Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED Programme)

Local Economic and Employment Development Policy Approaches in OECD Countries, A Review



What policy initiatives and broader development strategies could inspire policymaking in Wales and other similar old industrial regions?

Completed by the OECD LEED Programme in collaboration with the Welsh Assembly Government (WAG), this review identified and analysed two main aspects:

  • Innovative and/or successful single policy tools that could potentially be applied in Wales.
  • Broader economic strategies and their delivery arrangements that could inspire the overall economic development approach of Wales.


Considering the wide selection of information available in the literature on the Welsh socio-economic conditions and main challenges, the review did not focus on the Welsh economy but examined initiatives that could inspire Wales from other OECD regions with the regard to increased business productivity and enhanced labour market participation. 

The outcome of the review was four reports (click report headings to download pdf):

Report I: Executive Summary and Synthesis of findings (pdf)

A synopsis of the complete review including an Executive Summary and the main findings.

Report II: Policy audits (pdf)

Twenty policy audits are presented which investigate in detail many single policy interventions in OECD countries.

Labour Market Participation 

“Perspective 50plus” initiative (Germany)

“Lets Get Moving” Initiative (United Kingdom)

Microenterprise Welfare to Work Program (USA)


Skills Development

Training Cheque in North-rhine westphalia (Germany)

The Dexter Institute  (Canada)

The Jane Addams Resource Corporation’s Manufacturing Skills Program (USA)

The INOV Contacto Internship Programme (Portugal)


Economic and Physical Regeneration

North of Massachusetts Avenue (NomA) Initiative  (USA)

Kansenzones Rotterdam Initiative  (The Netherlands)

Downtown Oshawa Regeneration Project (Canada)


Business Productivity Improvement

Appalachian Regional Commission Entrepreneurship Initiative (USA)

‘No Wrong Door’ Model (USA)

Västra Götaland Regional Growth Agreement (Sweden)

Hothouse Business Incubator (Ireland)

NITEC Initiative – Supporting R&D Units in SMEs  (Portugal)


Knowledge Transfers

Kplus Competence Centres (Austria)

University Filial Centres (Finland)

Innovation Voucher Schemes  (The Netherlands, west midlands UK, Ireland)


Sector Development

FATEC Initiative – Advanced Footwear Technologies (Portugal)

Hokkaido New Industrial Cluster Policy (Japan)

Report III: Policy transferability to Wales (pdf)

An analysis on the transferability of the 20 policy interventions (from Report II) to the Welsh context by two papers.

Labour market participation and regeneration policy transferability to Wales

Business productivity policy transferability to Wales

Report IV: Case studies of economic development approaches (pdf)

An investigation of five full-fledged local development strategies, including their rationale and delivery arrangements. 

Pennsylvania, USA

Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

Styria, Austria

Tuscany, Italy

Basque Country, Spain


For further information, please contact the authors.


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