Efficient agricultural policies are essential to meeting increasing demand for safe and nutritious food in a sustainable way. While growth in demand for food, feed, fuel and fibres presents significant opportunities for agriculture, government policies must address challenges such as increasing productivity growth, enhancing environmental performance and adaptation to climate change, and improving resilience of farm households to market shocks brought on by weather and other unforeseen circumstances.
Policy evaluation provides needed evidence for governments to ensure that their agri-food policies address these challenges well. Efficient policies clearly separate targeted measures that provide income support to farm households in need, from measures that support increased farm productivity, sustainability, resilience and overall profitability.
Domestic support policies have changed over the years
Countries have substantially altered their agricultural trade and domestic support policies over the past two decades. In some countries, support provided to farmers has become more decoupled from production – meaning that many farmers no longer receive payments for producing a specific commodity – and instead has begun to target environmental outcomes. But in some developed countries, support remains high and linked to production, while some emerging economies have also significantly increased policy interventions that distort production decisions. In both cases, support could have been better targeted atpublic services that benefit producers, consumers and society overall.
The OECD monitors the extent to which policies adapt to growth, resilience and sustainability needs
The OECD publishes an annual Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation report, which provides up-to-date estimates of government support to agriculture for all OECD and the European Union as a whole, plus key emerging economies. The 2019 edition includes Argentina, Brazil, People’s Republic of China, Colombia, Costa Rica, India, Kazakhstan, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, South Africa, Ukraine, and Viet Nam.
Prior to being included in the annual report, countries generally undergo an in-depth country review which discusses in detail strengths and weaknesses of both the country’s agricultural sector and its agricultural institutions and policy environment. The subsequent partnership for the annual report builds on these studies to follow agricultural policy developments. Countries also provide important peer review of both policy data and analyses in the report.
Data underpinning the report come from the OECD producer and consumer support estimates (PSE and CSE) database. The OECD uses a standardised methodology to create this set of agricultural support indicators that allow for comparison of agricultural support between countries, and over time. This methodology is continuously updated and refined to maintain and improve its relevance in a changing policy environment.
Policymakers need to create a better and more coherent policy environment to meet food demand sustainably
Agricultural policy packages need to be both coherent and efficient to enable the sector to develop its full potential and achieve key public policy objectives. The sector is facing a number of challenges related to meeting future demands for food, fuel, fibre and eco-services in a more sustainable manner in the context of a changing climate.
The latest Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation report shows that the 53 countries studied provided USD 528 billion (EUR 465 billion) annually to support their agricultural sectors during the 2016-18 period. 70% of support is provided through policies that artificially maintain domestic farm prices above international levels. What is more, these policies obstruct efforts to make agriculture more productive, sustainable and resilient, and only a small share of less than 20% went to general services like research and development or infrastructure, which are needed to equip the agricultural sector for future challenges.
Our research and analysis on this subject over past 30 years gives rise to the following key policy recommendations:
Remove existing policy dis-incentives to increasing productivity, sustainability and resilience.
Re-direct agricultural support towards ensuring the availability of public services that benefit producers, consumers and society overall.
Encourage collaboration on knowledge generation and transfer between public and private actors – nationally, regionally and internationally.
Draw on the full range of economic instruments, including information, education, regulation, payments and taxes, in pursuit of environmental and climate change goals.
Streamline risk management policies by clearly defining the limits between normal business risks, risks for which market solutions exist or can be developed, and catastrophic risks requiring public engagement.
Improve understanding of the overall financial and well-being situation of farm households to design farm-income support measures targeting those in need.
Develop coherent policy packages that can address the many opportunities and challenges confronting the sector and farm households.
Impacts of agricultural policies on productivity and sustainability performance in agriculture: A literature review
This report reviews the evidence base on how agricultural policies impact environmental sustainability and productivity of the agriculture sector, including the potentially contradictory signals policies may send. It considers impacts for specific policy types, classified according to the OECD’s Producer Support Estimate (PSE) classification for agricultural support.
To increase the transparency and accessibility of the OECD indicators of support to agriculture, a considerable portion of the PSE/CSE database is now incorporated into a single Excel spreadsheet, the PSE Browser. The spreadsheet uses the PivotTable function, which allows the user to filter the data to obtain information by country, category, labels, commodity and policy measure.
* Please note that updated data for Indonesia are not available
About the producer and consumer support estimate
Agricultural policies aim to address a wide range of issues, from assisting farmers to achieve adequate incomes to providing sufficient food at reasonable prices for consumers, and from improving the sector’s resilience to weather, market or other shocks to ensuring food safety and improving the environmental performance. To help governments better understand how much and in what form support is provided, the OECD created a set of indicators that express policy measures with numbers in a comparable way across time and between countries.
The Producer Support Estimate (PSE) indicator estimates the annual monetary value of gross transfers from consumers and taxpayers to agricultural producers, measured at the farm-gate level, arising from policy measures that support agriculture, regardless of their nature, objectives or impacts on farm production or income.
Complementing this indicator, the Consumer Support Estimate (CSE) reflects the annual monetary value of gross transfers to consumers of agricultural commodities, measured at the farm gate level, arising from policy measures that support agriculture, regardless of their nature, objectives or impacts on consumption of farm products.
On the other hand, the General Services Support Estimate (GSSE) is used to estimate the annual monetary value of gross transfers arising from policy measures that create enabling conditions for the primary agricultural sector through development of private or public services, and through institutions and infrastructures regardless of their objectives and impacts on farm production and income, or consumption of farm products. It includes policies where primary agriculture is the main beneficiary, but does not include any payments to individual producers. GSSE transfers do not directly alter producer receipts, costs or consumption expenditures.
Taken together, the Total Support Estimate (TSE) provides an overall estimate of the annual monetary value of all gross transfers from taxpayers and consumers arising from policy measures that support agriculture, net of associated budgetary receipts, regardless of their objectives and impacts on farm production and income, or consumption of farm products.
Policy monitoring publications
Access all editions of the Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation series on the OECD iLibrary.