Publications

  • 12-October-2009

    English

    Taxation of SMEs - Key Issues and Policy Considerations

    This report covers a broad range of SME taxation issues, including possible effects of taxation on the creation and growth of SMEs, and considerations arising from a relatively high compliance burden. Differing income tax and social security contribution burdens of unincorporated and incorporated SMEs are considered in detail, with analysis of average statutory tax rates carried out to investigate possible tax distortions to business creation and business structure decisions of a single worker/owner of an SME. Various arguments are presented for and against the targeting of tax incentives at SMEs. Country examples of SME tax incentives and compliance cost reduction measures are provided in the report.

  • 19-October-2012

    English

    OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality: Israel 2012 - Raising Standards

    At a time when ever more information is available about the quality of health care, the challenge for policy makers is to better understand the policies and approaches that sit behind the numbers. This book examines whether care in Israel is safe, effective and responsive to patients’ needs. It examines what works and what does not work, both to benchmark the efforts of countries and to provide advice on reforms to improve quality of health care.

  • 8-October-2009

    English

    Assessing Measures of Energy Efficiency Performance and their Application in Industry

    This paper explores different measures of energy efficiency performance (“MEEP”) and considers the importance of so-called boundary definitions when measuring energy performance, and how these affect the appropriateness of country comparisons to guide policy decisions.
    The paper also addresses the limitations of both energy intensity and technology diffusion indicators as measures of energy efficiency performance. A case study on Japan’s iron and steel industry illustrates the critical role of proper boundary definitions for a meaningful assessment of energy efficiency in industry.

     

  • 16-December-2008

    English

    The Impact of Culture on Tourism

    The Impact of Culture on Tourism examines the growing relationship between tourism and culture, and the way in which they have together become major drivers of destination attractiveness and competitiveness. Based on recent case studies that illustrate the different facets of the relationship between tourism, culture and regional attractiveness, and the policy interventions which can be taken to enhance the relationship, this publication shows how a strong link between tourism and culture can be fostered to help places become more attractive to tourists, as well as increasing their competitiveness as locations which to live, visit, work and invest.
  • 12-November-2008

    English

    Encouraging Student Interest in Science and Technology Studies

    Encouraging Student Interest in Science and Technology Studies examines overall trends in higher education enrolments and the evolution of S&T compared with other disciplines. The results suggest that although absolute numbers of S&T students have been rising as access to higher levels of education expands in OECD economies, the relative share of S&T students among the overall student population has been falling, The report shows that encouraging interest in S&T studies requires action to tackle a host of issues inside and outside the education system, ranging from teacher training and curriculum design to improving the image of S&T careers. Numerous examples of national initiatives are used to complement the analyses to derive a set of practical recommendations.

  • 20-October-2008

    English

    CO2 Capture and Storage: A Key Carbon Abatement Option

    Oil, coal and natural gas will remain the world’s dominant sources of energy over the next decades, with resulting carbon dioxide emissions set to increase to unsustainable levels. However, technologies that help reduce CO2 emissions from fossil fuels can reverse this trend. CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is particularly promising. CCS takes CO2 from large stationary sources and stores it in deep geological layers to prevent its release into the atmosphere.

    Responding to a G8 Gleneagles request, this study documents progress toward the development of CCS, covering capture, transportation and storage technologies and their costs; storage capacity estimates, regional assessment of CCS potential; legal and regulatory frameworks; public awareness and outreach strategies; and financial mechanisms and international mechanisms.

    It also discusses the role of CCS in ambitious new energy scenarios that aim for substantial emissions reduction. This publication elaborates the potential of CCS in coal-fuelled electricity generation and estimates for capture in the industry and fuel transformation sectors. Finally, it assesses the infrastructure needed to process and transport large volumes of CO2.

  • 27-August-2009

    English

    Development of Competitive Gas Trading in Continental Europe

    In its latest publication, Development of Competitive Gas Trading in Continental Europe, the IEA examines the history of major gas markets’ development in OECD Europe, and explores the possible expansion of trading through the mechanism of different hubs across the region. Lessons learned from North American markets on the benefits of regulatory convergence and investor-friendly legal framework are an important part of the analysis. Competitive trading based on transparent, non-discriminatory rules in a flexible and integrated European gas market will lead to more efficiency, timely investment, and greater market resilience, therefore ensuring more security for both customers and suppliers in the long term.

  • 2-February-2009

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Netherlands 2008

    This comprehensive review analyses the energy challenges facing the Netherlands in 2008 and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It urges the government to provide policy continuity – such as in promotion regimes for renewable energy – to underpin a sustainable investment climate. It also highlights the need for closer co-ordination among national, regional and local authorities. 
  • 20-March-2009

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Luxembourg 2008

    The Inernational Energy Agency's periodic review of Luxembourg's energy policies and programmes.  It analyses the energy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements.

    Since the last review in 2004, Luxembourg has reformed its energy policies across all sectors, has fully liberalised its electricity and natural gas markets, and is actively participating in the development of the evolving Central West European regional electricity system. Luxembourg has also prepared a broad action plan on energy efficiency, improved the support system for renewable energy sources and revised taxes to mitigate climate change.

    The country’s energy policy in the coming decade will be shaped by the EU 2020 targets that call for substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and strong increases in renewable energy and energy efficiency. These targets will be hard to meet, given that roughly half of energy-related CO2 emissions come from transport fuel use by foreign truckers and motorists, and that Luxembourg’s potential for producing much more renewable energy is limited.

    Luxembourg is heavily dependent on oil. Although oil sources are well diversified by country of origin, more than 85% of oil stocks are held in neighbouring countries and often based on short-term leasing contracts. This leaves the country vulnerable to potential oil supply disruptions. Luxembourg should swiftly implement a plan to improve the security of oil supply.

     

  • 10-October-2008

    English

    Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and discusses how they should develop this role in the future. The key issues, approaches and trends are analysed and compared across a range of countries, from the experiences of the most entrepreneurial universities in North America to advanced European models and emerging practices in Central and Eastern Europe.

    It is clear that entrepreneurship engagement is a rapidly expanding and evolving aspect of higher education that requires proper support and development. The book stresses the need to expand existing entrepreneurship efforts and introduce more creative and effective approaches, building on the best practices highlighted from around the world. It will provide inspiration for those in higher education seeking to expand and improve their entrepreneurship teaching and knowledge-transfer activities, and for policy makers who wish to provide appropriate support initiatives and frameworks.

  • 2-February-2010

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Italy 2009

    This 2009 IEA review of Italy's energy policies and programmes finds that the Italian government has made substantial progress in a number of sectors since the last IEA in-depth energy policy review in 2003. The success of the green certificate and white certificate schemes and continued reform of the electricity and natural gas supply markets are just a few examples and build on the recommendations contained in the previous review. Nonetheless, many challenges remain.

    Italy recognises the need to diversify its energy supply portfolio to reduce its heavy dependence on fossil fuels and electricity imports, and to decrease its growing greenhouse gas emissions. In 2008, the government announced its intention to recommence the country's nuclear power program and start building a new nuclear power plant by 2013. To do so, Italy must first develop an efficient process for identifying critical energy infrastructure, including nuclear power, and subjecting it to an effective, streamlined siting and permitting process. 

    Italy will face another major challenge in complying with Europe’s new climate and energy package, particularly in relation to renewable energy and emissions targets. The government must step up efforts to comply with its new responsibilities, specifically by developing and putting in place a comprehensive climate change strategy for the years until 2020.  

    In mid-2009, the legislature enacted a wide-ranging new law that will facilitate the emergence of a robust long-term energy policy. The government must respond to this opportunity and elaborate, with industry, a long-term strategy for the development of the energy sector. 

    This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more sustainable energy future.

  • 17-July-2009

    English

    Clusters, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

    This publication explores the success of major innovation and entrepreneurship clusters in OECD countries, the challenges they now face in sustaining their positions and the lessons for other places seeking to build successful clusters.  What are the key factors for cluster success?  What problems are emerging on the horizon? Which is the appropriate role of the public sector in supporting the expansion of  clusters and overcoming the obstacles?

    The book addresses these and other issues, analysing seven internationally reputed clusters in depth: Grenoble in France, Vienna in Austria, Waterloo in Canada, Dunedin in New Zealand, Medicon Valley in Scandinavia, Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom, and Madison, Wisconsin, in the United States.  For each cluster, it looks at the factors that have contributed to its growth, the impact of the cluster on local entrepreneurship performance, and the challenges faced for further expansion.  It also puts forward a set of policy recommendations geared to the broader context of cluster development.

    This publication is essential reading for policy makers, practitioners and academics wishing to obtain good practices in cluster development and guidance on how  to enhance the economic impact of clusters.

     

  • 28-April-2009

    English

    Productivity Measurement and Analysis

    Productivity measurement and analysis are the main topics addressed in this book, which brings together contributions presented and discussed in two international workshops organized by the Statistics Directorate and the Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry (DSTI) of the OECD. The first workshop was organised jointly by the OECD with Fundaccion BBVA and the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas and held in Madrid in October 2005, and the second one was organized jointly by the OECD and the Swiss Federal Statistical Office and the State Secretary for Economic Affairs of Switzerland and held in Bern in October 2006. The two workshops brought together representatives of statistical offices, central banks and other branches of government in OECD countries that are engaged in the analysis and the measurement of productivity developments at aggregate and industry levels.

  • 10-October-2008

    English

    Cucumbers

    This set of standards is published within the framework of the activities of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables set up by OECD in 1962. It comprises comments and illustrations to facilitate the common interpretation of standards in force and is therefore a valuable tool for both the Inspection Authorities and professional bodies responsible for the application of standards or interested in the international trade in these products.

  • 5-May-2011

    English

    Multilateral Aid 2010

    More than 200 multilateral donors receive or serve as a channel for 40% of all aid. To help meet the challenge of ensuring effective and co-ordinated multilateral aid efforts, Multilateral Aid 2010 covers trends in and total use (core and non-core) of the multilateral system, with a special focus on trust funds from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the World Bank. It explores development perspectives of the climate change funding architecture and provides an overview of the response of multilaterals to the financial and economic crisis.

    While the OECD’s annual Development Co-operation Report serves as a key reference for statistics and analysis on the latest trends in international aid, the Multilateral Aid report – as the name implies – takes a specific look at trends in multilateral aid only.

  • 22-January-2009

    English

    Reducing Fishing Capacity - Best Practices for Decommissioning Schemes

    Too many fishing vessels chasing too few fish is a persistent problem in many countries. To address this, governments often turn to vessel decommissioning schemes as a means of adjusting fishing capacity to match available fish resources. This report presents a set of best practice guidelines on the design and implementation of decommissioning schemes. By drawing on case studies of decommissioning schemes from OECD and non-OECD countries, it provides policy makers and fisheries managers with detailed analysis of the economic issues surrounding decommissioning schemes.
  • 19-March-2009

    English

    Globalisation and Emerging Economies - Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa

    OECD countries still dominate the world economy, but their share of world trade dropped from 73% in 1992 to 64% in 2005, and some of the world’s most important economies are not members of the OECD. Foremost among these are the so-called BRIICS: Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa.

    This book analyses key elements of the trade performance of the BRIICS in relation to the rest of the world, focusing on trade and other policies influencing that performance. Developments in global trade policy are reviewed, notably the impact of preferential trade agreements on the multilateral system and patterns of world trade are described using both indices that reveal networks of trading relations and more standard modeling results.

    As well as the global analysis, the book also presents a separate chapter for each of the BRIICS, examining the key development and trade issues in each of the six countries over the past few years.

  • 24-April-2009

    English

    Cleaner Coal in China

    China’s coal, mined locally and available at a relatively low cost, has brought enormous benefits to energy consumers in China and to those outside the country who enjoy the products of its coal-based economy. Yet from another perspective, China’s coal use has a high cost. Despite progress, health and safety in the thousands of small coal mines lag far behind the standards achieved in China’s modern, large mines. Environmental degradation is a real and pressing problem at all stages of coal production, supply and use. Adding to these burdens, emissions of carbon dioxide are of concern to the Chinese government as it embarks on its own climate protection strategy.

    Technology solutions are already transforming the way coal is used in China and elsewhere. This study explores the context in which the development and deployment of these technologies can be accelerated. Providing a large amount of new data, it describes in detail the situation in China as well as the experiences of other countries in making coal cleaner. Above all, the report calls for much greater levels of collaboration – existing bi-lateral and multi-lateral co-operation with China on coal is found lacking. China’s growing openness presents many commercial opportunities. Establishing a global market for cleaner coal technologies is key to unlocking the potential of technology – one of ten major recommendations made in this study.
  • 24-November-2008

    English

    Energy Policy Review of Indonesia

    This comprehensive review offers an analysis of Indonesia’s energy sector, with findings and recommendations that draw on experience in IEA member countries. Six areas are suggested for priority attention, including progressive reduction in fuel and electricity subsidies, better implementation of policy, improving clarity of the investment framework, helping the energy regulators do their job more effectively, and harnessing a sustainable development agenda particularly renewable energy and energy efficiency.
  • 3-November-2010

    English

    High-Growth Enterprises - What Governments Can Do to Make a Difference

    The spectacular success of several well-known new ventures in technological fields, which in little more than a decade have jumped from the state of start-ups to that of top international businesses, has pointed to innovation as a key factor in the high growth of firms.  These high-growth enterprises often drive job creation and innovation, so policy makers are increasingly making such companies a key focus. Specifically, how can government policy foster the creation of more high-growth enterprises; what are the growth factors, and how can they be leveraged; what are the appropriate ways to provide such support?

    To help answer these questions, this report presents findings from two new research studies: (1) reports from 15 countries (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and Tunisia) that provide interesting insights into the operations of and challenges faced by high-growth enterprises; (2) a policy survey by the OECD Working Party on SMEs and Entrepreneurship, which reviewed more than 340 programmes that policy makers in 24 countries have put in place to support the growth of enterprises. 

    Some of this report’s findings may surprise: any firm can be a growth company; growth is almost always a temporary phase; high-growth small firms are funded mostly by debt, not equity. These and many more insights are summarised and analysed, providing policy makers with ideas on how to power growth at the firm level.

  • 18-November-2008

    English

    Sickness, Disability and Work: Breaking the Barriers (Vol. 3) - Denmark, Finland, Ireland and the Netherlands

    Too many workers leave the labour market permanently due to health problems, and yet too many people with a disabling condition are denied the opportunity to work. This third report in the OECD series Sickness, Disability and Work explores the possible factors behind this paradox. It looks specifically at the cases of Denmark, Finland, Ireland and the Netherlands, and highlights the roles of institutions and policies. A range of reform recommendations is put forward to deal with specific challenges facing the four countries.

  • 17-November-2008

    English

    2008 Survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration - Making Aid More Effective by 2010

    This survey report which presents the results from the second, follow-up survey on monitoring the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, assesses progress in 55 developing countries and helps us understand the challenges in making aid more effective in advancing development. The findings are clear: progress is being made, but not fast enough. Unless they seriously gear up their efforts, developing countries and their external partners will not meet their international commitments and targets for effective aid by 2010. Action is needed now. This report makes three high-level policy recommendations that will help accelerate progress and transform the aid relationship into a full partnership.
  • 23-October-2008

    English

    Enhancing the Role of SMEs in Global Value Chains

    The globalisation of production processes characterises the current phase of globalisation. Participation in global value chains (GVCs) can bring stability to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and allow them to increase productivity and expand their business. This OECD report identifies the ways in which governments, the business community, and international organisations can facilitate SMEs’ gainful participation in global value chains through policies, practices and targeted support programmes. It presents the findings of case studies carried out in five industries (the automotive sector, scientific and precision instruments, software, film production and distribution and tourism).
  • 16-October-2008

    English

    Nuclear Energy Outlook 2008

    World energy demand continues to grow unabated and is leading to very serious concerns about security of supply, soaring energy prices and climate change stemming from fossil fuel consumption. Nuclear energy is being increasingly seen as having a role to play in addressing these concerns. Responding to renewed interest in nuclear energy, this Nuclear Energy Outlook uses the most current data and statistics available and provides projections up to 2050 to consider growth scenarios and potential implications on the future use of nuclear energy. It also offers unique analyses and recommendations on the possible challenges that lie ahead. Topics covered by the NEO include nuclear power’s current status and projected trends, environmental impacts, uranium resources and security of supply, costs, safety and regulation, radioactive waste management and decommissioning, non-proliferation and security, legal frameworks, infrastructure, stakeholder engagement, advanced reactors and advanced fuel cycles.
  • 13-November-2008

    English

    Space Technologies and Climate Change - Implications for Water Management, Marine Resources and Maritime Transport

    This book examines the contributions that space technologies can make in tackling some of the serious problems posed by climate change. Focusing on examples of water management, marine resources and maritime transport, it sets out the rationale for further developing satellite systems to measure and monitor climate change and help mitigate its consequences. The report underlines the need to consider satellites not just as research and development systems, but as an important component of a critical communication- and information-based infrastructure for modern societies. The tool box for decision makers that concludes the book reviews different methodological options for deciding on investments in space-based earth observation.

  • 17-November-2009

    English

    Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Development Co-operation: Policy Guidance

    The negative impacts of climate change will hit poor people and poor countries disproportionately, and further compromise the achievement of their development objectives. Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Development Co-operation provides essential information and advice on how to facilitate the integration of adaptation into development processes. The objectives of this policy guidance are to: i) promote understanding of the implications of climate change on development practice and the associated need to mainstream climate adaptation in development co-operation agencies and partner  countries; ii) identify appropriate approaches for integrating climate change adaptation into development policies at national, sectoral and project levels and in urban and rural contexts; and iii) identify practical ways for donors to support developing country partners in their efforts to reduce their vulnerability to climate variability and climate change. While efforts to integrate climate change adaptation will be led by developing country partners, international donors have a critical role to play in supporting such efforts.
  • 16-January-2009

    English

    The Changing Boundaries of Social Enterprises

    Social enterprises are entering a new phase of consolidation after overcoming various challenges over the last 10 years in their efforts to foster sustainable local development, help create local wealth and jobs, and fight social exclusion. This book contains recommendations for national and local policy makers and presents a set of international best practices based on new legislation that has been enacted, novel frontiers that have opened up, and support and financial tools that have been developed.
  • 20-November-2009

    English

    Innovation in Firms - A Microeconomic Perspective

    Innovation has become a key factor for economic growth, but how does the process take place at the level of individual firms? This book presents the main results of the OECD Innovation Microdata Project -- the first large-scale effort to exploit firm-level data from innovation surveys across 20 countries in an internationally harmonised way, with a view to addressing common analytical questions. Through the use of common indicators and econometric modeling, this analytical report presents a broad overview of how firms innovate in different countries, highlights some of the limitations of current innovation surveys, and identifies directions for future research.

  • 16-June-2009

    English

    Internet Access for Development

    The Internet has been remarkably successful in developing greater opportunities for communication access - and economic growth and social development - for the first billion users. The majority of the next several billion users will be mainly from developing countries and will connect to the Internet principally via wireless networks. But there are substantial discrepancies in access to ICTs between developed and developing countries and also within countries, depending on factors such as gender, rural coverage, skills and educational levels.

     

    This book examines how the market for internet traffic exchange has evolved and explores the coherence of policies pursued by developed and developing countries. It notes the increasing innovation occurring in a number of developing countries with competitive markets and discusses how liberalisation has helped to expand of access networks and make ICT services increasingly affordable and available to the poor. The report also highlights the employment, micro-entrepreneurial and social development opportunities which have emerged as access levels have risen among low-income users. The study notes that gateway service monopolies - still in 70 countries -  raise the prices for accessing international capacity and reduce the affordability of Internet access to business and end users.

  • 3-February-2010

    English

    Civil Society and Aid Effectiveness - Findings, Recommendations and Good Practice

    In the Accra Agenda for Action (2008), donors and developing country governments commit to deepening their engagement with civil society organisations (CSOs). Better aid requires a broader understanding of the aid effectiveness agenda and a place for CSOs as development actors in their own right and as aid donors, recipients and partners. This book is a resource for implementing the recommendations on civil society and aid effectiveness emerging from the Accra High Level Forum and its preparatory process. These recommendations address a broad community, including developing country governments, donors, and CSOs from developing and developed countries.

  • 20-October-2008

    English

    Multilingual Dictionary of Fish and Fish Products - Fifth Edition

    The Multilingual Dictionary of Fish and Fish Products is a world standard guide to the names of fish and fish products traded internationally. This fifth edition comprises 1187 items, with descriptions in English and French and the equivalents for the main headings in 18 other languages: Danish, Dutch, Finnish, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Serbian, Croatian, Spanish, Swedish and Turkish. Indexes are provided for each language, including an index of scientific names for species of fish, shellfish, etc.

  • 22-December-2008

    English

    Chemical Thermodynamics of Thorium

    This volume is the eleventh in the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) “Chemical Thermodynamics” series. It is based on a critical review of the thermodynamic properties of thorium, its solid compounds and aqueous complexes, initiated as part of the NEA Thermochemical Database Project Phase III (TDB III). The database system developed at the OECD/NEA Data Bank ensures consistency not only within the recommended data sets of thorium, but also amongst all the data sets published in the series. This volume will be of particular interest to scientists carrying out performance assessments of deep geological disposal sites for radioactive waste.

  • 15-April-2009

    English

    The Bioeconomy to 2030 - Designing a Policy Agenda

    The biological sciences are adding value to a host of products and services, producing what some have labelled the “bioeconomy” and offering the potential to make major socio-economic contributions in OECD countries.  Using quantitative analyses of data on development pipelines and R&D expenditures from private and public databases, this book estimates biotechnological developments to 2015. Moving to a broader institutional view, it also looks at the roles of R&D funding, human resources, intellectual property, and regulation in the bioeconomy, as well as at possible developments that could influence emerging business models to create scenarios to 2030. These scenarios are included to stimulate reflection on the interplay between policy choices and technological advances in shaping the bioeconomy. Finally, the book explores policy options to support the social, environmental and economic benefits of a bioeconomy.
  • 19-January-2009

    English

    Overcoming Border Bottlenecks - The Costs and Benefits of Trade Facilitation

    International trade has grown rapidly in recent years, thanks in part to the progressive reduction of tariffs and quotas through successive rounds of multilateral trade liberalisation. However, this progress brings to light one of the remaining weak links of international trade, which prevents countries from drawing full benefits from the advantages of open global markets: border bottlenecks generated by inefficient, outdated and complex trade procedures and formalities. This book brings together six studies that examine to what extent and in which ways the costs of inefficient border processes influence trade and investment flows, how institutional and political factors affect the design and implementation of efficiency-enhancing measures, whether the expected benefits of these measures enough to justify the expenses of putting them in place, and whether the expenses involved are within the reach of developing and least developed countries, especially in light of other development priorities.
  • 27-May-2010

    English

    Measuring Innovation - A New Perspective

    Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective presents new measures and new ways of looking at traditional indicators. It builds on 50 years of indicator development by OECD and goes beyond R&D to describe the broader context in which innovation occurs. It includes some experimental indicators that provide insight into new areas of policy interest. It highlights measurement gaps and proposes directions for advancing the measurement agenda.

    This publication begins by describing innovation today. It looks at what is driving innovation in firms, and how the scientific and research landscape is being reconfigured by convergence, interdisciplinarity and the new geography of innovation hot spots. It presents broader measures of innovation, for example using new indicators of investment in intangible assets and trademarks. 

    Human capital is the basic input of innovation, and a series of indicators looks at how well education systems are contributing to the knowledge and research bases. Further series examine how firms transform skills and knowledge, and shed light on the different roles of public and private investment in fostering innovation and reaping its rewards, with concrete examples from major global challenges such as health and climate change.

    Measuring Innovation is a major step towards evidence-based innovation policy making. It complements traditional “positioning”-type indicators with ones that show how innovation is, or could be, linked to policy.  It also recognises that much more remains to be done, and points to the  measurement challenges statisticians, researchers and policy makers alike need to address.

