Reports


  • 10-October-2017

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Canada 2017

    This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Canada. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on climate change mitigation and urban wastewater management.

    Canada, the world's second largest country by area, has abundant natural resources. Its vast territory includes large tracts of undisturbed wilderness. However, urbanisation and agriculture are putting pressure on the natural asset base. Since 2000, Canada has made progress in decoupling economic growth from air pollution, energy consumption and GHG emissions, but it remains one of the most energy- and emissions-intensive economies in the OECD. Further progress is needed to transition to a green, low-carbon economy.

  • 29-September-2017

    English

    Making Dispute Resolution More Effective - MAP Peer Review Report, Canada (Stage 1) - Inclusive Framework on BEPS: Action 14

    Under Action 14, countries have committed to implement a minimum standard to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the mutual agreement procedure (MAP). The MAP is included in Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention and commits countries to endeavour to resolve disputes related to the interpretation and application of tax treaties. The Action 14 Minimum Standard has been translated into specific terms of reference and a methodology for the peer review and monitoring process. The minimum standard is complemented by a set of best practices.

    The peer review process is conducted in two stages.  Stage 1 assesses countries against the terms of reference of the minimum standard according to an agreed schedule of review. Stage 2 focuses on monitoring the follow-up of any recommendations resulting from jurisdictions' stage 1 peer review report. This report reflects the outcome of the stage 1 peer review of the implementation of the Action 14 Minimum Standard by Canada, which is accompanied by a document addressing the implementation of best practices.

  • 21-August-2017

    English

  • 25-July-2017

    English

    SME and Entrepreneurship Policy in Canada

    SMEs and entrepreneurs make an important contribution to the Canadian economy. SMEs account for 60% of total employment, and Canada performs very well across many measures of small business generation, growth and innovation. However, further increases in productivity in medium-sized firms, an increase in SME exports, a greater business start-up rate and an increased number of high-growth firms could bring substantial benefits for the national economy.
    This report identifies several areas where new policy approaches could help achieve these objectives. Framework conditions for small business could be improved in business taxation, public procurement, access to financing and the commercialisation of research. New and extended programmes could be introduced in domains including entrepreneurship education, management advice and consultancy, and workforce skills development. A major effort is recommended to prioritise women's entrepreneurship, including by supporting social enterprises, and federal support could be offered to support the exchange of information on best practice SME regulations and programmes among provinces and territories. All this could be brought together and co-ordinated through the umbrella of a national strategy and a lead agency for SME and entrepreneurship policy.
     

  • 16-June-2017

    English

    Policies for Stronger and More Inclusive Growth in Canada

    After two decades of solid growth of household disposable income and living standards more generally, Canadians generally enjoy a high level of well-being. However, disparities persist – not all population groups have benefitted equally strongly from past improvements in living standards. Income inequality is close to the OECD average, but the tax and benefit system is less redistributive than those in most OECD countries. Despite high social mobility over a number of different dimensions such as health, earnings, social class or education, middle class self-identification has fallen in recent years. At the same time, productivity growth has slowed own, limiting the potential for further improvements in living standards. The slowdown in productivity growth is linked to a growing divide between high-productivity frontier firms and low-productivity laggards, as well as a weakening of business dynamism. The cross-cutting challenge presented by the persistence of multidimensional inequalities and weak productivity growth underlines the need for a reappraisal of Canada’s policy making process with the aim of fostering stronger and more inclusive growth.

  • 13-June-2017

    English, PDF, 3,955kb

    Policies for stronger and more inclusive growth in Canada

    Canada has experienced solid improvements in living standards in the last two decades and enjoys a higher quality of life than many other OECD countries. However, not all population groups enjoy equally high levels of well-being. This brochure has been prepared to help the Canadian government identify key policy reforms that would help the country achieve more inclusive growth.

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  • 13-June-2017

    English, PDF, 266kb

    OECD Employment Outlook 2017 - Key findings for Canada

    Despite a strong recovery since the recession, Canada’s labour market has weakened since mid-2014 due to low commodity prices. Unemployment has risen to above the average across OECD countries. At 6.9% at the end of 2016, it is also still above the pre-crisis level (5.9% in 2007).

  • 11-April-2017

    English

    Taxing Wages: Canada

    The tax burden on labour income is expressed by the tax wedge, which is a measure of the net tax burden on labour income borne by the employee and the employer.

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  • 6-April-2017

    English, PDF, 418kb

    Taxing Wages: Key findings for Canada

    Canada had the 26th lowest tax wedge among the 35 OECD member countries in 2016. The country occupied the same position in 2015. The average single worker in Canada faced a tax wedge of 31.4% in 2016 compared with the OECD average of 36.0%.

  • 28-March-2017

    English

    Tax and Skills: Key findings for all countries

    These country specific notes provide figures and commentary from the Taxation and Skills publication that examines how tax policy can encourage skills development in OECD countries.

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