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This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for Canada. It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates.
This report looks at a range of local employment and economic development issues in Saskatchewan and the Yukon, Canada, with a focus on indigenous peoples. The report provides a comparative framework to understand the role of the local level in contributing to more and better quality jobs, and practical recommendations to help federal, provincial/territorial, and local policy makers in Canada build effective and sustainable partnerships that join-up efforts across employment, training, and economic development policies. Co-ordinated policies can help workers find suitable jobs, while also stimulating entrepreneurship and productivity, which increases the quality of life and prosperity within a community as well as throughout the country.
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This OECD report was developed in collaboration with the United States, Mexico and Canada, for consideration by the three Leaders in the context of the 2016 North American Leaders Summit.
Canadians enjoy a high level of well-being. On all eleven components of the OECD’s Better Life Index, Canada performs better than the OECD average. The economy and labour markets stood up better than those of most OECD countries to the ravages of the global financial crisis. Still, there are some areas where the country can do even better. Canada needs to improve its productivity performance, building on the recent increased growth in labour productivity to narrow the gap with top-performing OECD countries in terms of the level of productivity. The productivity gap with the United States is particularly large for small and medium-sized enterprises. Productivity growth could also be more inclusive. People from socially disadvantaged backgrounds and Indigenous communities currently do not participate to the extent that they should in the country’s strong economic performance. Finally, Canada needs to make growth greener, in order to contribute its fair share to the global fight against climate change.
Local housing markets are presently highly disparate in Canada. While in most smaller localities real estate prices are fairly stable and not out of line with the fundamentals (incomes and rents), 10 of the 15 large Census Metropolitan Areas monitored by the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) show signs of overvaluation, and seven show moderate or strong evidence of overbuilding.
The Canadian economy is adjusting to the fall in the terms of trade. The main challenges are to reduce financial stability risks, boost productivity growth and make growth greener and more inclusive.
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To become a doctor in Canada, a student can therefore expect 9 to 13 years of university education and post-graduate training, depending on the area of specialisation.
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In Canada, there are three main categories for nurses: Licenced Practice Nurses (LPNs), Registered Nurses (RNs) and Registered Psychiatric Nurses (RPNs). In addition, registered nurses can pursue further education to become Clinical Nurse Specialists and/or Nurse Practitioners.
Canada has continued to harvest its vast natural resources and witnessed a shale revolution alongside rising oil sands production and investment in the energy sector over the past five years. The medium-term outlook for gas/oil production and exports, however, is challenging amid uncertainties around pipeline developments and an era of low prices, abundant global supplies and surging production in the United States, Canada’s main export market.
Canada maintains the highest energy supply per capita among IEA member countries. Emissions from the oil and gas sectors increased by 14% in 2005-13, despite Canada’s low-carbon electricity mix (largely hydro and nuclear). The federal government, with the provinces, has put forward stringent energy efficiency and emission standards in the buildings, power and transport sectors, but not in industry. To strengthen its position as responsible energy supplier and user, Canada must take action to mitigate emissions and energy intensity. It can continue to develop its resources in a sustainable and cost-effective manner while balancing its economic and sustainability goals.
Canada remains at the forefront of technological and regulatory innovation in unconventional oil and gas production and carbon capture and storage (CCS) with four large-scale CCS projects under way in 2015. The country has adopted ambitious climate targets at provincial and federal levels, but the federation is far from meeting its targets for 2020 and 2030. In July 2015, the Premiers of the provinces and territories agreed a Canadian Energy Strategy. The IEA urges the federal government to seize this opportunity for collective action to meet its 2030 goals and bring certainty to investment in clean-energy technologies and renewables.
This in-depth review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Canada and provides recommendations for each energy sector, including advice for the implementation of the Canadian Energy Strategy.
This publication contains statistics on fisheries in OECD member countries (with the exception of Austria) and some non-member economies (Argentina, People's Republic of China, Colombia, Indonesia, Latvia, Lithuania, Peru, Russian Federation, South Africa, Chinese Taipei, and Thailand) from 2007 to 2014. Data provided concern fishing fleet capacity, employment in fisheries, fish landings, aquaculture production, recreational fisheries, government financial transfers, and imports and exports of fish.