy implementation, and identify innovative practices emerging from the ground. The Forum organises capacity building seminars (with the involvement of the Trento Centre) and an annual meeting; issues country fact-sheets on partnership models, handbooks and pedagogical materials on partnership working issues; collects and disseminates relevant reports through a dedicated website and information database. Read more
Sharing policy experience with world regions. The initiative on Employment and Skills Strategies in Southeast Asia (ESSSA) facilitates the exchange of experiences on employment and skills development between OECD and Southeast Asian countries, identifies innovative policies and practices in the region and generates guidance and recommendations. Analytical reports are produced on emerging policy issues, expert meetings are organised and networking is supported through a dedicated website. The initiative is jointly led with ILO (International Labour Organisation) in collaboration with ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) and contributes to the OECD Southeast Asia Programme. (Fully funded by voluntary contributions). Read more