  • 5-May-2009

    English

    Flexible Policy for More and Better Jobs

    In today’s economic context, governments are required to take centre stage, helping workers to compete in the global market whilst also supporting employers so that they may retain jobs, increase productivity and offer better-quality employment at the local level. This book provides a new indicator for benchmarking labour-market policy, reviewing the flexibility available in its management throughout OECD countries. The research offers new evidence of the link between flexibility and employment outcomes. Concrete examples of how localities can harness greater flexibility to generate better economic and social outcomes are provided. The new style of management recommended in this book will be key to any national strategy for returning economies to prosperity.
  • 13-May-2009

    English

    Gadgets and Gigawatts : Policies for Energy Efficient Electronics

    By 2010 there will be over 3.5 billion mobile phones subscribers, 2 billion TVs in use around the world and 1 billion personal computers.This book examines how "smart" this equipment is from an energy efficiency perspective and what the potential is for energy savings.  It includes a global assessment of the changing pattern in residential electricity consumption over the past decade and an in-depth analysis of the role played by electronic equipment. It reviews the influence that government policies have had on creating markets for more energy efficient appliances and identifies new opportunities for creating smarter, more energy efficient homes.
  • 19-May-2009

    English

    Ensuring Environmental Compliance - Trends and Good Practices

    Despite progress in recent years, there is growing evidence that OECD countries are not on track to reach some of their key environmental goals. This report examines the strategies and instruments that governments use to ensure compliance with pollution prevention and control regulations, particularly in the industrial sector. It compares the compliance assurance systems of six OECD countries – Finland, France, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States – as well as those of China and Russia. The report provides policy makers, environmental regulators, and other stakeholders with a comprehensive analysis of the design, management aspects, and the main elements of government compliance and enforcement programmes. Focusing on compliance promotion, compliance monitoring, and non-compliance response, it identifies and compares good practices, sets them in context of different countries’ regulatory cultures and highlights the key international trends.
  • 14-April-2009

    English

    Coherence for Health - Innovation for New Medicines for Infectious Diseases

    In developing countries, 6 out of 10 people die from infectious diseases. Nearly 1 billion humans suffer from a neglected infectious disease, according to the World Health Organisation. Yet less than 1% of the new drugs placed on the market from 1975 to the turn of the century were developed for these diseases. This book looks at ways of improving the availability of medicines for infectious diseases through strengthened coherence in health, trade, science and technology, development co-operation and finance.
  • 28-September-2009

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Spain 2009

    This review analyses the energy challenges facing Spain and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It finds that since the last IEA in-depth review in 2005, Spain has made significant progress in improving its energy policy. In Europe, the country is now leading in gas diversification and LNG development. Together with Portugal, it has set up the common Iberian electricity market, MIBEL, and has strong ambitions in developing it further. It has also become prominent in developing wind and solar energy technology, and succeeded in integrating large amounts of intermittent power in the electricity grid.

    Along with other IEA member countries, Spain has set ambitious climate and energy security targets. Achieving these will require a transition to a low-carbon economy. Spain will need to increase its efforts to reduce CO2 emissions, particularly in the transport but also the critical power sector. As fossil fuels still provide more than half of electricity, Spain will need to keep open all the options - including nuclear, renewables, and the technology of carbon capture and storage - for making its power sector less carbon-intensive. The country should also increase its efforts to limit peak electricity demand through energy efficiency.

    Spain has substantially de-regulated its electricity and gas tariffs, and developed a financial plan to end the large deficit that had built up under the previous tariff regime. Prices for many small electricity users, however, are still regulated and low enough to potentially distort the market. In addition, the still remaining subsidies for domestic coal production should be eliminated and replaced by direct social policy measures.

  • 8-September-2009

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Portugal 2009

    The International Energy Agency's 2009 review of Portugal's energy policies and programmes.  This edition finds that Portugal has made considerable efforts to strengthen its energy policy since the last IEA in-depth review in 2004. A large number of IEA recommendations have been successfully implemented, including greater diversification of the energy mix and increased energy policy co-ordination. A new National Energy Strategy, published in October 2005, identified three principal means for meeting Portugal’s policy goals: the promotion of renewable energy, increased energy efficiency and competition in energy markets.

    Over a short period of time, Portugal has become a leader in terms of renewable energy development.  Well-designed incentive mechanisms and the adoption of ambitious targets ensure hydro, wind and other technologies will continue to grow. The National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency was enacted in 2008, and Portugal aims to implement energy efficiency measures equivalent to 9.8% of total final energy consumption by 2015. This plan complements a well developed and co-ordinated climate change policy. Further steps have been taken towards the liberalisation of energy markets, including the innovative creation of a single operator for the transport of natural gas and electricity, natural gas storage and operation of the Sines LNG terminal.

    Still, a number of challenges remain. Energy markets are not as competitive as policy makers may have wished, and energy research and development policy coordination needs to be strengthened.

    This review provides sectoral critiques of existing policy and recommendations for further improvements. It is intended to serve as an indispensable guide for Portuguese policy makers as they travel along the path to a more sustainable energy future.

  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Turkey 2009

    The International Energy Agency's periodic review of Turkey's energy policies and programmes.  This 2009 edition finds that Turkey will likely see the fastest medium to long-term growth in energy demand among the IEA member countries. It has a young and urbanising population and energy use is still comparatively low. Therefore, ensuring sufficient energy supply to a growing economy remains the government’s main energy policy concern. Turkey has also progressed significantly in all other areas of energy policy over the past few years.

    Large investments in energy infrastructure, especially in electricity and natural gas, are needed to avoid bottlenecks in supply and to sustain rapid economic growth. To attract that investment, the country needs to continue reforming its energy market. Power sector reform is well under way, but in the natural gas sector reform has been slower and needs to be accelerated.

    Improving energy efficiency is essential for responding to Turkey’s energy policy challenges, and considerable potential remains in all sectors. In a country where private cars are rapidly becoming more common and where significant new construction is foreseen, transport and buildings merit particular long-term attention from the decision makers. Energy-related CO2 emissions have more than doubled since 1990 and are likely to continue to increase rapidly over the medium and long term, in parallel with energy demand. The IEA urges Turkey to intensify efforts to further develop its approach concerning its post-2012 regime to combat climate change, and to consider setting a quantitative overall target for limiting emissions. 

    This review analyses the broad range of energy challenges facing Turkey and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. 

     

  • 13-April-2010

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Canada 2009

    The International Energy Agency's periodic review of Canada's energy policies and programmes.  This 2010 edition finds that Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy.  

    The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country’s natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure.

    Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed.  

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology.  

    This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements.

  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: France 2009

    The International Energy Agency's periodic review of France's energy policies and programmes.  This 2009 edition finds that the energy policy of France seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure.

    To meet these objectives, the French government in 2007 launched an impressive environmental programme, Grenelle de l’Environnement, which sets ambitious targets, particularly in the buildings and transport sectors. The government has also made commendable efforts in enhancing gas supply security and forwarding initiatives to expand infrastructure and interconnections with neighbouring countries. These efforts should make regional electricity and gas markets more stable and secure. In the nuclear power sector, France has created an independent Nuclear Safety Authority and established a comprehensive framework for managing all kinds of radioactive waste and materials.

    Notwithstanding its policy successes, France faces a number of challenges. Its targets aimed at combating climate change are very ambitious. While greenhouse gas emissions in France are lower than the average among IEA countries due to the important role in electricity generation of nuclear power, emissions in the transport and buildings sectors increased from 1990 to 2008. Effective implementation of the announced policies and measures will be imperative for meeting France’s international and national commitments. In the electricity sector, the co-existence of regulated tariffs and market prices may impede mobilising the investment needed for maintenance and life extensions of nuclear power plants. The country also needs to boost the flexibility of electricity networks in order to achieve a structural balance between base load generation and increasing demand for peak-load.

    This review analyses the energy challenges facing France and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements.

  • 4-March-2009

    English

    Natural Tracer Profiles Across Argillaceous Formations - The CLAYTRAC Project

    This technical report describes the results of the Nuclear Energy Agency's CLAYTRAC project, in which natural tracer data from nine sites was evaluated to assess potential impacts of disposal of radiological waste in geological repositories. It shows scientific information from numerous sites and applies robust analytical methods to improve the understanding of radionuclide migration and evolution of sites for deep geological disposal. These results improve the understanding of sites, and thus the confidence in safety, for geological disposal of radioactive waste.
  • 4-March-2009

    English

    Stability and Buffering Capacity of the Geosphere for Long-term Isolation of Radioactive Waste - Application to Crystalline Rock

    Geological settings selected as potential host formations for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste are chosen for, among other assets, their long-term stability and buffering capacity against destabilising events and processes. These proceedings present the outcomes of a geosphere stability workshop, held in November 2007, that focused on crystalline and other types of hard, fractured rocks. The workshop underscored the fact that many such rocks are intrinsically stable environments that evolve extremely slowly and provide good buffering against external events and processes.

    The proceedings show a good understanding of the processes and events that can affect crystalline rocks and, although there is less confidence in predicting exactly when and where such events will occur and the volume of rock that will be affected, the extent of the impacts on a geological repository can be confidently addressed using bounding approaches supported by geological information from similar sites around the world.

  • 7-April-2009

    English

    Considering Timescales in the Post-closure Safety of Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    A key challenge in the development of safety cases for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste is handling the long time frame over which the radioactive waste remains hazardous. The intrinsic hazard of the waste decreases with time, but some hazard remains for extremely long periods. This report reviews the current status and ongoing discussions of this issue, addressing such issues as ethical principles, the evolution of the hazard over time, uncertainties in the evolution of the disposal system (and how these uncertainties themselves evolve), the stability and predictability of the geological environment, repository planning and implementation including regulatory requirements, siting decisions, repository design, the development and presentation of safety cases and the planning of pre- and post-closure institutional controls such as monitoring requirements.

  • 7-April-2009

    English

    Strategic and Policy Issues Raised by the Transition from Thermal to Fast Nuclear Systems

    The renewed interest in nuclear energy triggered by concerns about global climate change and security of supply could lead to substantial growth in nuclear electricity generation and expanded interest in fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycles. Moving from the current fleet of thermal neutron reactors to fast neutron systems will require many decades and extensive RD&D efforts. This book identifies and analyses key strategic and policy issues raised by such a transition, and provides guidance to decision makers on the best approaches for implementing transition scenarios.
  • 5-June-2009

    English

    Evaluation of Agricultural Policy Reforms in Japan

    The report looks at the evolution of Japanese agricultural policy over the last several decades, but maintains its analytical focus on policies currently in place. In addition to reporting a wide variety of statistics, much of which were provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), use was made of the OECD PSE/CSE database and the OECD Policy Evaluation Model (PEM) for some of the analytical work.

  • 8-October-2009

    English

    Energy Efficiency Indicators for Public Electricity Production from Fossil Fuels

    Electricity production is responsible for 32% of total global fossil fuel use, accounting for 132 EJ, and 41%, or 10.9 Gt of energy-related CO2 emissions. Improving the efficiency of electricity production therefore offers economic benefits and a significant opportunity for reducing dependence on fossil fuels, which helps to combat climate change and improve energy security.
    A set of indicators has been developed to analyse the energy efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels on a global level and for a number of key countries and regions.

  • 13-October-2009

    English

    IEA Scoreboard 2009 - 35 Key Energy Trends over 35 Years

    Measuring and assessing how much has been done by member countries over the years to follow their underlying principles is not an easy task. Each country is unique in terms of economy, geography, climate, energy resources, etc. Taking into account some of these specificities, the IEA Scoreboard 2009 compares what has been achieved by member countries in diversifying their energy mix, in promoting non-fossil fuels and energy efficiency, in encouraging research and development, and, more generally, in creating a policy framework consistent with their shared policy goals.

    Since the IEA Scoreboard 2009 is published in conjunction with the 35th anniversary of the IEA, 35 themes, ranging from diversification to prices, show how IEA countries have performed in their efforts to attain energy security, environmental protection and economic growth.   This book, which combines statistical rigour with easy access and readability, is an ideal resource for anyone who would like to have a quick overview of energy development in IEA member countries over the last 35 years. The publication also includes selected energy-related statistics for over 140 countries, economies and regions in the world.

  • 11-August-2009

    English

    The Future of International Migration to OECD Countries

    This book explores the social, economic and environmental forces that may combine to attract migrants of various types and backgrounds to OECD countries, as well as those that may persuade migrants to leave their countries or to stay at home. By analysing different pull and push factors and constructing five different scenarios of migration in the future, this volume casts light on major determinants of global migration flows, which OECD countries will look particularly attractive for migrants, where the pressures to migrate be especially strong and what kind of migration-related issues will policy makers likely be facing as 2030 approaches.

  • 3-December-2009

    English

    Contracting Out Government Functions and Services - Emerging Lessons from Post-Conflict and Fragile Situations

    This second volume of the Partnership for Democratic Governance Series investigates whether ‘contracting out’ core government functions and services has been conducive to capacity development. Each case study discusses the evidence and emerging lessons of contracting out in fragile and post-conflict situations.

    The chapters contained in this publication first appeared as contributions to the Partnership for Democratic Governance's collaborative online platform, PDF Online. Through this platform, users are able to post comments on discussion papers, send messages to the authors and easily find ifnormation relevant to the topics covered in this publication. To join the PDG Online Community, please visit www.pdg-online.org.

    Selected as a 2009 Notable Document by the American Library Association Government Documents Round Table.

  • 12-August-2009

    English

    Pears

    This publication provides comments and illustrations of standards in force regarding the classification, presentation and marking of pears in international trade under the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables set up by OECD in 1962. It is a valuable tool for both the Inspection Authorities and professional bodies responsible for the application of standards or interested in trade in pears.

  • 1-September-2009

    English

    Measuring Capital - OECD Manual 2009 - Second edition

    Capital - in particular of the physical sort - plays several roles in economic life: it constitutes wealth and it it provides services in production processes. Capital is invested, disinvested and it depreciates and becomes obsolescent and there is a question how to measure all these dimensions of capital in industry and national accounts. This revised Capital Manual is a comprehensive guide to the approaches toward capital measurement. It gives statisticians, researchers and analysts practical advice while providing theoretical background and an overview of the relevant literature. The manual comes in three parts - a first part with a non-technical description with the main concepts and steps involved in measuring capital; a second part directed at implementation and a third part outlining theory and a more complete mathematical formulation of the measurement process.

  • 14-September-2009

    English

    Sectoral Approaches in Electricity - Building Bridges to a Safe Climate

    Electricity accounts for more than 40 % of global energy-related CO2 emissions. This issue is most pressing for developing countries where growth in power demand is particularly high, fueling the risk of irreversible investment in CO2-intensive capacity, the so-called “carbon lock-in”.

    Sectoral Approaches in Electricity – Building Bridges to a Safe Climate shows how the international climate policy framework could effectively support a transition towards low-CO2 electricity systems in developing countries. Sectoral approaches are intended to address sectors that require urgent actions, without waiting for countries to take nation-wide commitments.

    Earlier IEA publications have extensively reviewed developed countries’ efforts to steer generation away from carbon-intensive production modes, from dedicated support to low-carbon technologies to, increasingly, the reliance on CO2 pricing via emissions trading. Following the same logic, there are proposals seeking to use the international carbon market to drive changes at sectoral level in developing countries. This publication illustrates the pros and cons of such an approach in a few key emerging economies. It also asks how international climate policy could support and enhance ongoing efforts on end-use energy efficiency - an essential piece of the climate change/electricity puzzle.

  • 14-September-2009

    English

    Energy Technology Transitions for Industry - Strategies for the Next Industrial Revolution

    Industry accounts for one-third of global energy use and almost 40% of worldwide CO2 emissions.  Achieving substantial emissions reduction in the future will require urgent action from industry.  What are the likely future trends in energy use and CO2 emissions from industry? What impact could the application of best available technologies have on these trends?  Which new technologies are needed if these sectors are to fully play their role in a more secure and sustainable energy future? 

    Energy Technology Transitions for Industry addresses these questions through detailed sectoral and regional analyses, building on the insights of crucial IEA findings, such as Energy Technology Perspectives 2008: Scenarios and Strategies to 2050. It contains new indicators and methodologies as well as scenario results for the following sectors: iron and steel, cement, chemicals, pulp and paper and aluminium sectors. The report discusses the prospects for new low-carbon technologies and outlines potential technology transition paths for the most important industrial sectors.

  • 9-September-2009

    English

    Engaging with High Net Worth Individuals on Tax Compliance

    High Net Worth Individuals (HNWIs) pose significant challenges to tax administrations due to the complexity of their affairs, their revenue contribution, the opportunity for aggressive tax planning, and the impact of their compliance behaviour on the integrity of the tax system.  This publication examines in detail this taxpayer segment, describes their usage of aggressive tax planning schemes and proposes prevention, detection and response strategies that tax administrations can use to respond to these challenges. It also addresses aspects of voluntary disclosure initiatives for past non-compliance that may be particularly pertinent in the current environment.

    The publication outlines a number of innovative approaches to enable governments to better manage the risks involved with marketed tax schemes and tailor-made arrangements.  To improve compliance, tax administrations could consider changing the structure of their operations to focus resources effectively, for example, through the creation of a dedicated HNWI unit. Other recommendations include creating the appropriate legal framework, exploring forms of co-operative compliance and engaging more in international co-operation, at both the strategic and operational level.

  • 26-October-2009

    English

    Chile Energy Policy Review 2009

    Drawing on the experience of IEA member countries, this IEA review assesses Chile’s major energy challenges and provides recommendations. Six main themes emerge: the successful liberalisation of the power sector in the 1980s; the essential role played by the state in ensuring energy security; the re-formulation of Chile’s long-term energy policy; the proposed reorganisation of the institutional framework; greater independence for the system operators; and the need for a clear framework of regulation so that long-term investment decisions integrate social and environmental costs.
  • 17-November-2009

    English

    Community Capacity Building - Creating a Better Future Together

    Community capacity building (CCB) is a fairly new term for an age-old good: enabling people to define their own destinies. This book presents and analyses some of the most interesting recent developments in the field of community capacity building, in a variety of OECD and non-OECD countries. The focus is on how CCB has effected change in three major areas: social policy (health, housing, community regeneration); local economic policy; and environmental policy. The book also outlines the common conditions required for CCB to take hold and thrive, allowing for the political voice of local communities to be clearly heard.
  • 19-October-2009

    English

    Strengthening Regional Fisheries Management Organisations

    With the development and entry into force of the United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement in 1995, the international community made a commitment to strengthen Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs), established to deal with the management of shared high seas resources. This study takes stock of the changes made in RFMOs, highlighting a gradual process of improvement that has translated into significant success stories.  While there is no single recipe for this process, ensuring that the fundamental building blocks are in place to help create and maintain the economic and political momentum for change is important. Altering the underlying economic incentives may help to better align the interests of member countries, allowing coalitions for change to develop within the membership. The study and its analysis is built on evidence from a range of case studies of RFMOs, most notably the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna (CSBT), the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (NAFO) and the North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC).
  • 2-July-2009

    English

    Inshell Hazelnuts

    This publication provides comments and illustrations of standards in force regarding the classification, presentation and marking of inshell hazelnuts in international trade under the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables set up by OECD in 1962. It is a valuable tool for both the Inspection Authorities and professional bodies responsible for the application of standards or interested in trade in Inshell Hazelnuts.

  • 16-November-2009

    English

    Designing Local Skills Strategies

    Higher-level skills are increasingly demanded by the knowledge-based economy. But with rising mobility and demographic change, it is no longer so simple to invest in a skilled workforce for the future. Actions are needed on a variety of fronts, including attracting and retaining talent, better integrating disadvantaged groups into the labour force, and upgrading the skills of low-paid workers. Much of the responsibility for these actions falls squarely on the shoulders of local policy makers.

    Drawing from a wide array of case studies, this book analyses best-practice local strategies for increasing workforce skills. And it also takes a close look at the opportunities and challenges presented by international migration. The in-depth case studies in this report range from Shanghai’s “Highland of Talent Strategy” to new “career ladders” which help immigrants escape low-skilled, low-paid employment in New York. National and local-level recommendations on local skills development are provided, for both OECD and non-OECD countries.

  • 7-July-2009

    English

    Building Transparent Tax Compliance by Banks

    This book analyses the role banks play in the provision of aggressive tax planning arrangements. It examines the nature of banking, the complex structured financing transactions developed by banks and how they are then used by both banks and their clients. It also explores the internal governance processes that banks use to manage tax risk and the prevention, detection and response strategies applied by different revenue bodies in responding to the challenges that banks pose. The book makes a number of recommendations for revenue bodies and identifies best practices for consideration by banks.
  • 8-July-2009

    English

    Explorations in OEEC History

    Fifty years after it was launched, the Marshall Plan remains a major event of post World War II history. But what did it actually do for European reconstruction? To commemorate the opening of its historical archives to the public and their deposit at the European University Institute (EUI), the OECD invited a group of EUI historians to analyse the role played by the Marshall Plan and the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) in the economic recovery of Europe.

    This book examines the major moments punctuating OEEC history from the original offer of Marshall Aid in 1947 to the decision to create the OECD in 1960. It offers a history of the European economic reconstruction and contributes to discussions on models of co-operation favouring economic development, trade liberalisation and world economic integration.

  • 23-July-2009

    English

    Early and Ware Potatoes

    This publication provides comments and illustrations of standards in force regarding the classification, presentation and marking of potatoes in international trade under the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables set up by OECD in 1962. It is a valuable tool for both the Inspection Authorities and professional bodies responsible for the application of standards or interested in trade in potatoes.

  • 30-October-2009

    English

    Transport Energy and CO2 : Moving towards Sustainability

    Car ownership is set to triple by 2050, trucking activity will double and air travel could increase fourfold. This book examines how to enable mobility without accelerating climate change.  It finds that if we change the way we travel, adopt technologies to improve vehicle efficiency and shift to low-CO2 fuels, we can move onto a different pathway  where transport CO2 emissions by 2050 are far below current levels, at costs that are lower than many assume. 

    The report discusses the prospects for shifting more travel to the most efficient modes and reducing travel growth rates, improving vehicle fuel efficiency by up to 50% using cost-effective, incremental technologies, and moving toward electricity, hydrogen, and advanced biofuels to achieve a more secure and sustainable transport future. If governments implement strong policies to achieve this scenario, transport can play its role and dramatically reduce CO2 emissions by 2050.

  • 1-December-2009

    English

    Lobbyists, Governments and Public Trust, Volume 1 - Increasing Transparency through Legislation

    Lobbying can improve policy making by providing valuable insights and data, but it can also result in unfair advantages for vested interests if the process is opaque and standards are lax.‪‪ Lobbying is resource intensive. The financial services sector in the United States spent USD 3.4 billion lobbying the federal government between 1998 and 2008, principally promoting the deregulation of the financial sector. Legions of lobbyists provide “guns for hire” worldwide. In 2008, there were over 5 000 registered lobbyists in Canada at the national level, while the European Commission in Brussels had over 2 000 registered as of August 2009.

     

    This report reviews the experiences of Australia, Canada, Hungary, Poland, the United Kingdom and the United States with government regulations designed to increase scrutiny for lobbying and lobbyists. Current approaches, models, trends and state-of-the-art solutions are examined to support a deeper understanding of the potential and limitations of existing norms.‪ ‪The report also presents building blocks for developing a framework for lobbying that meets public expectations for transparency, accountability and integrity

  • 19-November-2009

    English

    An Appraisal of the Chilean Fisheries Sector

    Chile is one of the major players in the world fishing scene. But during the past fifty years, Chile has had to face issues of over-investment, sharp declines in catch levels, disputes among stakeholders, fleet downsizing, and aquaculture diseases, among others. This report describes the challenging and complex learning process that the Chilean fisheries and aquaculture sector has undergone and the evolution of its policies and management systems. Governance of the industrial, artisanal and aquaculture industries has followed different paths of policy development and current management reflects the particular pressures confronting each segment of the sector. And policy evolution continues, with a range of initiatives underway to meet the current challenges. The Chilean state has been one of the main forces behind these developments, laying the foundation for a strong and robust fisheries and aquaculture sector.
    Also AvailableEgalement disponible(s)
  • 20-November-2009

    English

    Innovation and Growth - Chasing a Moving Frontier

    Innovation is crucial to long-term economic growth, even more so in the aftermath of the financial and economic crisis. In this volume, the OECD and the World Bank jointly take stock of how globalisation is posing new challenges for innovation and growth in both developed and developing countries, and how countries are coping with them. The authors discuss options for policy initiatives that can foster technological innovation in the pursuit of faster and sustainable growth.

     

    The various chapters highlight how the emergence of an integrated global market affects the impact of national innovation policy. What seemed like effective innovation strategies (e.g. policies designed to strengthen the R&D capacity of domestic firms) are no longer sufficient for effective catch-up. The more open and global nature of innovation makes innovation policies more difficult to design and implement at the national scale alone. These challenges are further complicated by new phenomena, such as global value chains and the fragmentation of production, the growing role of global corporations, and the ICT revolution. Where and why a global corporation chooses to anchor its production affects the playing field for OECD and developing economies alike.

    Selected as a 2009 Notable Document by the American Library Association Government Documents Round Table.

