The tax burden on labour income is expressed by the tax wedge, which is a measure of the net tax burden on labour income borne by the employee and the employer.
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Belgium had the highest tax wedge among the 35 OECD member countries in 2016. The country occupied the same position in 2015. The average single worker in Belgium faced a tax wedge of 54.0% in 2016 compared with the OECD average of 36.0%.
These country specific notes provide figures and commentary from the Taxation and Skills publication that examines how tax policy can encourage skills development in OECD countries.
The Flemish economy is extremely diversified with a number of value-added industries and a highly skilled workforce. The shift to a green economy will however require specific knowledge, values and attitudes from the Flemish workforce. This report analyses the skills dimension of the transition to a green economy at the local level, with specific reference to emerging needs in the agro-food, construction and chemicals sectors. It also provides recommendations for the development of green skills and occupational profiles at the organisational level, while advising policy makers on the best method of assisting firms to transition to a green economy.
As part of the STI Outlook 2016, the OECD has released policy profiles by country. These include cross-country analyses that draw on the first joint EC-OECD survey on STI policies. They focus on major STI policy areas, instruments and trends.
This publication provides detailed country notes on Value Added Tax/Goods and Services Tax (VAT/GST) and excise duty rates in OECD member countries.
This annual publication presents detailed country notes and internationally comparable tax data for all OECD countries from 1965 onwards.
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School Resources Country Background Review for the French Community of Belgium
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This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for Belgium. It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates.
In recent years, Belgium has made clear progress in increasing competition in the electricity and natural gas markets. It has also managed to reduce the use of fossil fuels and increase the use of renewable energy. The country´s economy is becoming less energy intensive.
Belgium has excellent gas transport infrastructure, and its gas market is well-integrated with those of its neighbours. The country’s emergency oil stock levels are also high.
As in all IEA member countries, a major challenge for Belgium is to decarbonise the economy while ensuring security of supply and affordability of energy. A long-term approach is required, and, given that responsibility for energy policy is divided between the federal and regional governments, the authorities must work decisively together to form a national energy strategy.
Nuclear energy accounts for around half of Belgium’s electricity generation. The current policy is to close all nuclear power plants between 2022 and 2025, but this would seriously challenge Belgium’s efforts to ensure electricity security and provide affordable low-carbon electricity. The phase-out schedule should be relaxed to let the plants run as long as the regulator considers them safe.
To attract critical investments in the energy sector – especially in electricity generation – the government should follow closely the principles of transparency, predictability and regulatory certainty.
Under any scenario, energy supply needs to be further diversified and energy demand further limited. Transport and buildings hold a large potential for efficiency and climate gains, and fiscal incentives and price signals could be used more frequently in order to reap them.