Publications


  • 30-November-2017

    English

    Trade Facilitation and the Global Economy

    In a globalised world, where goods cross borders many times as intermediate and as final products, trade facilitation is essential to lowering overall trade costs and increasing economic welfare, in particular for developing and emerging economies. Facilitation efforts undertaken by various countries around the world also show that the benefits of such measures clearly compensate the costs and challenges posed by their implementation.
     

  • 30-November-2017

    English

    Towards an Open Government in Kazakhstan

    The government of Kazakhstan has shown a strong commitment to enhancing transparency, accountability and participation in the policy-making process, and has taken important steps towards implementing open government. However, further efforts are need to ensure the success and long-term sustainability of Kazakhstan’s open government reforms. This review provides an overview of the cultural, economic, historical and political context for open government reforms. It examines ongoing efforts, identifies the remaining challenges and assesses the measures put in place by Kazakhstan’s authorities to address them in order to translate the reforms into tangible results. Finally, the report looks at the environment for effective citizen engagement and its potential to improve service delivery and policy making. It provides recommendations for concrete actions Kazakhstan can take to fully implement open government reforms.

  • 30-November-2017

    English

    Gender Policy Delivery in Kazakhstan

    Kazakhstan has made important gains in gender equality over the past decade, but gaps still remain. This OECD Review of Gender Policy Delivery in Kazakhstan comes at a moment when Kazakhstan is developing a new Gender Equality and Family Policy up to 2030 which seeks to enable equality of rights, benefits, responsibilities, and opportunities for men and women in all areas of social life, and eliminate all forms of gender discrimination. This review examines the institutional, policy-making and accountability frameworks for advancing and sustaining gender equality and mainstreaming initiatives. It provides actionable policy recommendations based on international good practice and the highest standards of performance, with a view to supporting Kazakhstan’s new policy.

  • 29-November-2017

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Switzerland 2017

    Switzerland has taken steps to improve the environmental performance of its agricultural, energy and transport sectors. The country is a top OECD performer in terms of greenhouse gas emissions intensity and it should be commended for its innovative approach towards rehabilitation of its river system. Yet unsustainable consumption patterns and high levels of municipal waste generation, as well as high percentages of threatened species, are areas of concern. As a major financial centre, Switzerland has a key role to play in promoting green finance.

    This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Switzerland. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on: water management and biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.

  • 20-November-2017

    English

    OECD Reviews of Health Systems: Costa Rica 2017

    This report puts forward policy recommendations for strengthening the performance and sustainability of the health care system in Costa Rica. There is much to praise in Costa Rica’s health care system: institutional stability; a closely integrated but well-differentiated provider arm, with strong primary care; a degree of inter-sectoral co-ordination that serves as a model of good practice; detailed and effective dialogue between users and health service managers; and, innovation around professional roles and the use of ICT that other health systems could learn from. All this leads to health outcomes on a par with several OECD economies: life expectancy is 79.9 years (compared to the OECD average, 80.6) and less than 1% of the population report failing to seek care because of financial reasons. Nevertheless, serious strains are evident: spending is rising steeply, fuelled by salaries, fees and facility payments based on last year’s outlay. This increase is not associated with improvement in services: waiting lists are excessively long and growing. The system is perhaps too stable: institutional rigidity and vested interests have stalled vital reforms, meaning that Costa Rica still lacks systematic application of DRGs and health technology assessment, despite attempts to bring them in.

  • 17-November-2017

    English

    Getting Skills Right: United Kingdom

    This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances in the United Kingdom. It provides an assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: the collection and use of information on skill needs to foster a better alignment between skills acquisition and labour market needs; education and training policies targeting skills development and investment for individuals and employers; job creation policies to develop skills through on-the-job learning; and policies facilitating the entry of migrants with skills that are in demand. The assessment is based on country visits, desk research and data analysis conducted by the OECD secretariat.

  • 14-November-2017

    English

    OECD Guidelines on Measuring the Quality of the Working Environment

    This publication presents an internationally agreed set of guidelines for producing more comparable statistics on the quality of the working environment, a concept that encompasses all the non-pecuniary aspects of one's job, and is one of the three dimensions of the OECD Job Quality framework. These Guidelines take stock of current data availability in this field, review the analytic and policy uses of these measures, proposes a conceptual framework based on 6 dimensions and 17 characteristics (ranging from physical risk factors and work intensity, through to task discretion, autonomy and opportunities for self-realisation), assesses the statistical quality of measures in this field, and provides guidance to data producers and users on methodological challenges in this field. These Guidelines also include a number of prototype surveys modules that national and international agencies could use in their surveys.

    These Guidelines have been produced as part of the OECD Better Life Initiative, a pioneering project launched in 2011 with the objective of measuring society's conditions across 11 dimensions of people's well-being. They follow on from similar measurement guidelines on subjective well-being, micro statistics on household wealth, integrated analysis of the distribution on household income, consumption and wealth, as well as trust.

  • 6-November-2017

    English

    Understanding Financial Accounts

    Understanding Financial Accounts seeks to show how a range of questions on financial developments can be answered with the framework of financial accounts and balance sheets, by providing non-technical explanations illustrated with practical examples: What are the basic principles, concepts and definitions used for this framework which is part of the system of national accounts? What sources and which methodologies are used for their compilation? How are these used to monitor and analyse economic and financial developments? What can we learn about the 2007-2009 economic and financial crisis when looking at the numbers provided in this framework? What can we learn about financial risks and vulnerabilities? This publication is intended for young statisticians, students, journalists, economists, policy makers and citizens, who want to know more about the statistics that are at the heart of the analysis of financial developments in OECD economies.

  • 2-November-2017

    English

    Getting Skills Right: Spain

    This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances in Spain. It provides an assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: the collection and use of information on skill needs to foster a better alignment between skills acquisition and labour market needs; education and training policies targeting skills development and investment for individuals and employers; activation policies to develop skills through on-the-job learning; and policies facilitating the entry of migrants with skills that are in demand. The assessment is based on country visits, desk research and data analysis conducted by the OECD secretariat. 

  • 2-November-2017

    English

    Better Use of Skills in the Workplace - Why It Matters for Productivity and Local Jobs

    This joint OECD-ILO report provides a comparative analysis of case studies focusing on improving skills use in the workplace across eight countries. The examples provide insights into the practical ways in which employers interact with government services and policies at the local level. They highlight the need to build policy coherence across employment, skills, economic development and innovation policies, and underline the importance of ensuring that skills utilisation is built into policy development thinking and implementation.

    Skills utilisation concerns the extent to which skills are effectively applied in the workplace to maximise workplace and individual performance. It involves a mix of policies including work organisation, job design, technology adaptation, innovation, employee-employer relations, human resource development practices and business-product market strategies. It is often at the local level that the interface of these factors can best be addressed.

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