  • 14-April-2010

    English

    Globalisation in Fisheries and Aquaculture - Opportunities and Challenges

    This overview of global markets for fish and fish products finds that they have changed considerably over the past few decades and continue to do so, with ever growing interactions across countries and continents. Change has brought substantial benefits to the world economy and a number of policy challenges for governments. To meet these challenges, without compromising the advantages of increasing market interactions, countries must develop and implement fisheries management frameworks and aquaculture strategies that accommodate globalisation without undermining resource sustainability.

  • 18-September-2009

    English

    Managing Risk in Agriculture - A Holistic Approach

    The sources of risk in agriculture are numerous and diverse, ranging from events related to climate and weather conditions to animal diseases; from changes in agriculture commodities prices to changes in fertilizer and other input prices; and from financial uncertainties to policy and regulatory risks. Agricultural risks are not independent, but rather are linked both to each other and as part of a system that includes all available instruments, strategies and policies designed to manage risk. A holistic approach is thus necessary.

    This book examines the current magnitude and characteristics of risk-related policies in agriculture and what is known about the quantitative size of agricultural risks. It looks at the on-farm, off-farm, and market instruments available to manage risk, and it explains how the holistic approach helps clarify the role of governments.

  • 15-April-2010

    English

    The Economics of Rebuilding Fisheries - Workshop Proceedings

    Rebuilding fisheries is a key challenge for many countries as some stocks are in a poor state while others are depleted.  In May 2009, economists, biologists, fisheries managers and policy makers participated in an OECD Workshop on the Economics of Rebuilding Fisheries. The workshop was designed to identify and analyse economic uncertainties, policy issues, biological conditions and information constraints, and to review the role of key players in program delivery. This conference proceedings presents an overview of the major economic and institutional issues associated with rebuilding fisheries and provides examples of national and international initiatives.

  • 16-October-2009

    English

    Implementing Energy Efficiency Policies: are IEA Member Countries on Track?

    This book presents 25 energy efficiency recommendations from the IEA which could, if implemented globally without delay, reduce global CO2 emissions by 8.2 gigatonnes per year by 2030 – equivalent to roughly two-times the amount of current EU CO2 emissions.

    This innovative book provides the first assessment of IEA member countries’ progress on implementing energy efficiency policy.  Using a rigorous evaluation process, it finds that while these countries are implementing a full range of energy efficiency measures, their efforts fall short. Pressing energy, climate and financial challenges require even more energy efficiency policy action – particularly in the transport sector. To address this action gap, IEA member countries must urgently ramp up their energy efficiency policy efforts. 

    The IEA and its member countries can play a critical role in promoting the Agency’s call for “Worldwide Implementation Now” (W.I.N.) of energy efficiency. What will it be? W.I.N or lose the opportunity?

  • 8-October-2009

    English

    Cogeneration and District Energy - Sustainable energy technologies for today... and tomorrow

    Combined heat and power and district heating and cooling (DHC) represent a series of proven, reliable and cost-effective technologies that are already making an important contribution to meeting global heat and electricity demand.
    This report follows the March 2008 report that hightlighted the energy, economic and environmental benefits of CHP and DHC (IEA, 2008). That report also provides a technical introduction to CHP/DHC and describes its global status and potential.
  • 8-October-2009

    English

    Empowering Variable Renewables – Options for Flexible Electricity Systems

    A number of renewable electricity technologies, such as wind, wave, tidal, solar, and run-of-river hydro share a characteristic that distinguishes them from conventional power plants: their output varies according to the availability of the resource.

    This is commonly perceived to be challenging at high shares, but there is no intrinsic, technical ceiling to variable renewables’ potential. Variability has to be looked at in the context of power system flexibility: if a power system is sufficiently flexible, in terms of power production, load management, interconnection and storage, the importance of the variability aspect is reduced.

  • 10-December-2009

    English

    Cities, Towns and Renewable Energy - Yes In My Front Yard

    Local governments have the power to influence the energy choices of their citizens. Many cities and towns have already encouraged energy efficiency measures. Even so, as demand for energy services continues to grow, the energy infrastructure that every city and town depends on will need to be expanded, upgraded or replaced. This provides the opportunity to increase the deployment of renewable energy technologies and decentralised energy systems, and hence gain the multi-benefits of increased energy security, climate change mitigation and sustainable development, but also the social benefits of reduced air pollution, such as improved health and employment. 

    Many combinations of policies have been employed to stimulate local renewable energy development. These policies include: local governance by authority; providing resources; enabling private actors; leading by example; allowing self-governance. Mega-city mayors, down to small-town officials, have successfully introduced such policies, although these vary with location, local resources and population. Cities, Towns and Renewable Energy – “ Yes In My Front Yard “ includes several case studies chosen to illustrate how enhanced deployment of renewable energy projects can result, regardless of a community’s size or location.

    The goals of this report are to inspire city stakeholders by showing how renewable energy systems can benefit citizens and businesses, assist national governments to better appreciate the role that local municipalities might play in meeting national and international objectives, and help accelerate the necessary transition to a sustainable energy future.

  • 8-October-2009

    English

    Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commercial and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Clean coal technologies (CCTs) have been developed and deployed to reduce the environmental impact of coal utilisation over the past 30 to 40 years. Initially, the focus was upon reducing emissions of particulates, SO2, NOX and mercury.
    The coal sector – producers, consumers and equipment suppliers – as well as governments and agencies in countries where coal is essential, have a long experience of stimulating clean coal technology deployment.
  • 22-January-2010

    English

    ICTs for Development - Improving Policy Coherence

    Information communication technologies (ICTs) are crucial to reducing poverty, improving access to health and education services and creating new sources of income and employment for the poor. Being able to access and use ICTs has become a major factor in driving competitiveness, economic growth and social development. In the last decade, ICTs, particularly mobile phones, have also opened up new channels for the free flow of ideas and opinions, thereby promoting democracy and human rights.

    The OECD and infoDev joined forces at a workshop on 10-11 September 2009 to examine some of the main challenges in reducing the discrepancies in access to ICTs and use of ICTs between developing countries. The workshop discussed best practices for more coherent and collaborative approaches in support of poverty reduction and meeting the Millennium Development Goals.

    There is much work to be done on improving policy coherence and there is a need to engage more actively with partner countries. Making the most of ICTs requires that they are seen as part of innovation for development, rather than just another development tool.

    This publication examines access to ICTs, as a precondition to their use; broadband Internet access and governments' role in making it available; developments in mobile payments; ICT security issues; ICTs for improving environmental performance; and the relative priority of ICTs in education. 

    For more information

    The OECD/infoDev workshop on ICTs for Development: www.oecd.org/ICT/4D

    OECD work on Policy Coherence for Development: www.oecd.org/development/policycoherence

    infoDev: www.infoDev.org

  • 3-December-2009

    English

    Handbook on Deriving Capital Measures of Intellectual Property Products

    The latest System of National Accounts (the 2008 SNA) explicitly recognises, for the first time, that expenditures on research and experimental development (R&D) should be recorded as capital formation. This is a natural extension to the 1993 SNA, which recommends recording many acquisitions of software and databases, mineral exploration, and entertainment, artistic and literary originals as capital formation, too. These products have a common characteristic, namely that their value reflects the underlying intellectual property they embody, which is why they are referred to collectively in this publication as intellectual property products (IPPs). But they also share another important characteristic: their measurement is not straightforward, and in the absence of clear guidance it is highly likely that estimates will not be comparable between countries. This Handbook is designed to provide that guidance by considering IPPs collectively, based on their common characteristics, by type, based on any specificities, such as data availability, and by detailed transaction - for example the valuation of IPPs that have been produced for internal use by their developers, the valuation of unsuccessful IPPs, and the production of IPPs produced and made freely available by government.

  • 1-December-2009

    English

    The Financing of Nuclear Power Plants

    Many countries have recognised that greater use of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. However, given the high capital cost and complexity of nuclear power plants, financing their construction often remains a challenge. This is especially true where such financing is left to the private sector in the context of competitive electricity markets. 

    This study examines the financial risks involved in investing in a new nuclear power plant, how these can be mitigated, and how projects can be structured so that residual risks are taken by those best able to manage them. Given that expansion of nuclear power programmes will require strong and sustained government support, the study highlights the role of governments in facilitating and encouraging investment in new nuclear generating capacity.

  • 29-June-2010

    English

    OECD Review of Agricultural Policies: Israel 2010

    Israel’s agriculture is unique amongst developed countries in that land and water resources are nearly all state-owned and that agricultural production is dominated by co-operative communities. Israel is a world leader in agricultural technology, particularly in farming in arid conditions. This Review measures support provided to Israeli agriculture and evaluates the effectiveness of current agricultural policy measures. Israel has made progress in removing policies that distort trade, and resource allocation and support to agriculture is lower than the OECD average. However, the government still plays an important role. The report suggests further agricultural policy reforms to reduce costs for consumers and taxpayers and to improve the efficiency of current policy measures.

    A special focus of the report is the environmental performance of Israeli agriculture. This is already an issue with scarce land and water resources, accentuated by the overarching issue of climate change. The Review examines agriculture’s performance with respect to water resources and pollution, soils, biodiversity, air emissions and climate change. It concludes that strengthening policy coherence, especially in improving the management of water resources in agriculture, is important.

  • 11-March-2010

    English

    OECD Territorial Reviews: Toronto, Canada 2009

    OECD's Territorial Review of Toronto, Canada.  It finds that the Toronto region is one of the chief economic powerhouses of Canada, generating almost one-fifth of national GDP and 45% of Ontario’s GDP. The region is home to 40% of Canada’s business headquarters and is a main manufacturing hub, with major automotive, biomedical and electronics companies. Toronto is also one of the most diverse metropolitan regions in the world: half of its population is foreign born and it hosted 40% of all immigrants to Canada during 2001-2006.

    Nevertheless, the region’s current economic development model is under pressure and its economic performance has been mixed in recent years. From 1995 to 2005, GDP per capita and GDP growth rates were below the Canadian average while its annual economic and labour productivity growth were lower than the average for OECD metropolitan regions. During this period, population growth boosted demand in the construction, sales and retail, professional and financial services sectors. However, the recent decline in the area’s manufacturing jobs has illustrated the structural difficulties of some traditionally strong areas, such as the automotive and electronics industries.

    This Review proposes a new sustainable competitiveness agenda to enhance productivity, focusing on innovation, cultural diversity and infrastructure, as well as on green policies. To implement such an agenda, the Review proposes improving the current governance framework by intensifying strategic planning at the level of the Toronto region.

  • 9-July-2010

    English

    Consumer Policy Toolkit

    The markets for goods and services have undergone significant changes over the past 20 years. Regulatory reform, global markets, new technologies and growth in the role of services in economic activity have driven the changes which, in many instances, have provided significant benefits to consumers. Relatively little attention has been paid to the challenges these developments have posed for consumers. More choice and more complexity in many markets have made it increasingly difficult for them to compare and assess the value of products and services. The challenges for consumers have raised similar challenges for the government authorities responsible for protecting them from unfair commercial practices and fraud.

    This book examines how markets have evolved and provides insights for improved consumer policy making. It explores, for the first time, how what we have learned through the study of behavioural economics is changing the way policy makers are addressing problems.

  • 20-May-2010

    English

    SMEs, Entrepreneurship and Innovation

    Small firms are playing an ever-increasing role in innovation, driven by changes in technologies and markets. Some spin-offs and high growth firms are having remarkable success. However, the broad bulk of small firms are not capitalising on their advantages. This book explores how government policy can boost innovation by improving the environment for entrepreneurship and small firm development and increasing the innovative capacities of enterprises. Policy findings and recommendations are presented in three key areas: embedding firms in knowledge flows; developing entrepreneurship skills; and social entrepreneurship.  In addition, country notes present statistics and policy data on SMEs, entrepreneurship and innovation for 40 economies, including OECD countries, Brazil, China, Estonia, Indonesia, Israel, the Russian Federation, Slovenia and South Africa.

    SMEs, Entrepreneurship and Innovation is part of the OECD Innovation Strategy, a comprehensive policy strategy to harness innovation for stronger and more sustainable growth and development, and to address the key global challenges of the 21st century. For more information about the OECD Innovation Strategy, see www.oecd.org/innovation/strategy.

  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Poland: Key Issues and Policies

    The rapid growth of entrepreneurship and small firms has been one of the greatest successes in post-Communist transformation in Poland.  SMEs have greatly contributed to employment, investment and value added in the Polish economy.  However, key barriers to further growth remain in the business environment for SMEs and entrepreneurs.  This book sets out the current SME and entrepreneurship climate, reviews SME and entrepreneurship issues and policies at national and local levels, and provides observations and recommendations for improving and supporting entrepreneurship and SMEs in Poland.

  • 28-May-2010

    English

    The OECD Innovation Strategy - Getting a Head Start on Tomorrow

    Well-timed and targeted innovation boosts productivity, increases economic growth and helps solve societal problems. But how can governments encourage more people to innovate more of the time? And how can government itself be more innovative?

    The OECD Innovation Strategy provides a set of principles for fostering innovation in people (workers and consumers), in firms and in government. It takes an in-depth look at the scope of innovation and how it is changing, as well as where and how it is occurring. The result is the formulation of far-reaching policies for innovation using recent research and data.

    For more information about the OECD Innovation Strategy, see www.oecd.org/innovation/strategy.

    "a thoughtful new report on how governments can do better at spurring and measuring innovation."  -The Economist

  • 17-June-2010

    English

    OECD Territorial Reviews: Venice, Italy 2010

    This Review of Venice, Italy, offers a comprehensive assessment of the city-region’s economy and the extent to which its land use, labour market and environmental policies embrace a metropolitan vision. A new understanding of the provinces of Padua, Treviso and Venice as an interconnected city-region of 2.6 million people guides this study. Venice ranks as among the most dynamic and productive city-regions in the OECD, with high employment levels and growth rates. Though it has thrived on a model of small firms and industrial clusters, it is undergoing a deep economic transformation. Venice confronts growing environmental challenges as a result of rising traffic congestion and costly infrastructure pressures, exacerbated by sprawl. Demographics are also changing, due to ageing inhabitants, immigrant settlement and the rapid depopulation of the historic city of Venice.  

    This report offers a comparative analysis of these issues, utilising the OECD’s metropolitan database to benchmark productivity and growth. It draws on regional economics, urban planning, transportation studies and hydrology to throw light on the changes within the city-region. In light of planned inter-city rail extensions, the Review calls for programmes to increase economic synergies between Venice and its neighbours. It evaluates key tools for promoting economic growth and metropolitan governance and proposes enhanced co-ordination of land use policies, additional business development services for small and medium-sized businesses, and the enlargement of university-linked innovation. Given frequent flooding, the report appraises the quality of metropolitan water governance and Venice’s potential to become a powerful reference for climate change adaptation.

  • 6-April-2010

    English

    Organising Local Economic Development - The Role of Development Agencies and Companies

    Development processes occur within a wider geographical area than local government, and in some cases encompass a broader scope than provincial or national governments. Thus substantial inter-governmental co-operation and public-private partnership are needed. This book identifies how development agencies and companies work, what they do and what constitutes success and value added. It explores international practices in a variety of locations and contexts, and defines both the success factors and the challenges associated with economic development agencies and companies.
  • 9-February-2010

    English

    Towards Transparent, Proportionate and Deliverable Regulation for Geological Disposal

    These workshop proceedings highlight the significant amount of work accomplished over the past decade in delivering transparent, proportionate regulation for geological disposal, and identify important differences between national regulations even if these are not in contradiction with international guidance. They also underline the importance of R&D carried out on behalf of the regulator. In addition to the contributed papers, these proceedings trace the numerous discussions that formed an integral part of the workshop. They constitute an important and unique documentary basis for researchers and radioactive waste management specialists. Themes addressed include duties to future generations, timescales for regulation, stepwise decision making, roles of optimisation and best available techniques (BAT), multiple lines of reasoning, safety and performance indicators, recognition of uncertainties and the importance of stakeholder interactions.
  • 15-March-2010

    English

    Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Agriculture

    Agriculture is the major user of water in most countries. It also faces the enormous challenge of producing almost 50% more food by 2030 and doubling production by 2050. This will likely need to be achieved with less water, mainly because of growing pressures from urbanisation, industrialisation and climate change. In this context, it will be important in future for farmers to receive the right signals to increase water use efficiency and improve agricultural water management, while preserving aquatic ecosystems.  

    This report calls on policy makers to recognise the complexity and diversity of water resource management in agriculture and the wide range of issues at stake. And it gives them the tools to do so, offering a wealth of information on recent trends and the outlook for water resource use in agriculture, including the impacts of climate change. It examines the policy experiences of OECD countries in managing their water resources for agriculture, with focus on: the extent to which countries subsidise the supply of water to farmers; flood and drought risk policies; and institutional organisation and governance as it relates to water and the agricultural sector. The report offers concrete recommendations on what countries should be doing and why. 

  • 8-April-2010

    English

    Partnering for Long-Term Management of Radioactive Waste - Evolution and Current Practice in Thirteen Countries

    National radioactive waste management programmes are in various phases of siting facilities and rely on distinct technical approaches for different categories of waste. In all cases, it is necessary for institutional actors and the potential or actual host community to build a meaningful, workable relationship. Partnership approaches are effective in achieving a balance between the requirements of fair representation and competent participation. With host community support, they also help ensure the desirable combination of a licensable site and management concept as well as a balance between compensation, local control and development opportunities. This report provides up-to-date information on experience with local partnership arrangements in 13 countries. The characteristics, advantages and aims of community partnerships are also described in addition to the concept's evolution over the past decade.

  • 18-October-2010

    English

    Citrus Fruits

    This publication provides comments and illustrations of standards in force regarding the classification, presentation and marking of citrus fruit in international trade under the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables set up by OECD in 1962. It is a valuable tool for both the Inspection Authorities and professional bodies responsible for the application of standards or interested in trade in citrus fruit. The book includes a USB key with the electronic version of the publication.

     

  • 11-March-2010

    English

    Quality Standards for Development Evaluation

    Based on a broad international consultative process, the DAC Quality Standards for Development Evaluation are a reference guide to good practice in development evaluation. With a view to improving the quality of evaluation processes and products, and facilitating collaboration, this reference guide lays out standards for each phase of a typical evaluation process: from defining purpose, to planning, designing, implementing, reporting, and learning from and using evaluation results.
  • 23-September-2010

    English

    Obesity and the Economics of Prevention - Fit not Fat

    Before 1980, rates were generally well below 10%. They have since doubled or tripled in many countries, and in almost half of the OECD, 50% or more of the population is overweight.  A key risk factor for numerous chronic diseases, obesity is a major public health concern.   

    This book contributes to evidence-based policy making by exploring multiple dimensions of the obesity problem. It examines the scale and characteristics of the epidemic, the respective roles and influence of market forces and governments, and the impact of interventions. It outlines an economic approach to the prevention of chronic diseases that provides novel insights relative to a more traditional public health approach. 

    The analysis was undertaken by the OECD, partly in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The main chapters are complemented by special contributions from health and obesity experts, including Marc Suhrcke, Tim Lobstein, Donald Kenkel and Francesco Branca. 

    “a valuable set of results and suggestions about the best preventive interventions to reduce the burden of obesity.”   – Julio Frenk, Dean, Harvard School of Public Health

     

    “The positive message of this book is that the obesity epidemic can be successfully addressed.”   – Ala Alwan, Assistant Director-General, World Health Organization

     

    “innovative and well-researched”  – Martin McKee, Professor, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine


    "A timely, valuable volume on a critical issue.  Highly recommended."-Choice, July 2011

     

     

     

     

  • 22-June-2010

    English

    Apricots

    This brochure is published within the framework of  the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the common interpretation of the apricots standard in force. This updated brochure illustrates the revised standard text and new trends in the international trade of apricots. It demonstrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. Thus it is a valuable tool for the inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in the international trade in apricots. The brochure also includes a USB key with the electronic version of this publication.

  • 7-July-2010

    English

    Peaches and Nectarines

    This book provides a series of standards regarding the quality, sizing, presentation, and marking of peaches and nectarines in international trade.   It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the common interpretation of the standard in force and is is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. This edition illustrates the revised standard text and new trends in international trade; updates the quality requirements for peaches and defines the quality parameters for nectarines. It  therefore is a valuable tool for the inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in the international trade in peaches and nectarines.

     

  • 13-April-2010

    English

    Bioheat, Biopower and Biogas - Developments and Implications for Agriculture

    This report complements earlier OECD work on liquid biofuels and provides information on biomass based heat and power, as well as on biogas. It discusses the heterogeneous portfolio of different biomass feedstocks, conversion technologies, and pathways of utilisation. It also shows that governments in many countries provide substantial support to the production and use of renewable energy in general, and bioenergy in particular; these support measures are highly diverse and are given at national and various sub-national levels.

     

    The results of a large number of life-cycle analyses of various bioheat and biopower chains reviewed in this study indicate that the objective to reduce GHG emissions and fossil energy use is met; indeed the savings estimated for most chains are substantial when compared to fossil alternatives. At present, most of the chains examined do not compete with food and feed production, and thus the implications for agricultural markets are small. It is clear, however, that if a stronger focus on agricultural biomass crops is to be developed, this will require careful design of support policies so as to avoid compromising the ability of the agricultural sector to provide food and feed in a sustainable manner.

  • 26-May-2010

    English

    Making Reform Happen - Lessons from OECD Countries

    OECD countries have made significant reform progress in recent decades, in fields as diverse as competition policy, health care and the environment. How have they done it? And why have reforms advanced in some places and stalled in others? This collection of essays analyses the reform experiences of the 30 OECD countries in nine major policy domains in order to identify lessons, pitfalls and strategies that may help foster policy reform in the future. While taking full account of the tremendous differences in the political and institutional settings in which these reforms were undertaken, the authors highlight a number of common challenges and potential solutions that hold good across both countries and issue areas. They show that the scope for cross-national policy learning is enormous.

    The importance of such reform lessons is all the greater in the wake of the global financial and economic crisis. As OECD governments confront the challenge of trying to restore public finances to health without undermining the recovery, they will need to pursue a careful mix of fiscal policies and growth-enhancing structural reforms. Designing, adopting and implementing such a policy mix will require the crafting of effective reforms and effective strategies for implementing them.

  • 18-June-2010

    English

    Guidelines for Cost-effective Agri-environmental Policy Measures

    Improving the environmental performance of agriculture is a high priority in OECD and many non-OECD countries. This will be of increasing concern in the future given the pressure to feed a growing world population with scarce land and water resources. Policy has an important role to play where markets for many of the environmental outcomes from agriculture are absent or poorly functioning.   

    This study focuses on the design and implementation of environmental standards and regulations, taxes, payments and tradable permit schemes to address agri-environmental issues. It deals with the choice of policy instruments and the design of specific instruments, with the aim of identifying those that are most cost-effective in very different situations across OECD countries.  

    Key conclusions from the study are that: there is no unique instrument that promises to achieve all agri-environmental policy goals; the cost effectiveness of payments systems could be improved by using performance-based measures; and policy mixes need to combine policy instruments that complement and not conflict with each other.

  • 17-June-2010

    English

    Climate Change and Agriculture - Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation

    Climate change is likely to have significant impacts on the agricultural sector to which farmers will have to adapt. While agriculture is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, it is also a source of carbon storage in soils. This report examines the economic and policy issues related to the impacts of climate change on agriculture and adaptation responses and to the mitigation of greenhouse gases from agriculture. It outlines research undertaken and underway in other national and international research agencies. It also highlights some of the knowledge gaps on the impacts of climate change on food production and the uncertainties of those impacts in a global context that warrant further research efforts. In particular, the report analyses marginal abatement cost curves, which show the relative costs of achieving reductions in greenhouse gas emission through the implementation of different actions in the agricultural sector. The aim of the report is to help guide policy makers in the design of policies to address climate change issues in agriculture.

  • 23-June-2010

    English

    Nuclear Production of Hydrogen - Fourth Information Exchange Meeting, Oakbrook, Illinois, USA , 14-16 April 2009

    Hydrogen has the potential to play an important role as a sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy carrier in the 21st century. This report describes the scientific and technical challenges associated with the production of hydrogen using heat and/or electricity from nuclear power plants, with special emphasis on recent developments in high-temperature electrolysis and the use of different chemical thermodynamic processes. Economics and market analysis as well as safety aspects of the nuclear production of hydrogen are also discussed.
  • 13-October-2010

    English

    Taxation, Innovation and the Environment

    Solving the world’s environmental problems could take a significant toll on economic growth if only today’s technologies are available. We know that  innovation – the creation and adoption of new cleaner technologies and know-how – provides a means to achieve local and global environmental goals at significantly lower costs. Innovation is also a major driver of economic growth.  

