The Philippines has made impressive progress in reforming the agricultural sector, but more can be done to ensure that farm policy helps further reduce poverty and ensure greater food security, according to a new OECD report.
This report analyses Philippine agricultural policy. Agriculture provides 30% of total employment in the Philippines and represents 11% of its Gross Domestic Product. The Philippines has had notable recent overall economic success, yet improving agricultural performance remains challenging. Productivity growth lags behind other Southeast Asian countries, and a number of policy distortions hinder progress. With agricultural land resources also under pressure from frequent natural disasters, rising population and urbanisation, the report offers a series of recommendations to improve the sector’s performance and its ability to adapt to climate change.
Costa Rica’s strong agricultural sector is underpinned by the country’s political stability, robust economic growth and high levels of human development. The sector has achieved significant export success, yet raising productivity and staying competitive in world markets will require efforts to address bottlenecks in infrastructure, innovation and access to financial services. Maximising Costa Rica’s comparative advantage in higher-value niche products will depend upon more efficient services to agriculture, including better implementation of programmes, improved co-ordination among institutions, and reduced bureaucracy. While overall protection for agriculture is relatively low compared to OECD countries, it is nonetheless highly distorting to production and trade. Managing the transition to scheduled liberalisation presents an opportunity to reform costly policies, and to implement an alternative policy package with new investments in innovation, productivity and diversification, supported by transition assistance where needed. Costa Rican agriculture’s vulnerability to extreme weather events is expected to worsen with climate change, and even while the country is among global leaders in environmental protection, sustainable development and climate change mitigation, further adaptation efforts will be necessary.
After decades of regulation and investment to reduce point source water pollution, OECD countries still face water quality challenges (e.g. eutrophication) from diffuse agricultural and urban sources of pollution, that is disperse pollution from surface runoff, soil filtration and atmospheric deposition. The relative lack of progress reflects the complexities of controlling multiple pollutants from multiple sources, their high spatial and temporal variability, associated transactions costs, and limited political acceptability of regulatory measures. This report outlines the water quality challenges facing OECD countries today, presents a range of policy instruments and innovative case studies of diffuse pollution control, and concludes with an integrated policy framework to tackle diffuse water pollution. An optimal approach will likely entail a mix of policy interventions reflecting the basic OECD principles of water quality management – pollution prevention, treatment at source, the polluter pays and beneficiary pays principles, equity, and policy coherence.
New Zealanders enjoy a high environmental quality of life and access to pristine wilderness. However, New Zealand’s growth model, based largely on exploiting natural resources, is starting to show its environmental limits with increasing greenhouse gas emissions and water pollution, according to a new OECD report.
The Global Forum on Agriculture 2017 will be held in Paris, France on 3 May 2017 on the theme of food security in Southeast Asia.
The OECD Network on Agricultural Total Factor Productivity and the Environment convenes experts from relevant countries to facilitate dialogue and, where possible, co-operative research efforts that aim to develop a better framework for cross-country total factor productivity comparisons.
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The world’s oceans, seas and marine resources provide invaluable benefits to our economies and to human wellbeing. The OECD works to provide countries with policy insights and data on a plethora of key issues relevant to Sustainable Development Goal 14: to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.
OECD is contributing to AMIS, an agricultural market information system aimed at addressing food price volatility through more timely, accurate and transparent information on global food markets.
The official list of seed varieties which have been accepted by National Designated Authorities of participating countries as eligible for certification in accordance with the rules of the OECD Seed Schemes.