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How do small farms in developing countries manage risk? This paper assesses farm-level agricultural risk management strategies in Brazil, China and Viet Nam. Farmers in developing countries often rely on community strategies such as crop sharing, or deplete their assets and so perpetuate poverty. Policies to promote investment, such as access to credit and insurance, can help smallholders move out of poverty or into the non-farm sector.
Large farm size, low age profile, high educational level and use of financial leverage are factors in high economic performance of farms, according to this analysis of data from nine OECD countries and regions. The analysis shows significant differences in farm economic performances within countries as well as across countries.
Agricultural trade can be a powerful engine for economic growth, poverty reduction, and development. However, efforts by developing countries to expand their agricultural trade are often hampered by domestic supply-side constraints such as lack of trade-related infrastructure. This report looks at some of the most important of these constraints, and features case studies from Indonesia, Zambia and Mozambique.
This study provides quantitative assessments of the impact of two structural changes that a number of market observers have identified as contributing to world wheat market price volatility. The factors examined relate to changes in demand in the large emerging countries of the BRICs (comprising Brazil, the Russian Federation, India and China).
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For many businesses, declining ecosystem services can pose real risks to their continued profitability. This has motivated some to adopt innovative internal biodiversity policies and engage in a range of activities that conserve biodiversity and improve ecosystem functioning.
This paper reviews the scientific literature on the impacts of climate change on yield variance and investigates their implications for the demand of crop insurance and effectiveness of different farm strategies and policy measures using crop farm data in Australia, Canada and Spain.
Recent experience of highly turbulent markets has renewed interest in quantitative assessment of price volatility by stochastic simulations using the AGLINK-COSIMO model. Measuring the contribution of correlation of yield shocks to price volatility, this paper shows that correlation effects account for a significant portion of price volatility for coarse grains and wheat.
Reform of support to fuel use in the fisheries sector has the potential to generate both environmental and economic benefits, says this report on fuel use, tax concessions, and related information for OECD countries and partners.
Rebuilding a fishery from a collapsed state could see up to five-fold increases in its value, depending on its ecological, economic and regulatory characteristics. Appropriately-designed rights-based systems can better align individual fisher incentives to promote sustainable fisheries.
Market thinness, where there are few buying or selling offers, can contribute to price volatility. Contrary to general assumptions, agricultural commodity markets have not become 'thinner', according to this study of trade in selected commodities from 1970 to 2010.