    OECD governments are increasingly using environmentally related taxes because they are typically one of the most effective policy tools available. Exploring the relationship between environmentally related taxation and innovation is critical to understanding the full impacts of this policy instrument as well as one potential facet of “green growth.” By putting a price on pollution, do environmentally related taxes spur innovation? What types of innovation result? Does the design of the tax play a critical role? What is the effect of this innovation? 

    In analysing these questions, this report draws on case studies that cover Japan, Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Israel and others. It covers a wide set of environmental issues and technologies, as well as the economic and policy contexts. The research methods range from econometric analysis to interviews with business owners and executives. The report also explores the use of environmentally related taxes in OECD countries and outlines considerations for policymakers when implementing these taxes. 

    Green growth policies can stimulate economic growth while preventing environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and unsustainable natural resource use. The results from this publication will contribute to the Green Growth Strategy being developed by the OECD as a practical policy package for governments to harness the potential of greener growth.  

    Also AvailableEgalement disponible(s)
  • 11-May-2010

    English

    Solar Photovoltaic Energy

    This energy technology roadmap envisions that by 2050, photovoltaic could provide 11% of global electricity production (4 500 TWh per year), corresponding to 3 000 gigawatts of cumulative installed photovoltaic capacity. In addition to contributing to significant greenhouse gas emission reductions, photovoltaic will deliver substantial benefits in terms of the security of energy supply and socio-economic development. This roadmap also identifies technology goals and milestones that  must be undertaken by different stakeholders to enable the most cost-efficient expansion of photovoltaic.

  • 9-October-2009

    English

    Carbon Capture and Storage

    This energy technology roadmap on carbon capture and storage (CCS) identifies, for the first time, a detailed scenario for the technology’s growth from a handful of large-scale projects today to over three thousand projects by 2050. It finds that the next decade is a key “make or break” period for CCS; governments, industry and public stakeholders must act rapidly to demonstrate CCS at scale around the world in a variety of settings. The roadmap concludes with a set of near-term actions that stakeholders will need to take to achieve the roadmap’s vision.

  • 12-October-2009

    English

    Cement Technology Roadmap: Carbon Emissions Reductions up to 2050

    The cement energy technology roadmap outlines a possible transition path for the industry to make continued contributions towards a halving of global CO2 emissions by 2050. As part of this contribution, this roadmap estimates that the cement industry could reduce its direct emissions 18% from current levels by 2050. This roadmap is a first step. It is only attainable with a supportive policy framework, and appropriate financial resources invested over the long term.

  • 7-May-2010

    English

    Concentrating Solar Power

    The emerging technology known as concentrating solar power, or CSP, holds much promise for countries with plenty of sunshine and clear skies. For CSP to claim its share of the coming energy revolution, concerted action is required over the next ten years by scientists, industry, governments, financing institutions and the public. This roadmap is intended to help chart the course to broad development and deployment of CSP.

  • 12-October-2009

    English

    Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    This energy technology roadmap focuses on electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV), presenting for the first time a detailed scenario for their evolution from annual production of a few thousand to over 100 million vehicles by 2050. It finds that the next decade is a key “make or break” period for EVs and PHEVs: governments, the automobile industry, electric utilities and other stakeholders must work together to roll out vehicles and infrastructure in a coordinated fashion, and ensure that the rapidly growing consumer market is ready to purchase them. The roadmap concludes with a set of near-term actions to achieve the roadmap’s vision.

  • 12-October-2009

    English

    Wind Energy

    Wind energy is perhaps the most advanced of the “new” renewable energy technologies, but there is still much work to be done. This energy technology roadmap identifies the key tasks that must be undertaken in order to achieve a vision of over 2 000 GW of wind energy capacity by 2050. Governments, industry, research institutions and the wider energy sector will need to work together to achieve this goal.

  • 3-June-2010

    English

    Nuclear Energy

    Almost one quarter of global electricity could be generated from nuclear power by 2050, making a major contribution to cutting greenhouse gas emissions. This is the central finding of the Nuclear Energy Technology Roadmap, published today by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Such an expansion will require nuclear generating capacity to more than triple over the next 40 years, a target the roadmap describes as ambitious but achievable.

  • 26-August-2010

    English

    Trade and Economic Effects of Responses to the Economic Crisis

    The dramatic collapse in world trade in 2009 is, this report shows, mainly due to: the drop in demand for highly traded products; the drying up of trade finance; and the vertically integrated nature of global supply chains. Contrary to expectations, protectionist measures were relatively muted and did not play a significant part. In fact, because of their sheer size, stimulus measures may have had more impact on trade than direct trade policy measures Nevertheless, dollar for dollar, direct trade restricting measures have the most strongly negative impacts on growth and employment: a one dollar increase in tariff revenues results in a USD 2.16 drop in world exports and a USD 0.73 drop in world income. 

    The analyses presented here suggest that exit strategies from measures to deal with the crisis will be most effective in boosting growth and jobs if they first roll back measures that discriminate between domestic and foreign firms and those that target specific sectors. General demand stimulus measures and active labour market policies are preferable under current conditions. 

  • 15-September-2010

    English

    Addressing Tax Risks Involving Bank Losses

    The financial and economic crisis had a devastating impact on bank profits, with loss-making banks reporting global commercial losses of around USD 400 billion in 2008.  This comprehensive report sets the market context for bank losses and provides an overview of the tax treatment of such losses in 17 OECD countries; describes the tax risks that arise in relation to bank losses from the perspective of both banks and revenue bodies; outlines the incentives that give rise to those risks; and describes the tools revenue bodies have to manage these potential compliance risks. It concludes with recommendations for revenue bodies and for banks on how risks involving bank losses can best be managed and reduced.

  • 13-September-2010

    English

    Advancing the Aquaculture Agenda - Workshop Proceedings

    Aquaculture now provides more than 50% of the global supply of fisheries products for direct human consumption. This conference proceedings addresses key policy challenges of the aquaculture sector. Policy makers, academics, industry representatives, NGOs and international organisations gathered to discuss the critical economic, environmental and social aspects of aquaculture.  This publication presents a selection of key issues covered by the workshop and includes a large number of country case studies, which provide specific examples of national approaches to aquaculture management.

     

  • 11-January-2011

    English

    Apples

    This brochure is published within the framework of  the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the common interpretation of the apples standard in force. This updated brochure illustrates the revised standard text (2009), new marketing practices and development in production. It illustrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. The brochure also includes a USB key with the electronic version of the publication.Thus it is a valuable tool for  inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in the international trade in apples.

  • 24-November-2010

    English

    Sickness, Disability and Work: Breaking the Barriers - A Synthesis of Findings across OECD Countries

    Too many workers leave the labour market permanently due to health problems or disability, and too few people with reduced work capacity manage to remain in employment. This is a social and economic tragedy common to virtually all OECD countries. It also raises an apparent paradox that needs explaining: Why is it that the average health status is improving, yet large numbers of people of working age are leaving the workforce to rely on long-term sickness and disability benefits?  

    This report, the last in the OECD series Sickness, Disability and Work: Breaking the Barriers, synthesises the project’s findings and explores the possible factors behind the paradox described above. It highlights the roles of institutions and policies and concludes that higher expectations and better incentives for the main actors – workers, employers, doctors, public agencies and service providers – are crucial. Based on a review of good and bad practices across OECD countries, this report suggests a series of major reforms are needed to promote employment of people with health problems. 

    The report examines a number of critical policy choices between: tightening inflows and raising outflows from disability benefit, and promoting job retention and new hiring of people with health problems. It questions the need for distinguishing unemployment and disability as two distinct contingencies, emphasises the need for a better evidence base, and underlines the challenges for policy implementation.  

  • 15-November-2010

    English

    OECD Territorial Reviews: Guangdong, China 2010

    Located on the southern coast of China, Guangdong is the country’s most populous and rich province. It has 95.4 million inhabitants and provides one-eighth of the national GDP. A key development feature of Guangdong has been “processing trade”, which has allowed companies to profit from importing materials, assembling goods and exporting them via Hong Kong, China.

    The recent economic crisis has had a strong impact on the province, although Guangdong also faces in-depth structural problems. Growing labour costs and strain on land availability have increasingly challenged the province’s traditional model of development, as have new competitors in China and abroad. Meanwhile, regional disparities within the province have increased, with a high concentration of economic activities and foreign direct investment in the Pearl River Delta area, an agglomeration of nine prefectures of 47.7 million inhabitants that represents 79.4% of the province’s total GDP.

    This review assesses Guangdong’s current approach to economic development. The province is focusing on industrial policies primarily aimed at heavy manufacturing industries (e.g. automobile, shipbuilding, petrochemicals) and supported by investment in hard infrastructure transport projects and energy supply, along with the implementation of the “Double Relocation” policies intended to move lower value-added factories to lagging regions through incentive mechanisms like industrial parks.

    The review discusses how some principles of the OECD regional paradigm could help Guangdong. It also addresses the huge environmental challenges that the province is facing and explores the opportunity for developing a green growth strategy. Strategies to improve Guangdong’s governance are analysed as well, with particular attention paid to co-ordination issues within the Pearl River Delta.

    The Territorial Review of Guangdong is integrated into a series of thematic reviews on regions undertaken by the OECD Territorial Development Policy Committee. The overall aim of these case studies is to draw and disseminate horizontal policy recommendations for regional and national governments.

     

     

  • 4-January-2011

    English

    Challenges for Agricultural Research

    As the world has changed during the past 50 years, so has agriculture. And so has agricultural research, which continues to confront new challenges, from food security to ecological concerns to land use issues. Indeed, as Guy Paillotin, the former president of the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA) has noted, agricultural research “has reached new heights in biology and is exploring other disciplines. It is forever changing, as are the needs of the society”.

    The changing challenges faced by agricultural research were examined in depth at a conference organised by the OECD’s Co-operative Research Programme on Biological Resource Management for Sustainable Agricultural Systems, together with the Czech Republic’s Ministry of Agriculture. Participants came from all agricultural sectors and included farmers, industry, scientists and decision makers, as well as other stake holders.

    This publication presents the twenty papers delivered at the conference. They highlight recent major progress in agricultural research outcomes and address the challenges that lie ahead.

    www.oecd.org/agriculture/crp

  • 4-October-2010

    English

    Paying for Biodiversity - Enhancing the Cost-Effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services

    Biodiversity and ecosystem services provide tangible benefits for society, such as food provisioning, water purification, genetic resources or climate regulation. These services provide critical life support functions and contribute to human health, well being and economic growth. Yet biodiversity is declining worldwide and, in some areas, this loss is accelerating. The need for policies that promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services is more important than ever.  

    Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is a direct and flexible incentive-based mechanism under which the user or beneficiary of an ecosystem service makes a direct payment to an individual or community whose land use decisions have an impact on the ecosystem service provision. Interest in PES has been increasing rapidly over the past decade: PES are proliferating worldwide and there are already more than 300 programmes in place today at national, regional and local levels. 

    Drawing on the literature concerning effective PES and on more than 30 case studies from both developed and developing countries, this book aims to identify good practice in the design and implementation of PES programmes so as to enhance their environmental and cost effectiveness. It addresses the following questions: Why are PES useful and how do they work? How can they be made most effective environmentally and how can their cost-effectiveness be maximised? What are the different potential sources of finance for PES programmes, and how can they be secured? and What are the lessons learned from existing PES programmes and insights for future programmes, including international PES?

  • 30-July-2010

    English

    Energy Technology Initiatives - Implementation through Multilateral Co-operation

    Through its broad range of multilateral technology initiatives (Implementing Agreements), the IEA enables member and non-member countries, businesses, industries, international organisations and non-government organisations to share research on breakthrough technologies, to fill existing research gaps, to build pilot plants and to carry out deployment or demonstration programmes.

    Energy Technology Initiatives: Implementation through Multilateral Co-operation, highlights the most significant recent achievements of the 42 IEA Implementing Agreements.
  • 28-January-2011

    English

    The Economics of Adapting Fisheries to Climate Change

    Climate change is becoming more evident and, as it increases, will alter the productivity of fisheries and the distribution of fish stocks. From an economic point of view, the changes will have impacts on fisheries and coastal communities in different ways. These expected changes require adaptable and flexible fisheries and aquaculture management policies and governance frameworks. However, the forms of future climate change and the extent of its impact remain uncertain. Fisheries policy makers therefore need to develop strategies and decision-making models in order to adapt to climate change under such uncertainty while taking into account social and economic consequences. 

    While most work on climate change in the fisheries sector has focused on fisheries science, this book highlights the economic and policy aspects of adapting fisheries to climate change. An outcome of the OECD Workshop on the Economics of Adapting Fisheries to Climate Change, held in June 2010, the book outlines the actions that fisheries policy makers must undertake in the face of climate change. These include: strengthening the global governance system; a broader use of rights-based management systems; ecosystem protection; industry transformation through the ending of environmental harmful subsidies and a focus on demand for sustainably caught seafood; and, in particular, using aquaculture as a key part of the response to climate change.

  • 30-July-2010

    English

    Sickness, Disability and Work: Breaking the Barriers: Canada - Opportunities for Collaboration

    Sickness and disability policy reform has been a priority for OECD countries wanting to improve employment and social outcomes in this domain. The recent recession and corresponding fall in labour demand is expected to hit marginalised workers, including workers with health problems or disability, harder than the broader working-age population. There is a pressing need for policy makers to address the recent “medicalisation” of labour market problems, a phenomenon that appears to underlie much of the difficulties countries find in disability policy making. This report is an assessment of the Canadian situation, albeit through the lens of the federal government and the provinces of Québec, British Columbia and Manitoba. It looks at the current state of play following a decade of various reforms and preceding a period where further revisions are likely.
  • 18-August-2010

    English

    Sickness, Disability and Work: Breaking the Barriers: Sweden - Will the Recent Reforms Make It?

    Sickness and disability is a key economic policy concern for many OECD countries. Medical conditions, or problems labelled as such by societies and policy systems, are proving an increasing obstacle to raising labour force participation and keeping public expenditure under control. More and more people of working age rely on sickness and disability benefits as their main source of income, and the employment rates of those reporting disabling conditions are low. This report is an assessment of the Swedish reforms, which aim to lower inactivity and increase participation, against the background of recent trends and policy responses in other OECD countries. It looks at what Sweden is currently doing and what more it could do to transform its sickness and disability schemes from passive benefits to active support systems that promote work.    
  • 28-May-2013

    English

    Resources to Reserves 2013 - Oil, Gas and Coal Technologies for the Energy Markets of the Future

    The availability of oil and gas for future generations continues to provoke international debate. In 2005, the first edition of Resources to Reserves found that the known hydrocarbon resources were sufficient to sustain likely growth for the foreseeable future. Yet the book also predicted that developing oil and gas resources – and bringing them to market – would become more technically demanding.

    Resources to Reserves 2013 – a comprehensive update to the 2005 edition – confirms these earlier findings and investigates whether oil and gas resources can be produced at a reasonable cost and in a timely manner, while also protecting environmentally sensitive areas. Released amid a boom in shale gas and oil development in North America that is transforming the global energy landscape, the book surveys the cutting-edge technologies needed to find, produce and bring these reserves to the market, and it reviews the challenges on greenhouse gas emissions associated with fossil fuel production. With renewed interest in coal as a potential source of liquid and gaseous fuels, it also looks at technology advances for this fossil fuel.

  • 3-November-2010

    English

    Tax Policy Reform and Economic Growth

    In the wake of the recent financial and economic crisis, many OECD countries face the challenge of restoring public finances while still supporting growth. This report investigates how tax structures can best be designed to support GDP per capita growth.  

    The analysis suggests a tax and economic growth ranking order according to which corporate taxes are the most harmful type of tax for economic growth, followed by personal income taxes and then consumption taxes, with recurrent taxes on immovable property being the least harmful tax. Growth-oriented tax reform measures include tax base broadening and a reduction in the top marginal personal income tax rates. Some degree of support for R&D through the tax system may help to increase private spending on innovation. 

    But implementing pro-growth tax reforms may not be easy. This report identifies those public and political economy tax reform strategies that will allow policy makers to reconcile differing tax policy objectives and overcome obstacles to reform. It stresses that with clear vision, strong leadership and solid tax policy analysis, growth-oriented tax reform can indeed be realised.

  • 28-October-2010

    English

    Choosing a Broad Base - Low Rate Approach to Taxation

    Many countries will likely face the need to increase tax revenues, as part of fiscal consolidation, during the next few years. But how is this best done? And what are the considerations when choosing between raising tax rates and broadening the tax base by scaling back or abolishing targeted tax provisions (such as allowances, exemptions and preferential rates)? This report aims to answer such questions by taking a close look at the economic and political factors that influence governments’ tax decisions. 

    Although many countries have broadened their tax bases over the past 30 years, targeted tax provisions, notably tax expenditures, continue to be significant.  Like public expenditure, targeted tax reliefs mean that (other) tax rates need to be higher in order to finance these reliefs. This report therefore discusses whether such tax provisions continue to be worthwhile. It includes an annex covering country-specific revenue forgone estimates of tax expenditures for selected OECD countries.  

    This report also identifies political factors, including the lobbying of influential interest groups, as the main obstacles to base-broadening reforms, and it considers how reforms can be best packaged and presented to overcome such obstacles.

  • 29-November-2010

    English

    Cities and Climate Change

    As the hubs of economic activity, cities drive the vast majority of the world’s energy use and are major contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions. Because they are home to major infrastructure and highly concentrated populations, cities are also vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, such as rising sea levels, warmer temperatures and fiercer storms. At the same time, better urban planning and policies can reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions and improve the resilience of urban infrastructure to climate change, thus shaping future trends.  

    This book shows how city and metropolitan regional governments working in tandem with national governments can change the way we think about responding to climate change. The chapters analyse: trends in urbanisation, economic growth, energy use and climate change; the economic benefits of climate action; the role of urban policies in reducing energy demand, improving resilience to climate change and complementing global climate policies; frameworks for multilevel governance of climate change including engagement with relevant stakeholders; and the contribution of cities to “green growth”, including the “greening” of fiscal policies, innovation and jobs. The book also explores policy tools and best practices from both OECD and some non-member countries.  

    Cities and Climate Change reveals the importance of addressing climate change across all levels of government. Local involvement through “climate-conscious” urban planning and management can help achieve national climate goals and minimise tradeoffs between environmental and economic priorities at local levels. The book will be relevant to policy makers, researchers, and others with an interest in learning more about urbanisation and climate change policy. 

  • 29-November-2010

    English

    Handbook on Contracting Out Government Functions and Services in Post-Conflict and Fragile Situations

    The contracting out of government functions and services to external providers is an established practice in many developed and developing countries. On the one hand, it can offer essential support to states that have to deliver basic services urgently; on the other, it risks bypassing governments and undermining their long-term recovery. The OECD’s Partnership for Democratic Governance was formed in 2007 to gather evidence on this issue.

    This handbook does not take a view for or against contracting out; nor is it a technical manual. The handbook is for field practitioners and government policy makers in countries that are either emerging from conflict or are otherwise considered to be fragile. Its aim is to help them make more informed choices about the types of contracting that are best suited to their country. It is a tool to assess whether contracting out might be a possible way forward – either temporarily or over a longer period of time – for delivering a core service (such as basic education, healthcare, water and sanitation) or a government function (such as managing public finances and human resources). The handbook illustrates these points with the aid of case studies ranging from Afghanistan to Haiti and Liberia.

  • 10-September-2010

    English

    Radioactive Waste in Perspective

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies.

  • 7-October-2010

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Czech Republic 2010

    The International Energy Agency's 2010 review of the Czech Republic's energy policies and programmes. It analyses the energy challenges facing the Czech Republic and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

    It finds that the Czech Republic, rich in coal resources, is the third-largest electricity exporter in the European Union. The energy sector plays an important role for the country’s economy and for the regional energy security. Since the last IEA in-depth review in 2005, the Czech Republic has strengthened its energy policy, further liberalised its electricity and gas markets and made laudable efforts to enhance oil and gas security.

    The Czech government has a unique opportunity to develop coherent and balanced energy and climate strategies as it currently updates its policy documents. The draft State Energy Concept concentrates on energy security and on maintaining the Czech Republic as a net electricity exporter, through a diversified energy mix and a maximised use of indigenous resources, comprising coal, uranium and renewable energy.

    While the focus on energy security is praiseworthy, energy policy could be further improved. Energy policy should be better integrated with climate change considerations. At the same time, economic efficiency should be another key pillar of energy policy. To improve its energy security while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and enhancing economic development, the Czech Republic could take measures to: improve energy efficiency and broaden demand-side measures; focus on low-carbon technologies; integrate electricity and natural gas markets regionally; and optimise needed new infrastructure.

  • 28-March-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: New Zealand 2010

    The International Energy Agency's periodic review of New Zealand's energy policies and programmes.  This edition finds that New Zealand’s strong commitment to liberalised energy markets has delivered a relatively high level of energy security and economic prosperity for consumers. Since the previous IEA review in 2006, the government has built on the success of existing policy mechanisms and implemented a number of far-reaching changes in the electricity sector and environmental policy. But progress in some sectors, such as energy efficiency, has not been as strong as anticipated.  

    In mid-2010, the government commenced a review of the New Zealand Energy Strategy. The result is the publication of a new energy strategy, which establishes clear long-term policy priorities and energy-savings goals. Implementing these strategies will bring many new challenges, including attainment of the government’s medium-term energy-savings targets. 

    New Zealand enjoys the advantage of a diverse and balanced portfolio of renewable-energy resources, which contribute over 70% of electricity output – the third highest portion in IEA member countries. This resource base has the potential to deliver greater volumes of energy and the government aspires to increase this proportion to 90% of electricity generation by 2025. Meeting this target will bring many benefits but also tough challenges, such as maintaining a robust National Grid. 

    This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing New Zealand and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide New Zealand towards a more sustainable energy future.

  • 7-October-2010

    English

    Improving Value in Health Care - Measuring Quality

    Are breast cancer survival rates higher in the United States than in the United Kingdom and France? Are a patient's chances of dying within 30 days after admission to a hospital with a heart attack lower in Canada than in Korea? Are surgeons in some countries more likely to leave “foreign bodies” behind after operations or make accidental punctures or lacerations rates when performing surgery? The need for answers to these kinds of questions and the value of measuring the quality of health care are among the issues addressed in this publication. 

    Many health policies depend on our ability to measure the quality of care accurately. Governments want to increase “patient-centeredness”, improve co-ordination of care, and pay providers of high-quality care more than those who underperform. However, measuring the quality of health care is challenging. The OECD’s Health Care Quality Indicator project has overcome some of the problems, though many remain. If policy makers are serious about improving the body of evidence on the quality of care, they need to improve their health information systems.  This publication describes what  international comparable quality measures  are currently available and how  to link these measures to quality policies such as accreditation, practice  guidelines, pay-for-performance, national safety programmes and quality reporting.

  • 29-October-2010

    English

    Breaking Out of Policy Silos - Doing More with Less

    In the context of the economic recovery and public budget cuts, policy silos and fragmented short-term policy interventions have become luxuries that our economies can no longer afford. Government intervenes in a myriad of ways at the local level, and rarely are these interventions co-ordinated effectively. Most of us are familiar with policy “silos”. Such divisions are often taken for granted, blamed on historical working relationships (“it has always been like that”) and organisational cultures (“they don’t work like we do”).  However these divisions come at a cost. The issues and challenges facing local communities are often complex, and require a holistic approach to be resolved. This book provides concrete advice to policy makers at both national and local levels on how to better align policies, reduce duplication and waste, and “do more with less”. It is based on comparative analysis of 11 countries in Australisia, Europe and North America and combines rankings on where countries stand in terms of the integration of employment, skills and economic development policies, with concrete examples of successful policy integration on the ground.

  • 16-November-2010

    English

    Linkages between Agricultural Policies and Environmental Effects - Using the OECD Stylised Agri-environmental Policy Impact Model

    Improving the environmental performance of agriculture is a high priority for OECD countries. But measuring and evaluating the impact of agri-environmental policies on the environment can be challenging, as it requires linking economic and biophysical models in country-specific  contexts. 

    The OECD has developed the Stylised Agri-environmental Policy Impact Model (SAPIM), which can be adapted and applied by researchers and policy makers to better understand the impact of policies on the agri-environment conditions in their countries. 

    This report applies the model to representative farms in Finland, Japan, Switzerland and the United States. These countries include a wide range of objectives, policy measures and agri-environmental conditions. The results highlight that when positive or negative environmental externalities are not taken into account by farmers then the production choices by farmers will reflect private costs and benefits. Policies can potentially raise social welfare by taking account of those externalities. 

    This report notes that, overall, the diversity of conditions across sectors and countries makes it difficult to generalise the impact of agri-environmental policies beyond the situations that are modeled. Nevertheless, some wider policy messages emerge. Drawing on the four case studies examined, this report recommends that; polluting activites that are not regulated should be included in policy design; the existing overall policy environment needs to be taken into account in evaluating agri-environmental policies; and environmental co-benefits and trade-offs need to be recognised.  

    Green growth policies can stimulate economic growth while preventing environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and unsustainable natural resource use. The results from this publication contribute to the Green Growth Strategy being developed by the OECD as a practical policy package for governments to harness the potential of greener growth.

  • 15-December-2010

    English

    Off to a Good Start? Jobs for Youth

    Promoting a smooth transition from school to work, and ensuring that youth are given the opportunities to move on in their careers and lives, have long been issues of fundamental importance for our economies and societies. Today, they are even more pressing challenges as the global economy emerges from the worst crisis of the past 50 years. Indeed, young people have borne much of the brunt of the recent jobs crisis. The youth unemployment rate is approaching 20% in the OECD area, with nearly 4 million more youth among the unemployed than at the end of 2007. 

    The initial experience in the labour market has a profound influence on later working life. Getting off to a good start facilitates youth integration into the world of work and lays the foundation for a good career, while it can be difficult to catch up after an initial failure. In particular, the jobs crisis is likely to leave long-lasting “scarring” effects on some of the current generation of school-leavers, particularly if they face multiple disadvantages, such as having low skills and also coming from a disadvantaged background. 

    Tackling the youth jobs crisis requires a strong commitment from all: the youth themselves, the government through well-targeted and effective policy measures, social partners though their participation in the dialogue, and other key actors – such as teachers, practitioners and parents – who can really make a difference to investing in youth. 

    This report makes an important contribution to a new agenda of youth-friendly employment policies and practices. It analyses the situation of youth employment and unemployment in the context of the jobs crisis and identifies successful policy measures in OECD countries. But it also discusses structural reforms in education and in the labour market that can facilitate the transition from school to work. The report draws on both recent data and the main lessons that emerged from the 16 country reviews conducted as part of the OECD Jobs for Youth/Des emplois pour les jeunes programme.

  • English

    Health at a Glance: Asia/Pacific 2010

    This first edition of Health at a Glance: Asia/Pacific presents a set of key indicators of health status, the determinants of health, health care resources and utilisation, and health care expenditure and financing across 27 Asia/Pacific countries and economies in the Asia/Pacific region.  

    Drawing on a wide range of data sources, it builds on the format used in previous editions of Health at a Glance: OECD

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  • 13-December-2010

    English

    The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy

    What contribution can nuclear energy make to improve the security of energy supply? This study, which examines a selection of OECD member countries, qualitatively and quantitatively validates the often intuitive assumption that, as a largely domestic source of electricity with stable costs and no greenhouse gas emissions during production, nuclear energy can make a positive contribution. Following an analysis of the meaning and context of security of supply, the study uses transparent and policy-relevant indicators to show that, together with improvements in energy efficiency, nuclear energy has indeed contributed significantly to enhanced energy supply security in OECD countries over the past 40 years.
  • 27-October-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Greece 2011

    This 2011 review of energy policy in Greece finds that increasing competition and reducing the role of the state in the energy sector should add efficiency and dynamism to the economy.  This, in turn, should help generate self-sustained employment and prosperity for the country.  

    Reforming the electricity and gas markets is an economic and political imperative. In particular, regulatory authorities must be given the necessary power and independence to reduce the market power of dominant firms. Commendably, Greece adopted a law to this end in August 2011. The envisaged reforms are fundamentally sound and can help the economy grow. The governmentfs key focus should now be on implementing this law in full without delay. 

    Greece has a large potential for wind and solar energy and is rightly determined to fulfill this potential. The renewable energy sector also provides opportunities for new industrial development, in particular if linked with R&D activities. To facilitate renewable energy projects, the government recently improved investment conditions significantly by increasing feed-in tariffs, shortening and simplifying the licensing procedures and introducing stronger incentives for local acceptance.  

    Greecefs oil and gas sources are already well diversified. Gas use is projected to increase, as the country moves to decarbonise its coal-dominated power sector. Experience from IEA member countries has shown that enhancing energy efficiency can help improve energy security in a cost-effective way. This, in turn, can help mitigate climate change and deliver economic benefits.

  • 17-November-2010

    English

    The Economic Impact of Export Restrictions on Raw Materials

    Export restrictions on raw materials are applied to achieve a number of policy objectives. However, they can have a significant and negative impact on the efficient allocation of resources, international trade, and the competitiveness and development of industries in both exporting and importing countries.  

    By diverting exports to domestic markets, export restrictions raise prices for foreign consumers and importers. At the same time, by reducing domestic prices in the applying countries and increasing global uncertainty concerning future prices, export restrictions negatively affect investment, thus potentially reducing the overall supply of raw materials in the long term. In view of existing alternative policy tools that have a different impact on trade, the effectiveness of export restrictions to achieve stated policy objectives should be carefully reviewed.  

    This publication presents a selection of papers discussed at the OECD Workshop on Raw Materials, held in Paris in October 2009. This workshop was organised in response to the growing concern on the use of export restrictions on raw materials, particularly by emerging economies.

  • 4-January-2011

    English

    Shielding Aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities - SATIF 10 - Workshop Proceedings, Geneva, Switzerland 2-4 June 2010

    Particle accelerators have evolved over the last decades from simple devices to powerful machines, and are having an increasingly important impact on research, technology and daily life. Today they cover a wide range of applications including material science and medical applications. In recent years, requirements from new technological and research applications have emerged while the number of accelerator facilities in operation, being commissioned, designed or planned has significantly grown. Their parameters (such as the beam energy, beam currents and intensities, and target composition) vary widely, giving rise to new radiation shielding aspects and problems. 

    Particle accelerators must be operated in safe ways to protect operators, the public and the environment. As the design and use of these facilities evolve, so must the analytical methods used in the safety analyses. These workshop proceedings review the state of the art in radiation shielding of accelerator facilities and irradiation targets. They also evaluate progress on the development of modelling methods used to assess the effectiveness of such shielding as part of safety analyses.

  • 14-February-2011

    English

    Evaluation of Agricultural Policy Reforms in the United States

    The United States is one of the most important agricultural producers in the world. It has a very large domestic market and is the world’s largest exporter of agricultural products. Indeed, the share of US agricultural production exported is more than double that of any other US industry and the trade surplus in agricultural products acts as an important stimulus to the US economy. Thus, US agricultural policies exert a strong influence on world agricultural markets.   

    The United States maintains an array of agricultural policies with goals that range from the traditional objectives of stabilising agricultural production and supporting farm income to those that have more recently increased in importance, such as assuring adequate nutrition, securing food safety, encouraging environmental protection and facilitating rural development. 

    This study analyses and evaluates US agricultural policies, focusing on the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, in the context of developments in agricultural policy that have taken place in the United States since 1985. It looks closely at five US Farm Acts: the Food Security Act of 1985; the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990; the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996; the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (2002 Farm Act); and the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008. This study also discusses several emerging issues and challenges for US agricultural policies, and offers key policy recommendations.

  • 11-February-2011

    English

    Fisheries Policy Reform - National Experiences

    Much has been done over the years to improve fisheries management in OECD countries. Ongoing problems of over-fishing, overcapacity and the economic crisis intensify the need for reform. Although there is a general consensus on the importance of a successful fisheries management, the effort levels and effectiveness of policy reforms have differed among OECD countries. This study examines the factors that facilitate reform, as well as the difficulties countries face in the process of reform. It provides an overview of domestic reform experiences in Norway, Mexico, Iceland, New Zealand and Korea. 
  • 8-February-2011

    English

    Disaggregated Impacts of CAP Reforms - Proceedings of an OECD Workshop

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is an important policy for the European Union and accounts for about 40% of the EU budget. Ever since its inception in 1958, the CAP has been regularly reviewed and adjusted to improve its performance and adapt to changing circumstances. At a time when the post-2013 future of the CAP is being discussed and major challenges such as food security and climate change lay ahead, it is important to review the impact of past reforms and to draw lessons for the design of future policies.

    While the studies in these proceedings often take account of national and international market effects of agricultural policies, they tend to focus on the impact of policies on farms and at the regional and local levels. Today, the European Union is composed of very diverse regions that are affected very differently by any given farm policy, depending on the structural characteristics of the farms’ and regions’ economies.

    This report collects papers presented at the OECD Workshop on Disaggregated Impacts of CAP Reforms, held in Paris in March 2010, which focused on recent reforms. In particular, it examined the implementation of the single payment scheme since 2005 and the transfer of funds between different measures. Special attention was also paid to reforms of the sugar and dairy sectors with respect to the quota system and the restructuring of both these industries. The papers also look at the impact of the new direct payment system on land use, production and income.

  • 15-December-2010

    English

    2008 DAC Report on Multilateral Aid

    Multilateral aid accounts for over a third of total official development aid. The scale at which the multilateral system is used reflects donors’ views of it as an important aid channel. However, a clearer picture of the multilateral system is needed to analyse this channel, and the first ever OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) report on multilateral aid aims to address this gap. The report provides a snapshot of the multilateral aid architecture, from the funding of multilateral organisations by DAC members to their own multilateral aid strategies and policies. The report also highlights issues such as fragmentation, multilateral effectiveness, reform processes and partner country views.
  • 18-May-2011

    English

    Help Wanted? - Providing and Paying for Long-Term Care

    This book examines the challenges countries are facing with regard to providing and paying for long-term care. With populations ageing and the need for long-term care growing rapidly, this book looks at such issues as: future demographic trends, policies to support family carers, long-term care workers, financing arrangements, long-term care insurance, and getting better value for money in long-term care. 

     

    “WHO recognizes that long-term care represents a major challenge for all countries in the world, with important implications for economic development and for the health and well-being of older people. This well-documented book provides a comparative analysis of the common challenges and diverse solutions OECD countries are adopting to respond to the growing demand for long-term care services, and particularly its implications for financing and labour markets.  It provides much needed evidence to guide policy makers and individuals.”

    -Dr John Beard, Director, Department of Ageing and Life Course,
    World Health Organization

     

    “This carefully researched book offers invaluable data and insights into the organization and financing of long-term care in OECD countries.  The book is an indispensable resource for anyone interested in international long-term care”.


    -Dr. Joshua M. Wiener, Distinguished Fellow and Program Director
    of RTI’s Aging, Disability, and Long-Term Care Program, United States

  • 22-March-2010

    English

    Public Attitudes to Nuclear Power

    Public attitudes to nuclear power are critical in shaping nuclear policies in OECD/NEA countries and the latter will only be able to make use of this energy source if a well-informed public considers that its benefits outweigh its risks. This report provides a number of insights into public attitudes towards nuclear power. Support for nuclear energy is generally correlated with the level of experience of and knowledge about nuclear power. Interestingly, while the public is generally aware of the contribution of nuclear power to ensuring security of energy supply, its potential contribution to combating climate change is less well recognised. Solving the waste disposal issue would also significantly increase the level of public support. Furthermore, OECD/NEA governments may wish to reflect carefully on how to react to these results as, according to the surveys, they are the least trusted source on energy issues, far behind regulators, non-governmental organisations and scientists.
  • 15-April-2010

    English

    More than Just Concrete Realities - The Symbolic Dimension of Radioactive Waste Management

    Key concepts of radioactive waste management, such as safety, risk, reversibility and retrievability, carry different meanings for the technical community and for non-technical stakeholders. Similarly, socio-economic concepts, including community, landscape and benefit packages, are interpreted differently by diverse societal groups. Opinions and attitudes are not simply a faithful reflection of decision making, actual events and communicated messages; perceptions and interpretations of events and objects also play a role. This report presents key issues and examples in order to build awareness of the importance of symbols and symbolism in communicating about perceptions and interpretations. It adds to the recognition that dialogue amongst stakeholders is shaped by dimensions of meaning that reach beyond dictionary definitions and are grounded in tradition and social conventions. A better understanding of these less obvious or conspicuous realities should help find additional ways of creating constructive relationships amongst stakeholders.
  • 31-August-2010

    English

    Comparing Nuclear Accident Risks with Those from Other Energy Sources

    Nuclear accident risks are raised frequently in discussions of the acceptability of nuclear power generation, often framed in the context of the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. In reality, the safety record of nuclear power plants, by comparison with other electricity generation sources, is very good. This report describes how safety has been enhanced in nuclear power plants over the years, as the designs have progressed from Generation I to Generation III, and why it is important that safety remain the highest priority. This is illustrated by considering core damage frequencies and large radioactive release frequencies for each generation of nuclear power plants. It also compares severe accident data (those resulting in five or more fatalities) between different energy sources, both for immediate fatalities and for delayed (latent) fatalities, recognising that the latter data are often more difficult to estimate. Finally, it uses results of opinion surveys to analyse public confidence in nuclear operations and how this is correlated with trust in legislation and regulatory systems. It has been written for a general audience.
  • 22-March-2010

    English

    Towards Greater Harmonisation of Decommissioning Cost Estimates

    Currently, the format, content and practice of cost estimation vary considerably both within and between countries, which makes it very difficult to compare estimates, even for similar types of facilities. The reasons are largely due to different legal requirements in different countries and to historical custom and practice, leading to variations in basic assumptions such as the anticipated decommissioning strategy and end state of the site, and to different approaches to dealing with uncertainties. While attaining harmonisation across national approaches to cost estimation may be difficult to achieve, standardising the way decommissioning cost estimates are structured and reported will give greater transparency to the decommissioning process and will help build regulator and stakeholder confidence in the cost estimates and schedules.

    This booklet highlights the findings of the NEA Decommissioning Cost Estimation Group (DCEG) which recently studied cost estimation practices in 12 countries.

  • 5-October-2010

    English

    Occupational Radiological Protection Principles and Criteria for Designing New Nuclear Power Plants

    Global demand for electricity continues to grow and numerous new nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being planned or constructed in NEA member countries. Most of these new NPPs will be of the third generation, and will be designed for as long as 80 years of operation. The successful design, construction and operation of these plants will depend broadly on appropriately implementing the lessons from experience accumulated to date.

    This case study introduces a policy and technical framework that may be used when formulating technical assistance and guidance for senior managers of NPPs, designers, manufacturers, contractors and authorities responsible for regulating occupational radiation exposure. It is aimed in particular at assisting design and license assessments of new NPPs. Although not targeting the needs of countries introducing nuclear power for the first time, this case study can also provide valuable input on occupational radiological protection issues for the implementation of new nuclear energy programmes.

  • 21-April-2010

    English

    Applying Decommissioning Experience to the Design and Operation of New Nuclear Power Plants

    Experience from decommissioning projects suggests that the decommissioning of nuclear power plants could be made easier if it received greater consideration at the design stage and during the operation of the plants. Better forward planning for decommissioning results in lower worker doses and reduced costs. When appropriate design measures are not taken at an early stage, their introduction later in the project becomes increasingly difficult. Hence, their early consideration may lead to smoother and more effective decommissioning.

    It is now common practice to provide a preliminary decommissioning plan as part of the application for a licence to operate a nuclear facility. This means, in turn, that decommissioning issues are being considered during the design process. Although many design provisions aiming at improved operation and maintenance will be beneficial for decommissioning as well, designers also need to consider issues that are specific to decommissioning, such as developing sequential dismantling sequences and providing adequate egress routes. These issues and more are discussed in this report.

  • 15-March-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Norway 2011

    The International Energy Agency's 2011 comprehensive review of Norways energy policies and programmes. The review finds that Norway has a unique twin role as a major oil and gas producer and a strong global advocate of climate change mitigation. As the third-largest exporter of energy in the world, it contributes to global energy security by providing reliable supplies to consuming countries. At the same time, the Norwegians highly value environmental sustainability and the country is taking climate policy very seriously. Norway also manages its petroleum resources and revenue in a commendable way, setting a model for other countries. The challenge now for the government is to stimulate further increases in natural gas and petroleum production from safe and environmentally sustainable operations.  

    Norway’s large potential for hydropower generation is an asset, as European electricity markets are integrating and variable renewable energy generation is set to increase. More cross-border interconnections are needed to realise the full potential of hydropower for balancing variations in demand and supply in the regional market. Increased interconnections would also improve electricity security in Norway in times of low hydropower availability. Gas-fired power plants should also be considered for use for the same purpose. 

    In order to meet its ambitious targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, Norway needs to step up efforts at home. Although the dominance of low-carbon electricity in the energy mix limits the scope for domestic measures, large potential for emission reductions remains in oil and gas production, manufacturing and transport. However, measures to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy should be carefully designed, because they often focus on electricity and would thus not reduce emissions. Recent large increases in spending on energy RD&D and ongoing efforts to develop carbon capture and storage are very welcome.

  • 2-March-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland 2011

    The International Energy Agency's comprehensive 2011 review Poland's energy policies and programmes.  The review finds that Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R&D).

    Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Polandfs energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Polandfs power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Polandfs efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the countryfs energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The governmentfs attention to R&D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Polandfs potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place.

    This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  • 21-February-2012

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Denmark 2011

    Denmark is a leader among OECD member countries in terms of its well-designed policies for renewable energy, energy efficiency and climate change. The country is a forthright voice in international fora for climate policy and a strong advocate of tougher climate-change mitigation measures. A long history of consensus-based policy making and political stability has been leveraged to develop Denmarkfs far-reaching and comprehensive energy policies, and also allowed a clear long-term vision to emerge. 

    Denmarkfs long-term energy goal is to become completely independent of fossil fuels use by 2050. In 2011, the government published the Energy Strategy 2050, a detailed and ambitious policy document that sets out a series of new energy-policy initiatives. The strategy aims to transform Denmark into a low-carbon society with a stable and affordable energy supply.  

    The first phase of the strategy focuses on a series of short-term initiatives that significantly reduce dependence on fossil fuels by strengthening and expanding existing policies in energy efficiency and renewable energy. The second and third phases will involve development and implementation of long-term energy solutions including building a green transport sector and promotion of smart grids.  

    This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing Denmark as it develops and implements the ambitious policies outlined in the Energy Strategy 2050, and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements in particular sectors. The intent of the review is to assist Danish policy makers as they move towards a sustainable, low-carbon energy future.

  • 15-July-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2011

    The International Energy Agency's 2011 review of Hungary's energy policies and programmes. The review finds that regional co-operation is a vital element of Hungary's energy market and energy security policy. Hungary, which shares borders with seven countries, is well placed to improve regional energy security by catalysing the development of closely integrated regional markets for electricity and natural gas.

    A country strongly dependent on natural gas imports, Hungary has taken several commendable steps to manage risks to its supply. It has enhanced storage capacity and diversified cross-border capacity, and is developing new supply routes. Hungary is also working hard to strengthen the regional electricity market through new interconnectors and market coupling.

    Electricity demand within Hungary is expected to grow, while generating capacity is rapidly ageing. Investments are needed for grid improvements and generating capacity, both for increasing capacity (especially for low-carbon electricity) and replacing ageing plants. Ensuring predictable and attractive framework conditions for investing in energy infrastructure is crucial.

    The government is considering additional nuclear power units. The extent to which nuclear power capacity will be expanded should be clarified without unnecessary delay, as it will have broad implications for the viability of other current and future base-load technologies.

    Although per-capita energy consumption in Hungary is well below the OECD average, considerable potential remains for improving energy efficiency across all sectors. Measures to reduce consumption in the large existing building stock should be the governmentfs top priority for energy policy. Gradually, Hungary should also replace broad subsidies for energy use with direct support to those in need.

  • 23-March-2011

    English

    Trade for Growth and Poverty Reduction - How Aid for Trade Can Help

    Trade promotes economic growth, alleviates poverty and helps countries reach their development goals. However, developing countries – in particular the least developed – face difficulties in making trade happen and turning trade into economic growth. The Aid for Trade Initiative – launched at the 2005 World Trade Organisation conference in Hong Kong – aims at helping these countries to take advantage of trade opportunities and to reap the benefits of their integration into the world economy. The Initiative has been a success: it has not only raised awareness among both donors and developing countries about the role of trade in development, but also helped secure increased resources.

    Trade for Growth and Poverty Reduction: How Aid for Trade Can Help explains how Aid for Trade can foster economic growth and reduce poverty, and why it is an important instrument for a development strategy that actively supports poverty alleviation. Unlocking this potential requires carefully designed and sequenced trade reforms. While developing countries have many trade-related needs, but financial resources and political capital for reforms are limited, it is an important priority to tackle the most binding constraints to trade expansion. This report describes the diagnostic tools available, evaluates their strengths and weaknesses, and suggests a dynamic framework to guide the sequencing of reform and donor support.

  • 9-October-2009

    English

    Research and Test Facilities Required in Nuclear Science and Technology

    Experimental facilities are essential research tools both for the development of nuclear science and technology and for testing systems and materials which are currently being used or will be used in the future. As a result of economic pressures and the closure of older facilities, there are concerns that the ability to undertake the research necessary to maintain and to develop nuclear science and technology may be in jeopardy.

    An NEA expert group with representation from ten member countries, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Commission has reviewed the status of those research and test facilities of interest to the NEA Nuclear Science Committee. They include facilities relating to nuclear data measurement, reactor development, neutron scattering, neutron radiography, accelerator-driven systems, transmutation, nuclear fuel, materials, safety, radiochemistry, partitioning and nuclear process heat for hydrogen production.

    This report contains the expert group’s detailed assessment of the current status of these nuclear research facilities and makes recommendations on how future developments in the field can be secured through the provision of high-quality, modern facilities. It also describes the online database which has been established by the expert group which includes more than 700 facilities.

  • 13-July-2009

    English

    Work Management to Optimise Occupational Radiological Protection at Nuclear Power Plants

    Since 1992, the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) has provided a forum for radiological protection professionals from nuclear power utilities and national regulatory authorities worldwide to discuss, promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings for the radiological protection of workers at nuclear power plants. The ISOE objective is to improve occupational exposure management at nuclear power plants by exchanging relevant information, data and experience on methods to optimise occupational radiological protection.

    This report on work management provides practical guidance on the application of work management principles as a contribution to the optimisation of occupational radiological protection. It recognises that while work management is no longer a new concept, continued efforts are needed to ensure that good performance, outcomes and trends are maintained in the face of current and future challenges. The focus of this report is therefore on presenting the key aspects of work management that should be considered by management and workers to save time, doses and money, supported by updated practical examples from within the ISOE community.

  • 17-May-2010

    English

    Cost Estimation for Decommissioning - An International Overview of Cost Elements, Estimation Practices and Reporting Requirements

    This report is based on a study carried out by the NEA Decommissioning Cost Estimation Group (DCEG) on decommissioning cost elements, estimation practices and reporting requirements. Its findings indicate that cost methodologies need to be updated continuously using cost data from actual decommissioning projects and hence, systematic approaches need to be implemented to collect these data. The study also concludes that changes in project scope may have the greatest impact on project costs. Such changes must therefore be identified immediately and incorporated into the estimate. Finally, the report notes that more needs to be done to facilitate the comparison of estimates, for example by providing a reporting template for national estimates.

  • 10-March-2010

    English

    National Programmes in Chemical Partitioning - A Status Report

    Many countries have been performing a wide range of research on the partitioning and transmutation (P&T) of minor actinides and fission products. The aim is to provide greater flexibility in terms of radioactive waste management strategies and deploying advanced nuclear fuel cycles. This report describes recent and ongoing national research programmes related to chemical partitioning in the Czech Republic, France, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Russian Federation, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. European Commission research programmes are also included.

  • 26-July-2010

    English

    International Nuclear Law - History, Evolution and Outlook

    This publication commemorates the International School of Nuclear Law which is celebrating its 10th anniversary in 2010. The purpose of the publication is to provide an overview of the international nuclear law instruments, their background, content and development over the years and to present an outlook on future needs in the field of international nuclear law. Renowned experts in the nuclear law field have contributed scholarly papers on the various aspects of international nuclear law, including international institutions, protection against ionising radiation, nuclear safety, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and safeguards, nuclear security, transport of nuclear material and fuel, management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, liability, compensation and insurance for nuclear damages, environmental protection and international trade in nuclear material and equipment. This publication is dedicated to the school’s 500+ alumni from all around the world.

  • 28-March-2011

    English

    The Call for Innovative and Open Government - An Overview of Country Initiatives

    This report presents an overview of country initiatives concerning efficient, effective public services and open and innovative government. It focuses on four core issues:  delivery of public services in times of fiscal consolidation; a more effective and performance-oriented public service; promotion of open and transparent government; and strategies for implementation of a reform agenda.  These issues were discussed at the OECD Public Governance Ministerial Meeting held in Venice, Italy, in November 2010, hosted by the Italian Ministry for Public Administration and Innovation.

  • 3-February-2009

    English

    Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transition Scenario Studies - Status Report

    Future nuclear fuel cycles could effectively address radioactive waste issues with the implementation of partitioning and transmutation (P&T). Previous studies have defined the infrastructure requirements for several key technical approaches. While these studies have proven extremely valuable, several countries have also recognised the complex, dynamic nature of the infrastructure problem: severe new issues arise when attempting to transit from current open or partially closed cycles to a final equilibrium or burn-down mode. While the issues are country-specific when addressed in detail, it is believed that there exists a series of generic issues related only to the current situation and to the desired end point.

    These issues are critical to implementing a sustainable nuclear energy infrastructure. The present report focuses on the definition of key issues, the assessment of technologies and national scenario assessments.

  • 24-November-2011

    English

    Food and Agriculture

    As part of the OECD Green Growth Strategy, this new series aims to provide in-depth reviews of the green growth issues faced by different sectors. The agriculture and fisheries sectors have an important role to play in contributing to greener growth, in particular through facilitating the uptake of green technologies and management practices and reducing waste in the food chain. This will involve a range of policies, including: the reform of environmentally harmful subsidies that distort efficient resource use; freer international trade; shifting towards targeted policies that will support poor and vulnerable farmers; rewarding the provision of ecosystem services; and encouraging R&D, technologies and management practices that improve the productivity of resource use. Framing appropriate “greening” policies is also a major governance issue which requires examining the incentives and disincentives generated by policies, as well as the regulatory and institutional framework more broadly.

     

  • 14-April-2011

    English

    Job-rich Growth in Asia - Strategies for Local Employment, Skills Development and Social Protection

    Jobs-rich Growth in Asia discusses some of the most pressing issues that countries in Southeast Asia are facing in regard to boosting local employment and skills development while advancing social protection strategies in emerging, fast-growing labour markets. A joint OECD/ILO initiative, this book analyses local approaches in Asia to modernise labour markets and skills strategies and shows how local recovery is taking place through a combination of policy measures on employment creation, skills development and social protection.
  • 24-May-2011

    English

    Harnessing Variable Renewables - A Guide to the Balancing Challenge

    Power systems must be actively managed to maintain a steady balance between supply and demand. This is already a complex task as demand varies continually. But what happens when supply becomes more variable and less certain, as with some renewable sources of electricity like wind and solar PV that fluctuate with the weather? To what extent can the resources that help power systems cope with the challenge of variability in demand also be applied to variability of supply? How large are these resources? And what share of electricity supply from variable renewables can they make possible?

    There is no one-size-fits-all answer. The ways electricity is produced, transported and consumed around the world exhibit great diversity. Grids can cross borders, requiring co-ordinated international policy, or can be distinct within a single country or region. And whether found in dispatchable power plants, storage facilities, interconnections for trade or on the demand side, the flexible resource that ensures the provision of reliable power in the face of uncertainty likewise differs enormously.

    Written for decision makers, Harnessing Variable Renewables: a Guide to the Balancing Challenge sheds light on managing power systems with large shares of variable renewables. It presents a new, step-by-step approach developed by the IEA to assess the flexibility of power systems, which identifies the already present resources that could help meet the twin challenges of variability and uncertainty.

  • 25-May-2011

    English

    Towards Green Growth

    The Green Growth Strategy, outlined in this book, provides concrete recommendations and measurement tools to support countries’ efforts to achieve economic growth and development, while at the same time ensure that natural assets continue to provide the ecosystem services on which our well being relies. The strategy proposes a flexible policy framework that can be tailored to different country circumstances and stages of development.

  • 27-May-2011

    English

    Climate and Electricity Annual 2011 - Data and Analyses

    Electricity use is growing worldwide, providing a range of energy services: lighting, heating and cooling, specific industrial uses, entertainment, information technologies, and mobility. Because its generation remains largely based on fossil fuels, electricity is also the largest and the fastest-growing source of energy-related CO2 emissions, the primary cause of human-induced climate change. Forecasts from the IEA and others show that “decarbonising” electricity and enhancing end-use efficiency can make major contributions to the fight against climate change. 

    Global and regional trends on electricity supply and demand indicate the magnitude of the decarbonisation challenge ahead. As climate concerns become an essential component of energy policy-making, the generation and use of electricity will be subject to increasingly strong policy actions by governments to reduce their associated CO2 emissions. Despite these actions, and despite very rapid growth in renewable energy generation, significant technology and policy challenges remain if this unprecedented essential transition is to be achieved.

    The IEA Climate and Electricity Annual 2011 provides an authoritative resource on progress to date in this area, with statistics related to CO2 and the electricity sector across ten regions of the world. It also presents topical analyses on meeting the challenge of rapidly curbing CO2 emissions from electricity, from both a policy and technology perspective.

  • 20-June-2011

    English

    Competitiveness and Private Sector Development: Republic of Moldova 2011 - Fostering SME Development

    This report reviews the micro, small and medium-sized business sector in the Republic of Moldova, as well as governmental policies related to small and medium-sized enterprises, particularly regarding financing and innovation. 
  • 28-September-2011

    English

    Smart Rules for Fair Trade - 50 years of Export Credits

    On the 50th anniversary of the OECD, we examine the unique work the organisation performs in regulating and rationalising governments’ use of export credits in support of exports, jobs, economic growth and national interests more broadly. This work is part of a global post war effort to emphasise multilateral co operation and sound economic policies to promote co operation, efficiency and prosperity rather than destructive competition, controversy and conflict.

    OECD export credits work is one of the basic building blocks of the ever growing structure of global trade agreements that aim to maintain open and efficient markets. The objective is to eliminate subsidies and unfair practices in the economic competition that forms the foundation of a healthy and dynamic global economy. The elimination of official financing subsidies in global trade is only a part of the broader trade policy agenda, but it is a vital part, and has been delegated to the OECD by the WTO. Since financing is the life blood of trade flows, specialised OECD housed work allows trade to flow efficiently for aircraft and other capital goods while other trade policy work and litigation continue at the WTO.

    The export credits work at the OECD is described in this collection of essays. However it is about much more than the series of agreements described herein. It is more fundamentally about the governments and their people - policy makers and experts - who gather at the OECD to build collectively a system of export credits disciplines that is fair, transparent, adaptable and effective. It is therefore as much about people and ideas as anything else. The export credit secretariat pictured above represents only the latest in a long line of OECD staff committed to facilitate and advise this work.

    The OECD’s motto on its 50th anniversary is “Better Policies for Better Lives.” This reminds us that in the end, it is policies that are at the centre of human well being. And export credits work is about promoting these better policies by developing “smart rules” that open markets and maintain a level playing field and by bringing people and governments together to this end.

  • 5-October-2011

    English

    Evaluation of Agricultural Policy Reforms in the European Union

    This report provides an overview of the main characteristics and structure of the current Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and its developments in the last 25 years in a changing environment within and outside the EU.

    Drawing on material presented at the OECD Workshop on the Disaggregated Impacts of CAP Reform, held on 10-11 March 2010, and model-based scenarios, it analyses the impacts of policy changes on production, trade, land use, farm structure, the environment and some aspects of rural development, using changes in the level and composition of OECD indicators of support, notably the Producer Support Estimate (PSE).

    This report further suggests improvements in the market orientation, competitiveness and risk management at all levels of the food chain, and pleads for clarifying the link between policy measures and objectives through better targeting, and strengthening evidence on which to base policies.

  • 2-March-2012

    English

    Agricultural Policies for Poverty Reduction

    With more than two-thirds of the world’s poor living in rural areas, higher rural incomes are a pre-requisite for sustained poverty reduction and reduced hunger. This volume sets out a strategy for raising rural incomes which emphasises the creation of diversified rural economies with opportunities within and outside agriculture. Agricultural policies need to be integrated within an overall mix of policies and institutional reforms that facilitate, rather than impede, structural change. By investing in public goods, such as infrastructure and agricultural research, and by building effective social safety nets, governments can limit the role of less efficient policies such as price controls and input subsidies.

  • 19-June-2013

    English

    Aid for Trade and Development Results - A Management Framework

    This study presents a tool to help design logical frameworks for results-based management of aid for trade. What are donors and partner countries trying to achieve?  Three different levels of possible objectives (i.e. direct, intermediate and final) are explored. Trade is treated as an intermediate objective, serving as a transmission mechanism, with an increase in the value for trade as the final objective. Six case studies - Bangladesh, Colombia, Ghana, Rwanda, Solomon Islands and Viet Nam - provide a comprehensive overview of the challenges involved in introducing a tool for managing results in an agenda that covers a broad area of interventions that are aimed at building trade-related supply side capacities.

  • 20-October-2011

    English

    Globalisation, Comparative Advantage and the Changing Dynamics of Trade

    The effects of globalisation have been at the forefront of public debate in recent years, fuelled on the one hand by the large benefits of integrated markets, and on the other hand, by the detrimental adjustment effects often experienced by many economies as a result.  Knowing how trade has been evolving over time and the role policy has played in this evolution are critical to understanding the globalisation debate and grasping the lessons for future policy development. The comparative advantage hypothesis has been suggested as one of the principal explanations of international trade and of the benefits associated with openness. It has also provided the intellectual underpinnings for most trade policy in the past 50 years. This book collects OECD work that builds on recent contributions to the theory and empirics of comparative advantage, putting particular emphasis on the role policy can play in shaping trade.

  • 21-September-2011

    English

    Evaluation of Agricultural Policy Reforms in Turkey

    Turkey is an important producer and exporter of agricultural commodities on world markets and is estimated to be the world’s 7th-largest agricultural producer. Although the economic importance of agricultural sector relative to the industrial and service sectors has been declining, agriculture still remains a key part of Turkey’s society, employing about one quarter of the workforce and generating most of income and employment in rural areas.

    Agricultural policies in Turkey have evolved significantly over time and the new Agricultural Law agreed in 2006 aims to align Turkey’s agricultural policies with those of the European Union. The main purpose of the study is to evaluate recent policy developments in the context of a broader review of policy developments since the implementation of the Agricultural Reform Implementation Project (ARIP) in 2001. This study also discusses several emerging issues and challenges for Turkish agricultural policies, and offers key policy recommendations.

  • 8-April-2011

    English

    From War to Wealth - Fifty Years of Innovation

    This lavishly illustrated book tells the story of the development of the OECD from the founding of its predecessor organisation, the OEEC after World War II, to the transformation into the OECD in 1960, and its evolution since that time. Covering the stewardship of 6 Secretaries-General over a period of 50 years, the book describes what OECD does and how it does it.  An interesting chapter on a Day in the Life of a Chateau, tracks a typical day for a variety of OECD staffers, illustrating the breadth and variety of what people do at the OECD.  
  • 22-June-2011

    English

    Italy: Review of Issues and Policies

    This report sets out the main analysis and recommendations of the tourism policy review of Italy. It  assesses the current state of tourism performance in Italy, its framework conditions and business environment, the existing set of tourism policies and programmes, especially in the area of statistics, promotion and education and training.  The report presents a series of policy recommendations intended to support policy and programme development in Italy in order to develop and strengthen further the tourism sector and to provide inspiration to policy makers in other countries faced with similar challenges.  The report includes international learning models from  the United Kingdom, Canada, Spain and Switzerland.

  • 21-April-2011

    English

    Smart Grids

    The development of smart grids – which the IEA defines as an electricity network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of electricity from all generation sources to meet the varying electricity demands of end users – is essential if the global community is to achieve shared goals for energy security, economic development and climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, existing misunderstandings of exactly what smart grids are and the physical and institutional complexity of electricity systems make it difficult to implement smart grids on the scale that is needed. This roadmap sets out specific steps needed over the coming years to achieve milestones that will allow smart grids to deliver a clean energy future.
  • 1-June-2011

    English

    The Multilateral Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters - Amended by the 2010 Protocol

    This publication contains the official text of the Multilateral Convention on Mutual Assistance in Tax Matters as amended by the 2010 Protocol. The original Convention was developed jointly by the Council of Europe and the OECD and opened for signature by the member states of both organisations on 25 January 1988. The original Convention was amended in 2010 to align it to the international standard on information exchange for tax purposes and to open it to all countries, responding to the call of the G20 to make it easier for all countries to secure the benefits of the new co-operative tax environment. The amended Convention entered into force on 1 June 2011.

    This Convention aims to help governments enforce their tax laws, provides an international legal framework for co-operation among countries in countering international tax avoidance and evasion. It offers a variety of tools for administrative co-operation in tax matters, providing all forms of exchange of information, assistance in tax collection and service of documents. It also facilitates joint audits and information sharing to counter other serious crimes (e.g. money laundering, corruption) when certain conditions are met. It preserves the rights of taxpayers, provides extensive safeguards to protect the confidentiality of the information exchanged, in particular in relation to personal data. The operation of this self-standing multilateral convention is overseen by a Co-ordinating Body comprised of the Parties to the Convention.

    www.oecd.org/ctp/eoi/mutual

  • 29-September-2011

    English

    Better Policies for Development - Recommendations for Policy Coherence

    This report examines the ways in which wider policies can be use to support our common development objectives. It focuses on areas requiring collective action by the entire international community, and complements the OECD’s continuing work on aid effectiveness and monitoring aid flows.

    It starts from two premises. First, policies ranging from trade and investment to tax and fiscal transparency, corporate governance, climate change, resource security and social policy have a profound impact on the prospects for achieving sustainable development. Second, whilst these require action by national governments and regional organisations in both developed and developing countries, in today’s interconnected world they also require collective action by the entire international community.

    The report covers 18 development policy topics divided into four broad categories: sustainable economic growth, economic governance, the environment and natural resource security, and society. Together these reflect the OECD’s mission to promote better policies for better lives.

  • 10-October-2011

    English

    A System of Health Accounts - 2011 Edition

    A System of Health Accounts 2011 provides a systematic description of the financial flows related to the consumption of health care goods and services. As demands for information increase and more countries implement and institutionalise health accounts according to the system, the data produced are expected to be more comparable, more detailed and more policy relevant.

    This new edition builds on the original OECD Manual, published in 2000, and the Guide to Producing National Health Accounts to create a single global framework for producing health expenditure accounts that can help track resource flows from sources to uses. The Manual is the result of a four-year collaborative effort between the OECD, WHO and the European Commission, and sets out in more detail the boundaries, the definitions and the concepts – responding to health care systems around the globe – from the simplest to the more complicated. 

  • 30-June-2011

    English

    Managing Risk in Agriculture - Policy Assessment and Design

    This book examines the implications of risk management for policy in agriculture.  Opening with a chapter on risk management principles and guidelines for policy design in agriculture, the book goes on to look at quantitative analysis of risk and then at policy in various countries.
  • 5-December-2011

    English

    Asparagus

    This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the current asparagus standard. This updated brochure illustrates the revised standard text on asparagus. It demonstrates the quality parameters on high-quality photographs. Thus it is a valuable tool for the inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in international trade in asparagus. The brochure also includes a USB key containing the electronic version of the publication.

  • 5-November-2014

    English

    OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Slovak Republic 2014

    This book provides, from an international perspective, an independent analysis of major issues facing the educational evaluation and assessment framework, current policy initiatives, and possible future approaches in the Slovak Republic.

  • 27-June-2011

    English

    Technology and Components of Accelerator-driven Systems - Workshop Proceedings, Karlsruhe, Germany, 15-17 March 2010

    The accelerator-driven system (ADS) is a potential transmutation system option as part of partitioning and transmutation strategies for radioactive waste in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. These proceedings contain all the technical papers presented at the workshop on Technology and Components of Accelerator-driven Systems held on 15-17 March 2010 in Karlsruhe, Germany. The workshop provided experts with a forum to present and discuss state-of-the-art developments in the field of ADS and neutron sources. It included a special session on the EUROTRANS as well as four technical sessions covering current ADS experiments and test facilities, accelerators, neutron sources and subcritical systems.
  • 5-December-2011

    English

    Intellectual Assets and Innovation - The SME Dimension

    Intellectual Property Rights can be instrumental for SMEs to protect and build on their innovations; position themselves competitively vis-à-vis larger enterprises in global markets; gain access to revenues; signal current and prospective value to investors, competitors and partners; access knowledge markets and networks; open up new commercial pathways; or segment existing markets.  However, while there is increasing recognition of their significance, as well as  the need for appropriate intellectual asset management for SMEs across OECD countries, there are few regulatory frameworks or specific instruments directed to SMEs. This is in part due the pace of technological innovation, which often exceeds the time it takes for policy makers to create appropriate responses to the changing landscape of intellectual property.   This study explores the relations between SME intellectual asset management, innovation and competitiveness in different national and sectoral contexts. It provides insights on the ability of SMEs to access and utilise the protection systems available to them and identifies key challenges for SMEs in appropriating full value from IPRs. It also investigates effectiveness of regulatory frameworks and policy measures to support SME access to IPRs, identifying best practices and proposing policy recommendations
  • 23-June-2011

    English

    Biofuels for Transport

    Biofuels could provide up to 27% of total transport fuel worldwide by 2050. The use of transport fuels from biomass, when produced sustainably, can help cut petroleum use and reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector, especially in heavy transport. Sustainable biofuel technologies, in particular advanced biofuels, will play an important role in achieving this roadmap vision.

    The roadmap describes the steps necessary to realise this ambitious biofuels target; identifies key actions by different stakeholders, and the role for government policy to adopt measures needed to ensure the sustainable expansion of both conventional and advanced biofuel production.

  • 23-June-2011

    English

    Geothermal Heat and Power

    The technology roadmap for Geothermal Heat and Power offers a strategic plan to maximise deployment of these energy resources by 2050. It projects that 1 400 TWh of electricity per year could come from geothermal power by 2050, up from 67 TWh at present.

    Additionally, geothermal heat (not including ground-source heat pump technology) could contribute 5.8 EJ (1600 TWh) annually by 2050. In order to reach these targets, policy makers, local authorities and utilities need to be more aware of the variety of geothermal resources available and of their possible applications. This roadmap describes the technological, economic and non-economic barriers facing geothermal deployment, and the steps stakeholders must take to overcome them.

  • 23-June-2011

    English

    Energy-efficient Buildings - Heating and Cooling Equipment

    Buildings account for almost a third of final energy consumption globally and are an equally important source of CO2 emissions. Currently, both space heating and cooling as well as hot water are estimated to account for roughly half of global energy consumption in buildings. Energy-efficient and low/zero-carbon heating and cooling technologies for buildings have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 2 gigatonnes (Gt) and save 710 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of energy by 2050. Most of these technologies – which include solar thermal, combined heat and power (CHP), heat pumps and thermal energy storage – are commercially available today.

    The Energy-Efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment Roadmap sets out a detailed pathway for the evolution and deployment of the key underlying technologies. It finds that urgent action is required if the building stock of the future is to consume less energy and result in lower CO2 emissions. The roadmap concludes with a set of near-term actions that stakeholders will need to take to achieve the roadmap’s vision.

  • 8-July-2011

    English

    Carbon Pricing, Power Markets and the Competitiveness of Nuclear Power

    This study assesses the competitiveness of nuclear power against coal- and gas-fired power generation in liberalised electricity markets with either CO2 trading or carbon taxes. It uses daily price data for electricity, gas, coal and carbon from 2005 to 2010, which encompasses the first years of the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), the world’s foremost carbon trading framework. The study shows that even with modest carbon pricing, competition for new investment in electricity markets will take place between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power struggling to be profitable. The outcome of the competition between nuclear and gas-fired generation hinges, in addition to carbon pricing, on the capital costs for new nuclear power plant construction, gas prices and the profit margins applied. Strong competition in electricity markets reinforces the attractiveness of nuclear energy, as does carbon pricing, in particular when the latter ranges between USD 40 and USD 70 per tonne of CO2. The data and analyses contained in this study provide a robust framework for assessing cost and investment issues in liberalised electricity markets with carbon pricing.

  • 3-August-2011

    English

    Corporate Loss Utilisation through Aggressive Tax Planning

    Corporate losses raise compliance risks if aggressive tax planning is used as a means of increasing or accelerating tax relief in ways not intended by the legislator, or to generate artificial losses. This report describes the size of loss carry-forwards, the rules applicable in relation to losses, and identifies the following risk areas: corporate reorganisations, financial instruments and non-arm’s length transfer pricing. After having summarised aggressive tax planning schemes on losses, as well as country detection and response strategies, it offers a number of conclusions and recommendation for tax administration and tax policy officials.

      

  • 7-December-2011

    English

    Climate Change and Tourism Policy in OECD Countries

    Undertaken jointly with United Nations Environment Programme, the report analyses policies and issues related to climate change adaptation and mitigation in the tourism sector. It provides policy recommendations, with the objective to identify priority areas to be included in a framework for action in the area of climate change and tourism.  A review of the state of policy-making on this important issue clearly indicates that greater efforts could be made by countries to understand the likely impacts of climate change on tourism; there is a low awareness of the tourism sector's climate change mitigation and adaptation needs; and that current policy, with few exceptions, is inadequate to the scale of the challenge, both on mitigation and adaptation.

  • 29-September-2011

    English

    Fisheries and Aquaculture Certification

    Concerns about sustainability and the effectiveness of fisheries management on the part of the public have resulted in demand from NGOs, retailers and consumers for assurances that the food they purchase has been sustainably produced. This has led to a number of private entities responding to this demand by establishing eco-labels and certification schemes that claim to provide credible information to the consumer. These labels intend to serve the interest of fishers and processors who need to transmit positive information to the consumer to maintain their markets, and serve consumers by providing information not elsewhere available.

    This report considers the growing trend in information requirements for seafood products in general, and in particular to the distinct sustainability features of wild capture fisheries and aquaculture. This work refers primarily to privately-driven certification schemes which have become an established feature of the market for eco-labels in fisheries and aquaculture. The report focuses on private eco-labelling and analyzes the economics of certification schemes, discusses key issues at the interface between public authorities, private labelling schemes, business operators and consumers. Finally, main findings and messages to policy makers are addressed.

  • 15-February-2012

    English

    Reforming Fiscal Federalism and Local Government - Beyond the Zero-Sum Game

    This book describes and examines reforms of fiscal federalism and local government in 10 OECD countries implemented over the past decade. The country chapters identify common patterns and factors that are conducive to reforms of the intergovernmental fiscal framework, using a common methodological approach. The summary chapter highlights the cross-cutting issues emerging from the country chapters and shows the key factors in the institutional, political, economic and fiscal areas that are supporting reform success. The report’s approach results in valuable insights for policy makers designing, adopting and implementing fiscal federalism and local government reforms.

  • 12-October-2011

    English

    Taxation and Employment

    This publication examines the effects of taxation on employment, highlights the resulting policy challenges, and discusses the ways governments endeavour to address these challenges.  Chapter 1 provides a broad overview of the effects of taxation on employment, examining how taxes on labour income can affect both the size of the labour force and the level of unemployment, and highlighting key areas of concern for tax policy makers.  This analysis is then augmented in chapters 2-4 by the more detailed analysis of the effects of taxation on the employment of three groups where empirical research suggests that responses of labour supply to taxation may be relatively large: low-income workers, mobile highly-skilled workers, and older workers.  As well as highlighting key areas of concern for tax policy makers, the report places a particular focus on the different measures that have been adopted by countries to attempt to overcome these problems, discussing, where possible, the main design features, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches that have been adopted.

  • 16-November-2011

    English

    Thailand: Key Issues and Policies

    This book offers policy guidance to Thailand for fostering entrepreneurship and strengthening the performance of SMEs and their contribution to growth and development. It provides evidence-based analysis and policy recommendations on thematic issues such as access to finance for SMEs and entrepreneurs, SME participation in global markets, intellectual assets and innovation, high-growth SMEs and women’s entrepreneurship.
  • 10-November-2011

    English

    Health Reform - Meeting the Challenge of Ageing and Multiple Morbidities

    When the OECD was founded in 1961, health systems were gearing themselves up to deliver acute care interventions. Sick people were to be cured in hospitals, then sent on their way again. Medical training was focused on hospitals; innovation was to develop new interventions; payment systems were centred around single episodes of care.  Health systems have delivered big improvements in health since then, but they can be slow to adapt to new challenges. In particular, these days, the overwhelming burden of disease is chronic, for which ‘cure’ is out of our reach. Health policies have changed to some extent in response, though perhaps not enough.  But the challenge of the future is that the typical recipient of health care will be aged and will have multiple morbidities.  This book examines how  payment systems, innovation policies and human resource policies need to be modernised so that OECD health systems will continue to generate improved health outcomes in the future at a sustainable cost.
  • 10-November-2011

    English

    OECD Territorial Reviews: The Gauteng City-Region, South Africa 2011

    With 22% of the national population (11.2 million inhabitants), the Gauteng city-region is the largest and richest region in South Africa, contributing to one-third of national GDP. The area encompasses a series of connected cities, including Johannesburg and the national capital of Tshwane (formerly Pretoria), that function as a single, integrated region. Gauteng has been South Africa’s growth engine: for every additional 1% growth in population in the province, 1.6% is added to its contribution to national growth, implying higher productivity than in other parts of the country. Nevertheless, the city-region’s growth potential is constrained by deep socio-economic challenges, including high unemployment (26.9%) and low productivity growth. Its rapid demographic and economic development has also reinforced the spatial segregation instituted under apartheid.

    Against the backdrop of South Africa’s achievements since the fall of apartheid, this Review evaluates measures to position economic development policy and to confront economic inequality in Gauteng. The issues of adequate housing as a catalyst of economic development and a vehicle for socioeconomic integration, transport mobility and public service delivery are examined in detail. The Review also assesses the economic growth potential of the manufacturing and green sectors, as well as governance issues, focussing on the potential of intergovernmental collaboration in advancing a cross-cutting regional approach for Gauteng.  

  • 31-October-2011

    English

    Strengthening Accountability in Aid for Trade

    At a time when aid budgets are under pressure and scrutiny, there is a need to improve accountability. This is especially true in the case of aid for trade, which has become an increasingly important priority in development co-operation.   Strengthening Accountability in Aid for Trade looks at what the trade and development community needs to know about aid-for-trade results, what past evaluations of programmes and projects reveal about trade outcomes and impacts, and how the trade and development community could improve the performance of aid for trade interventions.
  • 2-October-2012

    English

    Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for large-scale biomass plants in providing The roadmap identifies key actions by different stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, and sets out milestones for technology development in order to achieve a doubling of global bioenergy supply by 2050. It addresses the need for further R&D efforts, highlights measures to ensure sustainability of biomass production, and underlines the need for international collaboration to enhance the production and use of sustainable, modern bioenergy in different world regions.

  • 25-June-2012

    English

    From Aid to Development - The Global Fight against Poverty

    The balance of economic power is shifting. Countries that were once poor are becoming economic powerhouses. Yet poverty persists worldwide, depriving billions of people of basic necessities and the prospects of creating a better life. How are we responding to this challenge? This book explores the multi-faceted world of aid and development co-operation – a range of global, and sometimes contested, efforts aimed at reducing the impact of poverty. It traces the history of these efforts, explains where they come from and where they are going, and asks whether they are achieving as much as they could. It also examines some of the ways in which development efforts can be made more effective in achieving lasting benefits through good governance and the creation of a deeper partnership between developed and developing countries. And it looks at how the economic emergence of countries like China and India is bringing a new dynamic to development co-operation.

  • 17-January-2012

    English

    Sick on the Job? - Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work

    The costs of mental ill-health for the individuals concerned, employers and society at large are enormous. Mental illness is responsible for a very significant loss of potential labour supply, high rates of unemployment, and a high incidence of sickness absence and reduced productivity at work. In particular, mental illness causes too many young people to leave the labour market, or never really enter it, through early moves onto disability benefit. Today, between one-third and one-half of all new disability benefit claims are for reasons of mental ill-health, and among young adults that proportion goes up to over 70%.   Indeed, mental ill-health is becoming a key issue for the well-functioning of OECD’s labour markets and social policies and requires a stronger focus on policies addressing mental health and work issues. Despite the very high costs to the individuals and the economy, there is only little awareness about the connection between mental health and work, and the drivers behind the labour market outcomes and the level of inactivity of people with mental ill-health. Understanding these drivers is critical for the development of more effective policies. This report aims to identify the knowledge gaps and begin to narrow them by reviewing evidence on the main challenges and barriers to better integrating people with mental illness in the world of work.  
  • 16-September-2011

    English

    Investing in Security - A Global Assessment of Armed Violence Reduction Initiatives

    Conservative estimates indicate that at least 740 000 men, women, youth and children die each year as a result of armed violence, most of them in low- and medium-income settings. The majority of these deaths occur in situations other than war, though armed conflicts continue to generate a high incidence of casualties.   Approaches to preventing and reducing these deaths and related suffering are becoming increasingly important on the international agenda. In spite of the global preoccupation with the costs and consequences of armed violence, comparatively little evidence exists about how to stem its risks and effects. Virtually no information is available on Armed Violence Reduction and Prevention interventions, much less their effectiveness.

    This publication aims to fill this gap. It seeks to generate more understanding of what works and what does not, to stimulate further evaluation and to contribute to more effective and efficient policies and programmes.

    A large-scale mapping of Armed Violence Reduction and Prevention activities around the world form the basis of analysis, focusing primarily on programming trends in six countries – Brazil, Burundi, Colombia, Liberia, South Africa and Timor-Leste. These countries represent the very different programming contexts – from high rates of urban criminal violence to protracted post-conflict insecurity – in which development practitioners are currently engaged.

    While offering new data and analysis, this assessment builds directly on the 2009 publication Armed Violence Reduction: Enabling Development.

  • 1-December-2011

    English

    Solar Energy Perspectives

    In 90 minutes, enough sunlight strikes the earth to provide the entire planet's energy needs for one year. While solar energy is abundant, it represents a tiny fraction of the world’s current energy mix. But this is changing rapidly and is being driven by global action to improve energy access and supply security, and to mitigate climate change. 

    Around the world, countries and companies are investing in solar generation capacity on an unprecedented scale, and, as a consequence, costs continue to fall and technologies improve. This publication gives an authoritative view of these technologies and market trends, in both advanced and developing economies, while providing examples of the best and most advanced practices. It also provides a unique guide for policy makers, industry representatives and concerned stakeholders on how best to use, combine and successfully promote the major categories of solar energy: solar heating and cooling, photovoltaic and solar thermal electricity, as well as solar fuels.  

    Finally, in analysing the likely evolution of electricity and energy-consuming sectors – buildings, industry and transport – it explores the leading role solar energy could play in the long-term future of our energy system.

  • 19-October-2011

    English

    IEA Scoreboard 2011 - Implementing Energy Efficiency Policy: Progress and challenges in IEA member countries

    On the occasion of its 35th Anniversary in 2009, the International Energy Agency published the first edition of the Scoreboard focusing on 35 Key Energy Trends over 35 Years. In parallel, the IEA published Implementing Energy Efficiency Policies: Are IEA Member Countries on Track?. Both publications found that although IEA member countries were making progress in implementing energy efficiency, more work was needed.
           
    In the 2011 edition of the Scoreboard, the IEA has decided to focus on energy efficiency. The publication combines analysis of energy efficiency policy implementation and recent indicator development. The resulting Scoreboard 2011 provides a fuller picture of the progress as well as the challenges with implementing energy efficiency policy in IEA member countries.

  • 24-November-2011

    English

    Deploying Renewables - Best and Future Policy Practice

    The global energy system faces urgent challenges. Concerns about energy security are growing, as highlighted by the recent political turmoil in Northern Africa and the nuclear incident in Fukushima. At the same time, the need to respond to climate change is more critical than ever. Against this background, many governments have increased efforts to promote deployment of renewable energy – low-carbon sources that can strengthen energy security. This has stimulated unprecedented rise in deployment, and renewables are now the fastest growing sector of the energy mix.

    This “coming of age” of renewable energy also brings challenges. Growth is focused on a few of the available technologies, and rapid deployment is confined to a relatively small number of countries. In more advanced markets, managing support costs and system integration of large shares of renewable energy in a time of economic weakness and budget austerity has sparked vigorous political debate.

    The IEA’s new report, Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice:

    ·         Provides a comprehensive review and analysis of renewable energy policy and market trends;

    ·         Analyses in detail the dynamics of deployment and provides best-practice policy principles for different stages of market maturity;

    ·         Assesses the impact and cost-effectiveness of support policies using new methodological tools and indicators;

    ·         Investigates the strategic reasons underpinning the pursuit of RE deployment by different countries and the prospects for globalisation of RE. 

    This new book builds on and extends a 2008 IEA publication, drawing on recent policy and deployment experience world-wide.  It provides guidance for policy makers and other stakeholders to avoid past mistakes, overcome new challenges and reap the benefits of deploying renewables – today and tomorrow.

  • 4-September-2012

    English

    Mangoes

    This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the current mango standard. This updated brochure illustrates the revised standard text on mangoes. It demonstrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. Thus it is a valuable tool for the inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in international trade in mangoes. The brochure is available in electronic format only.

  • 24-April-2013

    English

    Innovation in Southeast Asia

    The Southeast Asian (SEA) region is one of the most dynamic in the world. It is in a period of transition as its national economies become strongly integrated into global knowledge networks. Science and technology (S&T) offer opportunities for countries to ‘move up the value chain’. A better understanding of existing capabilities helps enhance mutually beneficial S&T and innovation co-operation between SEA and OECD countries.

    This review provides a quantitative and qualitative assessment of Southeast Asian countries’ capacity in S&T and innovation. A regional synthesis highlights current performance and intra- and extra-regional knowledge circulation, including flows between the Southeast Asian region and the established centres of knowledge production such as the EU, Japan and the United States. The country profiles describe the dynamics of national innovation systems and their relation to international knowledge flows, taking into account the wider framework conditions for innovation.

  • 2-January-2012

    English

    Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels

    This publication provides preliminary, quantitative estimates of direct budgetary support and tax expenditures supporting the production or consumption of fossil fuels in selected OECD member countries. The information has been compiled as part of the OECD’s programme of work to develop a better understanding of environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). It has been undertaken as an exercise in transparency, and to inform the international dialogue on fossil-fuel subsidy reform. It is also intended to inform the ongoing efforts of G20 nations to reform fossil-fuel subsidies.

    For each of the 24 OECD countries covered, the Inventory provides a succinct summary of its energy economy, and of the budgetary and tax-related measures provided at the central-government level (and, in the case of federal countries, for selected sub-national units of government) relating to fossil-fuel production or consumption.

    Many measures listed in this inventory are relative preferences within a particular country’s tax system rather than absolute support that can be readily compared across countries, and for that reason no national totals are provided.

  • 6-August-2012

    English

    Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications

    The Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications shows that carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial applications by 4 gigatonnes in 2050. Such an amount is equal to roughly one-tenth of the total emission cuts needed to reduce emissions by 50% by the middle of the century. The roadmap focuses on five main industrial applications: high-purity CO2 sources, biomass conversion, cement, iron and steel and refineries. It sets out a vision of CCS in industrial applications up to 2050, including milestones that need to be achieved for technology, financing, policy and international collaboration.
  • 5-December-2011

    English

    Inshell Hazelnuts and Hazelnut Kernels

    This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the current Inshell Hazelnuts and Hazelnut Kernels standard. This brochure illustrates the standard text on Inshell Hazelnuts and Hazelnut Kernels. It demonstrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. Thus it is a valuable tool for the inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in international trade in Inshell Hazelnuts and Hazelnut Kernels. The brochure also includes a USB key containing the electronic version of the publication.

  • 14-February-2012

    English

    Strategic Environmental Assessment in Development Practice - A Review of Recent Experience

    The principles of sustainable development play an integral role in making development assistance work at the level of policies, plans and programmes. In response to the  Paris Declaration call to “… develop and apply common approaches for ‘Strategic Environmental Assessment’ at sector and national levels” among donors and partners, the Guidance on Applying Strategic Environmental Assessment was endorsed in 2006 by members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee, representatives of developing countries receiving aid, the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the World Bank and many other agencies. Since then, a growing number of countries at all levels of development have legislation or regulations prescribing the application of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)  and many more are introducing it as part of their policy tools. This is creating unique opportunities for better policy making and planning by incorporating environmental considerations into high-level decision-making and opening new mechanisms to build consensus on development priorities within governments themselves and between governments and societies.

    Many development co-operation agencies and their partners are already making good progress in applying SEA. This publication presents the nine most interesting case studies of SEA in progress, selected from a total 100.  These nine cases highlight that SEA can:
    • Safeguard environmental assets for sustainable poverty reduction and development;
    • Build public engagement in decision making;
    • Prevent costly mistakes by alerting decision-makers to potentially unsustainable development options at an early stage in the decision-making process;
    • Speed up implementation of projects and programmes;
    • Facilitate co-operation around shared environmental resources and contribute to conflict prevention.

  • 31-January-2012

    English

    China Wind Energy Development Roadmap 2050

    The report shows how China, already the world’s largest wind market, could reach 1,000 GW of wind power by the middle of the century, an achievement that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 1.5 gigatonnes per year, or roughly equivalent to the combined CO2 emissions of Germany, France and Italy in 2009. The China Wind Energy Roadmap is the first national roadmap that has been developed by a country with IEA support, drawing from its global roadmap series.
  • 25-November-2011

    English

    Fostering Productivity and Competitiveness in Agriculture

    This report reviews economic concepts of innovation, research and development (R&D), productivity and competitiveness, and their linkages. It then discusses evidence on developments in productivity and competitiveness in the agricultural and food processing sectors and on the relationship between agricultural productivity and farm size, factor intensity, farm specialisation, human capital, consumer demand, the natural environment, investments in general infrastructures and R&D, regulations, and agricultural policies. It describes developments in public and private investments in agricultural R&D and outlines their positive impact on productivity growth. Finally, it suggests an “innovation systems” approach would help understand better how innovation translates into productivity growth.

  • 13-February-2012

    English

    Improving Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation Systems - OECD Conference Proceedings

    This conference proceedings from the OECD Conference on Agricultural Knowledge Systems (AKS), held in Paris, on 15-17 June 2011, discusses a large range of experiences and approaches to AKS  explores how to foster development and adoption of innovation to meet global food security and climate change challenges. The conference considered developments in institutional frameworks, public and private roles and partnerships, regulatory frameworks conducive to innovation, the adoption of innovations and technology transfers, and the responsiveness of AKS to broader policy objectives.

  • 5-March-2012

    English

    Farmer Behaviour, Agricultural Management and Climate Change

    This study examines the broad range of factors driving farm management decisions that can improve the environment, including drawing on the experiences of OECD countries. It identifies policy options that would contribute to a sustainable and resilient agricultural sector in the context of climate change.

  • 2-March-2012

    English

    Agricultural Policies for Poverty Reduction - A Synthesis

    This book synthesizes the findings of a longer work which sets out a strategy for raising rural incomes. It emphasises the creation of diversified rural economies with opportunities within and outside agriculture. Agricultural policies need to be integrated within an overall mix of policies and institutional reforms that facilitate, rather than impede, structural change. By investing in public goods, such as infrastructure and agricultural research, and by building effective social safety nets, governments can limit the role of less efficient policies such as price controls and input subsidies.
  • 26-June-2012

    English

    Systemic Financial Risk

    This report analyses the results of simulations using an agent based model of financial markets to show how excessive levels of leverage in financial markets can lead to a systemic crash.  Investors overload on risky assets betting more than they have to gamble creating a tremendous level of vulnerability in the system as a whole.  Plummeting asset prices render banks unable or unwilling to provide credit as they fear they might be unable to cover their own liabilities due to potential loan defaults.  Whether an overleveraged borrower is a sovereign nation or major financial institution, recent history illustrates how defaults carry the risk of contagion in a globally interconnected economy. The resulting slowdown of investment in the real economy impacts actors at all levels, from small businesses to homebuyers. Bankruptcies lead to job losses and a drop in aggregate demand, leading to more businesses and individuals being unable to repay their loans, reinforcing a downward spiral that can trigger a recession, depression or bring about stagflation in the real economy. This can have a devastating impact not only on economic prosperity across the board, but also consumer sentiment and trust in the ability of the system to generate long-term wealth and growth.   

  • 13-June-2012

    English

    Compact City Policies - A Comparative Assessment

    This book examines the concept of the compact city and the implication of the current urban context for compact city policies. It explores their potential outcomes, particularly in terms of how it can contribute to Green Growth and looks at developing indicators to monitor compact city and track policy performance. It reviews compact city policies currently being implemented across the OECD in relation to the pursuit of Green Growth objectives and provides ideas to achieve better outcomes. And it assesses the key governance challenges faced by decision-makers as they seek to implement practical compact city strategies. This report is thus intended as “food for thought” for national, sub-national and municipal governments as they seek to address their economic and environmental challenges through the development and implementation of spatial strategies in pursuit of Green Growth objectives. It also illustrates best practices (which present key elements of successful compact city policies) based on empirical evidence that can be shared across OECD member countries.

  • 25-January-2012

    English

    Greening Development - Enhancing Capacity for Environmental Management and Governance

    This policy guidance outlines a number of steps to be considered when building capacity for greening national development planning, national budgetary processes and key economic sector strategies. It identifies the key actors to be engaged in the decision making processes, outlines possible capacity needs and suggests how these can be addressed. This policy guidance is intended to support developing countries in their efforts to move to a greener development path. It is also intended to assist development co-operation and environment agencies in their efforts to support that process.

  • 12-March-2012

    English

    Water Quality and Agriculture - Meeting the Policy Challenge

    Improving water quality is consistently ranked as a top environmental concern in OECD public opinion surveys. The key challenges for policy makers in addressing water quality issues in agriculture are to reduce water pollution while encourage benefits, such as maintaining aquatic life. This book examines linking policies, farm management and water quality. It looks at recent trends and prospects for water pollution from agriculture and the implications of climate change. It assesses the costs and benefits of agriculture's impact on water systems, and presents a series of case studies. Finally the report provides a set of recommendations for countries for meeting the challenge of improving agricultural water quality.

  • 31-May-2012

    English

    OECD Reviews of Health Systems: Russian Federation 2012

    This review examines some of the possible reasons for poor population health in Russia and explores possible impediments to further improvements.  In doing so it examines the current health system against the background of the reforms put in place in the 1990s and recent policy efforts to correct some of the most important difficulties.  It also identifies some of the strengths and weaknesses of existing arrangements.
  • 15-December-2011

    English

    Trends towards Sustainability in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Interest in expanding nuclear power to cope with rising demand for energy and potential climate change places increased attention on the nuclear fuel cycle and whether significant moves are being taken towards ensuring sustainability over the long term. Future nuclear power programme decisions will be increasingly based on strategic considerations involving the complete nuclear fuel cycle, as illustrated by the international joint projects for Generation IV reactors. Currently, 90% of installed reactors worldwide operate on a once-through nuclear fuel cycle using uranium-oxide fuel. While closing the fuel cycle has been a general aim for several decades, progress towards that goal has been slow. This report reviews developments in the fuel cycle over the past ten years, potential developments over the next decade and the outlook for the longer term. It analyses technological developments and government actions (both nationally and internationally) related to the fuel cycle, and examines these within a set of sustainability parameters in order to identify trends and to make recommendations for further action.

  • 13-April-2012

    English

    OECD Territorial Reviews: Chihuahua, Mexico 2012

    Located at the border with the US, Chihuahua has benefited from FDI and NAFTA. Chihuahua has been one of the richest regions in Mexico and one of the most dynamic in the OECD. However, the region’s FDI-trade link with the USA has also led to some vulnerability to external shocks. The two crises affecting the USA in the past decade affected Chihuahua more than any other state. Despite recent progress in the quality of education, other structural challenges such as lower productivity growth, high inactivity rates and dwindling employment rates have been factors in Chihuahua’s sluggish growth. Chihuahua not only displays large intra-regional and gender inequalities, but also the largest inter-ethnic inequality levels in the country. Chihuahua can gain from a territorial approach to policymaking that integrates sectoral policies, fostering value-added in rural activities, better linking SME-development and FDI-attraction policies, as well as between innovation capacities and applications. The region could also strengthen their recent inclusive governance arrangement with civil society and the private sector.  Growth and development can only be possible if the current challenges in insecurity, water shortage and public finance are addressed.
  • 31-May-2012

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Germany 2012

    This OECD Environmental Performance Review provides an independent assessment of Germany’s progress in achieving domestic and international environmental policy commitments, together with policy relevant recommendations. It has been conducted to promote peer learning, to enhance countries’ accountability to each other and to the public, and to improve governments’ environmental performance, individually and collectively. These Reviews are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data. Each cycle of the Environmental Performance Reviews covers all OECD member countries and selected partner countries
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  • 21-June-2013

    English

    Skills Development and Training in SMEs

    The report discusses the results of the OECD “Leveraging Training and Skills Development in SMEs” (TSME) project which examines access to training by SMEs across seven regions in six OECD countries: New Zealand, Poland, Belgium, UK, Turkey and Canada. The book analyses the policy issues related to both low access by SMEs, and how to recognise the increasing importance of informal training and skills development methods. The book looks at how both formal and alternative ways of training and skills development interact and identifies impacts at three levels; for the firm and employees; for the industry; and for the local area where the firm is located.

    The report pays special attention to the development of entrepreneurial skills and the emerging area of “green skills”. This focus is not just because ‘green skills’ represent the next new training opportunity – the de-carbonisation of economies that will occur over the coming decades represents an industrial transformation on the scale of the microelectronics revolution - but in many ways the response to the green economy is at an emerging stage- this means we have the opportunity to implement lessons from previous successful practices into a skill development area that will have enormous reach.

  • 19-January-2012

    English

    Dealing Effectively with the Challenges of Transfer Pricing

    This report addresses the practical administration of transfer pricing programmes by tax administrations. Technical analysis of how transfer prices should be computed in accordance with the arm’s length principle is outside the scope of this report. Instead the report focuses on the practical experiences of a number of FTA member countries and some non-member countries. The report discusses ways in which the management of transfer pricing programmes can be optimised, so that transfer pricing audits and enquiries are conducted efficiently and in a timely manner, for the benefit of MNEs and tax administrations alike. It is concerned with the practical steps tax administrations need to take to correctly identify transfer pricing cases that merit audit or enquiry and then to progress those cases to as early a conclusion as possible. 
  • 8-March-2012

    English

    Meeting the Water Reform Challenge

    The need to reform water policies is as urgent as ever. Water is essential for economic growth, human health, and the environment. Yet governments around the world face significant challenges in managing their water resources effectively. The problems are multiple and complex: billions of people are still without access to safe water and adequate sanitation; competition for water is increasing among the different uses and users; and major investment is required to maintain and improve water infrastructure in OECD and non-OECD countries.   Despite progress on many fronts, governments around the world are still confronted with the need to reform their existing water policies in order to meet current objectives and future challenges. Building on the water challenges identified by the OECD Environment Outlook to 2050, this report examines three fundamental areas that need to be addressed whatever reform agendas are pursued by governments: financing of the water sector; the governance and institutional arrangements that are in place; and coherence between water policies and policies in place in other sectors of the economy. The report provides governments with practical advice and policy tools to pursue urgent reform in their water sectors.
  • 17-August-2012

    English

    OECD Territorial Reviews: The Chicago Tri-State Metropolitan Area, United States 2012

    The OECD Territorial Review of the Chicago Tri-State metropolitan area, the first of its kind conducted by the OECD in the United States, assesses the region’s capacity to contribute effectively to regional and national economic performance and quality of life. The Review focuses on four thematic policy issues: i) the effectiveness and coordination of workforce development programmes in the Chicago Tri-State metro-region; ii) the metro-region’s capacity for innovation; iii) its role as a major centre for logistics in North America; and (iv) its capacity to encourage green growth over the long term. The review also focuses on the state of region-wide institutional collaboration and offers a vision for effective tri-state region-wide stakeholder engagement.  
  • 30-May-2012

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: United Kingdom 2012

    The United Kingdom is preparing for a deep decarbonisation of its energy system. The country has decided to halve its greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2027 and to cut them by a total of 80% by 2050. For this to happen, significant private-sector investment in new energy infrastructure is needed. As it seeks concrete solutions to the low-carbon investment challenge, the United Kingdom is leading by example. The UK’s proposed Electricity Market Reform is a pioneering effort that will be closely observed by other countries. Ideally, this complex and ambitious reform would in the long run lead to a more liberalised marketplace in which low-carbon power generation technologies compete to deliver innovative and least-cost outcomes. Security of supply remains a key focus of energy policy. Fossil fuel production in the United Kingdom has peaked, and a fifth of the country’s ageing power generating capacity will have to be closed this decade. However, oil and gas imports are well diversified, and the government intends to promote various technologies to generate low-carbon electricity – renewable and nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage. More efficient energy use is essential to both decarbonisation and energy security. The Green Deal programme, which the UK plans to launch later this year, aims to improve energy efficiency in buildings and public spaces. The programme has the potential to help energy consumers overcome economic challenges, but for it to succeed, the general public must be sufficiently aware of its benefits.

  • 12-July-2012

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Ireland 2012

    The IEA's 2012 review of Ireland's energy policies and programmes finds that Ireland has suffered a significant economic downturn, but remains committed to its ambitious energy targets to bring the country towards a low-carbon economy.  Ireland’s location at the edge of the Atlantic Ocean ensures one of the best wind and ocean resources in Europe, and Ireland has set the ambitious target of producing 40% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2020. 

    Ireland is highly dependent on imported oil and gas.  While the push to develop renewable energies is commendable, this will result in an increased reliance on natural gas, as gas-fired power plants will be required to provide flexibility in electricity supply when wind power is unavailable.  With two-thirds of Ireland’s electricity already coming from gas-fired generation, this poses concerns with regard to gas security, particularly as 93% of its gas supplies come from a single transit point in Scotland.  In order to meet Ireland’s ambitious renewable targets and improve the island’s level of energy security, the country must successfully develop a range of gas and electricity infrastructure projects and market solutions while continuing to integrate its energy markets with regional neighbours.

    Ireland also has a pro-active energy efficiency policy, including a detailed National Energy Efficiency Action Plan outlining 90 measures and actions to be implemented in order to achieve the target of 20% energy savings in 2020.

    This review analyses the energy-policy challenges currently facing Ireland, and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for the further policy improvements.  It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
  • 19-November-2012

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Australia 2012

    The IEA's 2012 review of Australia's energy policies and programmes finds that Australia enjoys the benefit of abundant and diverse energy resources; it is the world’s ninth-largest energy producer and is one of only three net energy exporters in the OECD. Its substantial conventional energy resource base includes coal, natural gas, oil and uranium. The country also enjoys extensive wind, solar and geothermal resources as well as large biomass and ocean energy potential.

    The energy sector is a significant contributor to the Australian economy. Exports have more than tripled over the past decade and surging economic and social expansion in relatively nearby emerging economies such as China and India has driven significant demand for Australian energy and mineral resources. This boom is widely forecast to continue in the coming decades.

    Late in 2011, the Australian government released a draft energy white paper, which sets out a comprehensive strategic policy framework to guide the development of the energy sector. Also in 2011, the Australian government announced a climate change plan including a wide-ranging package of clean-energy proposals and the introduction of a carbon price mechanism accompanied by significant levels of financial support for innovation in clean-energy technologies.

    The scale of Australia’s energy policy ambitions is enormous and very costly even for a resource-rich nation. Significant investments will be needed for the clean-energy transition and building the infrastructure necessary to expand the domestic resource base. This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing Australia and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  • 23-November-2012

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: The Republic of Korea 2012

    Korea, the world’s thirteenth-largest economy and the seventh-largest exporter, is an energy-intensive nation. In 2008, the country adopted a long-term “green growth” strategy to foster economic development by means of low-carbon technologies and clean energy; since then, the government has implemented many policies to support these goals.

    In 2012, Korea announced an emissions-trading scheme -- the first of its kind in Asia -- which will be implemented in 2015. This represents a major step towards achieving its target of a 30% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. Strong energy efficiency policies have been developed to complement the emissions-reduction target. Korea has made efforts to enhance energy security by taking measures to diversify energy sources, reduce the use of fossil fuels and foster the development of renewable energy alongside the expansion of its nuclear energy programme. Government expenditure on energy-related RD&D is among the highest in the OECD.

    Progress in some sectors has been slower, and the lack of a clear, long-term vision for its electricity and natural gas markets is one of the greatest energy-policy challenges facing the Korean government. Energy markets are dominated by incumbents and have been slow to open up to competition.

    This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing Korea and provides sector-based assessments and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  • 22-February-2012

    English

    Food and the Tourism Experience - The OECD-Korea Workshop

    Tourism is a major part of the contemporary experience economy, in which food plays an important role. Food is a key part of all cultures, a major element of global intangible heritage and an increasingly important attraction for tourists. The linkages between food and tourism also provide a platform for local economic development, which can be strengthened by the use of food experiences for branding and marketing destinations.
    One of the major challenges in the experience economy is dealing with the shift towards intangible culture and heritage.  The focus of many tourists has changed from the classic 'must see' physical sights such as museums and monuments towards a ‘must-experience’ imperative to consume intangible expressions of culture, such as atmosphere, creativity and lifestyle.  This provides new opportunities for tourism destinations as well as new challenges, particularly in the areas of experience development, marketing and branding.

    This publication provides an understanding of the role of food tourism in local economic development and its potential for country branding. It also presents several innovative case studies in the food tourism sector and the experience industry.

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  • 13-September-1999

    English

    A History of the Château de la Muette

    La Muette, home of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, has a long and rich history. This book tells its story from its inception as a royal hunting lodge to its present-day use as the headquarters of the OECD.  The reader may find it amusing, and sometimes instructive, to meet some of the colourful characters who once roamed its galleries. The place itself has played a significant role in French history; the Château and its extensive park were once the theatre of many a strong sentiment and the locale is impregnated with memories, comic, tragic, venal, lofty, solemn and ludic. These traces of the past are the real substance of La Muette’s charm; they are also the voices that echo through this text and linger in the halls of the Château.

  • 6-February-2012

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Slovak Republic 2012

    The Slovak Republic imports virtually all of its natural gas and crude oil from a single supplier, the Russian Federation. Energy security is therefore an overarching concern and priority in the Slovak Republicfs energy policy agenda. The government is taking steps to diversify supplies and build on lessons learned from the gas supply disruption in 2009. 

    Enhancing regional co-operation, particularly in the development of gas and electricity interconnections, is an essential step towards meeting the dual policy objectives of enhancing energy security and market competition. The Slovak Republic has moved forward with coupling its electricity market with the Czech Republic's, and supports the construction of a North-South pipeline connection that would link planned LNG terminals in Croatia and Poland, including an interconnector to Hungary. 

    Despite a sharp decline in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions since 1990, the Slovak Republic remains a GHG-intensive economy by OECD standards, with energy-related CO2 emissions accounting for over 70% of total GHG emissions. The country must continue to implement policies that ease the transition to a low-carbon economy. Nuclear power and renewable energy can play crucial roles in the Slovak Republicfs efforts to decarbonise its electricity production. Significant efforts can also be made to improve energy efficiency, especially in the transport and building sectors. District heating is a notable area with huge potential for reducing national GHG emissions. 

    This review analyses the energy-policy challenges currently facing the Slovak Republic, and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  • 10-August-2012

    English

    Social Unrest

    This report develops a framework of social unrest within a complex understanding of systemic risk.  The goal is to  try to identify triggers (events that lead to social unrest) and drivers (causal roots) for the emergence of social unrest and, based on this functional analysis, to design policy options on how to avoid, mitigate or handle unrest. The framework should enable a better understanding of the circumstances that may trigger social unrest, how intensely that unrest is likely to materialize and what interventions promise  to de-escalate the conflict or even prevent social unrest in the first place.   Since social unrest is more a process of escalation than a finite state of the world, the term has been conceptualized in a step-by-step escalation scheme.   Each step makes social unrest more severe. It is a gradual framework that identifies the different stages that make social unrest more and more probable. In order to identify relevant drivers and cluster of drivers, three case studies are investigated:  pandemics, cyber-related risk and financial crises. The main question is how did or could these events cause social unrests.  In a second step, an analytic model is used to capture the combined effects learned from the case study analysis. In a third step,the IRGC risk governance model for explaining the risk of social unrest or predicting the consequences of social unrest is applied. Finally , guidelines for normative governance with respect to social unrest are developed.

  • 19-April-2012

    English

    Redefining "Urban" - A New Way to Measure Metropolitan Areas

    This report compares urbanisation trends in OECD countries on the basis of a newly defined OECD methodology which enables cross-country comparison of the socio-econimic and environmental performance of metropolitan areas in OECD countries. The methodology is presented and results from its application to 27 OECD countries are discussed together with policy implication both on national growth and governance of cities. The report also includes three original papers that present the urbanisation dynamics and prospects in China and South Africa and the governance challenges resulting from the new policy agenda on cities in the United Kingdom.
  • 20-September-2012

    English

    Illegal Trade in Environmentally Sensitive Goods

    Illegal trade in environmentally sensitive goods, such as threatened wildlife, timber, hazardous waste, and ozone-depleting substances, has been a long-standing issue in the international trade and environment agenda.  The nature of such illegal trade makes it difficult to fully understand its extent and impact on the environment.  Developing effective policies to reduce illegal trade requires a clear understanding of what drives this trade and the circumstances under which it thrives.  In this report, evidence-based on customs data and information from licensing schemes is used to document the scale of illegal trade, as well as the economic and environmental impacts of such trade.  National and international policies have an important role to play in regulating  and reducing illegal trade and the report highlights a range of measures that can be taken at both levels.
  • 17-October-2012

    English

    Sustainable Materials Management - Making Better Use of Resources

    Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) is increasingly recognised as a policy approach that can make a key contribution to green growth and the challenges that are posed by sustained global economic and demogarphic growth. One of the key challenges of the SMM approach is to effectively address the environmental impacts that can occur along the life-cycle of materials, which frequently extends across borders and involves a multitude of different economic actors.   This book outlines a series of policy principles for SMM, examines how to set and use targets for SMM, and explores various policy instruments for SMM.  In addition it provides examples of policy action plans from the UK and the Netherlands, before presenting a series of conclusions and recommendations.
  • 6-December-2012

    English

    Promoting Growth in All Regions

    This publication highlights the importance of promoting growth in all types of OECD regions, particularly in underdeveloped ones. Helping underdeveloped regions to catch up will have a positive impact on a country’s national growth; in some cases more so than in already well-developed regions. Furthermore such growth helps to build  a fairer society, in which no territories and their people are left behind. An important question is whether this potential to catch up is possible?  The evidence suggests that this IS the case.  Examinations of patterns of growth reveal that underdeveloped rural and intermediate regions tend to grow faster. Their catching-up potentially largely depends on human capital development, infrastructure and innovation-related activities but also on institutional factors and policies. This publication is based on anlaysis among all OECD regions and 23 case study regions from ten OECD countries over the period 1995-2007.

  • 6-June-2012

    English

    Onions

    This brochure is published within the framework of  the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the common interpretation of the onions standard in force. This updated brochure illustrates the revised standard text (2012), new marketing practices and development in production. It illustrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. The brochure also includes a USB key with the electronic version of the publication.Thus it is a valuable tool for  inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in the international trade in onions.

  • 31-January-2013

    English

    Electricity in a Climate-Constrained World - Data and Analyses

    Electricity use is growing worldwide, providing a range of energy services: lighting, heating and cooling, specific industrial uses, entertainment, information technologies, and mobility. Because its generation remains largely based on fossil fuels, electricity is also the largest and the fastest-growing source of energy-related CO2 emissions, the primary cause of human-induced climate change. Forecasts from the IEA and others show that “decarbonising” electricity and enhancing end-use efficiency can make major contributions to the fight against climate change. 

    Global and regional trends on electricity supply and demand indicate the magnitude of the decarbonisation challenge ahead. As climate concerns become an essential component of energy policy-making, the generation and use of electricity will be subject to increasingly strong policy actions by governments to reduce their associated CO2 emissions. Despite these actions, and despite very rapid growth in renewable energy generation, significant technology and policy challenges remain if this unprecedented essential transition is to be achieved.

    This book provides an authoritative resource on progress to date in this area, with statistics related to CO2 and the electricity sector across ten regions of the world. It also presents topical analyses on meeting the challenge of rapidly curbing CO2 emissions from electricity, from both a policy and technology perspective.

  • 9-July-2012

    English

    Rebuilding Fisheries - The Way Forward

    Many fisheries around the world are characterised by excessive fishing effort, low productivity and inadequate profitability.  Considerable benefits can be made from rebuilding such fisheries.  This publication analyses the issues and challenges governments face as they develop and implement plans to rebuild fisheries.  The focus is on the economic and institutional issues and builds on evidence from OECD fisheries.
  • 6-March-2013

    English

    Tax and Development - Aid Modalities for Strengthening Tax Systems

    Tax revenues provide governments with funds to invest in development, relieve poverty, deliver public services and build the physical and social infrastructure for long-term growth. Moreover, there are mutually beneficial links between taxation and good governance. Tax and Development: Aid Modalities for Strengthening Tax Systems highlights how taxation can have a positive effect on the quality of governance and a government’s relationship with citizens and, in turn, how good governance can have a positive effect on compliance and revenue mobilisation.

    How can international assistance providers, including OECD members, international and regional organisations, support the development of tax systems in developing countries? Tax and Development: Aid Modalities for Strengthening Tax Systems provides practical guidance for policy makers and practitioners based on the results of an extensive literature review, a survey of aid agency officials and six country case studies (Ghana, Guatemala, Liberia, Mali, Mozambique, and Tanzania). It examines the aid instruments that donors use to assist developing countries including general and sector budget support, basket financing, stand-alone bilateral aid and funding South-South organisations. The strengths and weaknesses of each modality for supporting tax systems are identified, and some 50 recommendations to support the development of effective, efficient and growth-oriented tax systems in developing countries are provided.

  • 11-April-2012

    English

    Nuclear Education and Training - From Concern to Capability

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) first published in 2000 Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?, which highlighted significant issues in the availability of human resources for the nuclear industry. Ten years on, Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability considers what has changed in that time and finds that, while some countries have taken positive actions, in a number of others human resources could soon be facing serious challenges in coping with existing and potential new nuclear facilities. This is exacerbated by the increasing rate of retirement as the workforce ages. This report provides a qualitative characterisation of human resource needs and appraises instruments and programmes in nuclear education and training initiated by various stakeholders in different countries. In this context, it also examines the current and future uses of nuclear research facilities for education and training purposes. Regarding the nuclear training component of workforce competence, it outlines a job taxonomy which could be a basis for addressing the needs of workers across this sector. It presents the taxonomy as a way of enhancing mutual recognition and increasing consistency of education and training for both developed and developing countries.

  • 20-April-2012

    English

    Thermodynamic Sorption Modelling in Support of Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Cases - NEA Sorption Project Phase III

    A central safety function of radioactive waste disposal repositories is the prevention or sufficient retardation of radionuclide migration to the biosphere. Performance assessment exercises in various countries, and for a range of disposal scenarios, have demonstrated that one of the most important processes providing this safety function is the sorption of radionuclides along potential migration paths beyond the engineered barriers. Thermodynamic sorption models (TSMs) are key for improving confidence in assumptions made about such radionuclide sorption when preparing a repository's safety case. This report presents guidelines for TSM development as well as their application in repository performance assessments. They will be of particular interest to the sorption modelling community and radionuclide migration modellers in developing safety cases for radioactive waste disposal.

  • 13-August-2012

    English

    Aid Effectiveness in the Health Sector - Progress and Lessons

    Aid plays an important role in reducing poverty and inequality, stimulating growth, building capacity, promoting human development and accelerating the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Effective aid is critical both to maximise the impact of aid and to achieve long-term, sustainable development.

    Aid to the health sector has increased substantially over the last 20 years from USD 5 billion in 1990 to USD 21.8 billion in 2007. Consisting of a growing and diverse range of actors, aid to the health sector faces complex governance and management challenges: for example, donors inadvertedly invest in duplicate and fragmented efforts, while partners are unable to take full responsibility and leadership. By reviewing these challenges against the aid effectiveness principles outlined in the landmark 2005 Paris Declaration and 2008 Accra Agenda for Action, this report provides insight and expounds lessons from the health sector to the broader challenges of aid effectiveness. Health, then, is used as a “tracer” sector to help assess the risks and benefits of the diverse range of actors, and promote co-ordination and coherence among development programmes.

    This work is the result of a collaboration between the Working Party on Aid Effectiveness – an inclusive, international forum with the aim of improving aid delivery – through its Task Team on Health as a Tracer Sector and the World Trade Organization.

  • 21-August-2012

    English

    Livestock Diseases - Prevention, Control and Compensation Schemes

    This report is an overview of the management of risk due to livestock diseases, a potentially catastrophic type of risk that can have strong external effects given its links to the food chain and to human health. Animal disease, primarily in farmed livestock, has long been a policy concern for food safety reasons and the high economic losses it can engender. The globalisation of trade and human movement, and sensitivities to food safety, enhance the relevance and complexity of disease control for terrestrial livestock. Outbreaks – or even rumours of an outbreak – can result in widespread consumer alarm, disruption of trade, and severe effects on incomes, not to mention the human cost of illnesses and deaths arising from animal disease.
  • 3-December-2012

    English

    The Architecture of Development Assistance

    This book includes reports on Multilateral Aid, the Division of Labour and Aid Fragmentation, Aid Predictability to provide an overview of the key trends and developments in the architecture of aid.
  • 29-January-2013

    English

    Watermelons

    This book is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It provides explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the current watermelons standard. This new brochure illustrates the standard text and demonstrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. Thus it is a valuable tool for the inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in international trade in watermelons. The brochure also includes a USB key containing the hyperlinked electronic version of the publication, as well as all illustrative materials in high definition photographs.

  • 5-March-2013

    English

    Mental Health and Work: Norway

    Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Norway is the fourth in a series of reports looking at how the broader education, health, social and labour market policy challenges identified in Sick on the Job? Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work (OECD, 2012) are being tackled in a number of OECD countries. It concludes that Norway faces a unique situation whereby a generous welfare system stimulates large-scale labour market exclusion and significant socio-economic inequalities of people with a mental disorder, and hindering better outcomes of its employment and vocational rehabilitation programmes.

  • 19-October-2012

    English

    OECD Review of Agricultural Policies: Indonesia 2012

    This Review, undertaken in close co-operation with the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture, assesses the performance of Indonesian agriculture over the last two decades, evaluates Indonesian agricultural policy reforms and provides recommendations to address key challenges in the future. The evaluation is based on the OECD Committee for Agriculture’s approach that agriculture policy should be evidence-based and carefully designed and implemented to support productivity, competitiveness and sustainability, while avoiding unnecessary distortions to production decisions and to trade. Conducted in partnership with the OECD Investment Committee, the Review comprises a special chapter highlighting key challenges to be addressed to attract sustainable investment in agriculture, drawing from the OECD Policy Framework for Investment in Agriculture.

  • 4-February-2013

    English

    Waiting Time Policies in the Health Sector - What Works?

    Over the past decade, many OECD countries have introduced new policies to tackle excessive waiting times for elective surgery with some success. However, in the wake of the recent economic downturn and severe pressures on public budgets, waiting times times may rise again, and it is important to understand which policies work.  In addition, the European Union has introduced new regulations to allow patients to seek care in other member states, if there are long delays in treatment.   This book provides a framework to understand why there are waiting lists for elective surgery in some OECD countries and not in others. It also describes how waiting times are measured in OECD countries, which differ widely, and makes recommendations for best practice. Finally, it reviews different policy approaches to tackling excessive waiting times. Some countries have introduced guarantees to patients that they will not wait too long for treatment. These policies work only if they are accompanied by sanctions on health providers to ensure the guarantee is met or if they allow greater choice of health-care providers including the private sector. Many countries have also introduced policies to expand supply of surgical services, but these policies have generally not succeeded in the long-term in bringing down waiting times. Given the increasing demand for elective surgery, some countries have experimented with policies to improve priorisation of who is entitled to elective surgery. These policies are promising, but difficult to implement.
  • 23-September-2013

    English

    Nuclear Energy Today (Second Edition)

    Meeting the growing demand for energy, and electricity in particular, while addressing the need to curb greenhouse gas emissions and to ensure security of energy supply, is one of the most difficult challenges facing the world’s economies. No single technology can respond to this challenge, and the solution which policy-makers are seeking lies in the diversification of energy sources.

    Although nuclear energy currently provides over 20% of electricity in the OECD area and does not emit any carbon dioxide during production, it continues to be seen by many as a controversial technology. Public concern remains over its safety and the management of radioactive waste, and financing such a capital-intensive technology is a complex issue. The role that nuclear power will play in the future depends on the answers to these questions, several of which are provided in this up-to-date review of the status of nuclear energy, as well as on the outcome of research and development on the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor technologies.

  • 24-August-2012

    English

    Evaluation of Agri-environmental Policies - Selected Methodological Issues and Case Studies

    Governments are increasingly aware of the importance of monitoring and evaluating their policies − including agri-environmental policies − and are devoting efforts to strengthening their monitoring and evaluation systems and capacities. They aim to improve their performance by establishing evidence-based policy-making, evidence-based management and evidence-based accountability, which will help to improve the design and implementation of policies. Have agri-environmental and agricultural policies, including cross-compliance  and environmental regulations, succeeded in meeting environmental objectives for agriculture in OECD countries (and selected non-OECD countries)? What is the role for governments to encourage farmers to deliver environmental public goods? The report includes a selection papers presented at the OECD Workshop on Evaluation of Agri-environmental Policies, held 20-22 June 2011 in Braunschweig, Germany.
  • 3-July-2012

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Switzerland 2012

    This 2012 IEA review of Swiss energy policies finds that Switzerland has taken bold decisions to gradually phase out nuclear power and to reduce by a fifth its greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 with domestic measures only. These are challenging objectives, and the country now needs to identify the most viable ways to meet them at least cost and minimum risk to energy security.

    In the absence of nuclear power, maintaining sufficient electricity capacity will require strong policies to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy. Such measures have already been outlined, but they will likely not be enough. For baseload generation, gas-fired power plants would be the simplest option. Treating their CO2 emissions the same way as in the neighbouring countries would be a strong positive incentive for investors.

    Because Switzerland’s energy-related CO2 emissions come mostly from oil use in transport and space heating, action is most needed in these areas. Commendably, the country is making polluters pay by using a CO2 tax for financing decarbonisation efforts in space heating. Stronger efforts will be needed to reduce emissions from private car use, however.

    Since the 2007 IEA energy policy review, Switzerland has made clear progress in electricity market reform. Moving to a fully open market by 2015 would be a further positive step. The system of regulated end-user prices, however, is subsidising electricity consumption at a time when low-carbon power supply is becoming more constrained and expensive. It should be reconsidered. Switzerland should also continue to take an increasingly European approach to developing its electricity infrastructure, to its own benefit and to that of its neighbours.
  • 15-January-2013

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Mexico 2013

    This Environmental Performance Review of Mexico provides an independent assessment of Mexico's progress in achieving its domestic and international environmental commitments, together with policy-relevant recommendations. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on policies that tackle climate change and address biodiversity and forest conservation objectives.
  • 23-May-2012

    English

    Policy Priorities for International Trade and Jobs

    Launched and co-ordinated by the OECD, the International Collaborative Initiative on Trade and Employment (ICITE) is a two-year old joint undertaking of ten international organisations. Under ICITE, a broad research agenda focusing on the interaction between trade and employment has been implemented. This book brings together some of the results of that research. 

    Opening with an overview chapter from the OECD, the book continues with papers covering 1)trade, wages and employment, 2) trade and services, 3) trade and working conditions, and 4) regional trade perspectives.

  • 2-October-2012

    English

    OECD Banking Statistics: Financial Statements of Banks 2012

    Trends in bank profitability and factors affecting it are major indicators of changes in the state of health of national banking systems. This publication provides information on financial statements of banks in OECD member countries. The coverage of banks is not the same in each country, though the objective is to include all institutions that conduct ordinary banking business, namely institutions which primarily take deposits from the public at large and provide finance for a wide range of purposes. Some information on the number of reporting banks, their branches and staff is also included, as well as structural information regarding the whole financial sector. Moreover, ratios, based on various items of the financial statements of banks in percentage of some specific aggregates, are supplied to facilitate the analysis of trends in bank profitability of OECD countries.

  • 28-November-2012

    English

    Demographic Change and Local Development - Shrinkage, Regeneration and Social Dynamics

    This report highlights the issues faced by local areas against the backdrop of policies or planning models that have directed local development in the past decades (e.g. introduction of new industries such as information technology/bio-technology following the de-industrialisation of mining/manufacturing industries) but today appear less suitable than expected to ensure the sustainability of local development.

    This report is timely in discussing cases from 20 countries around the world and particularly signalling local strategies and initiatives for policy consideration and learning. The report considers together issues at the crossroads of modern local development in the context of demographic change: population mobility and urban shrinkage, regeneration strategies to stimulate sustainable growth, and social dynamics underpinning community stability.

  • 10-August-2012

    English

    Solar Heating and Cooling

    The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world’s total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050.  This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages that if concerted action is taken by governments and industry, solar energy could annually produce more than 16% of total final energy use for low temperature heat and nearly 17% for cooling.  Given that global energy demand for heat represents almost half of the world’s final energy use – more than the combined global demand for electricity and transport – solar heat can make a significant contribution in both tackling climate change and strengthening energy security.

  • 30-October-2013

    English

    Cancer Care - Assuring Quality to Improve Survival

    More than five million new cases of cancer are diagnosed every year in OECD countries. Mortality rates are declining, but not as fast as for other big killers such as heart disease, and cancer survival rates show almost a four-fold difference across countries. In short, many countries are not doing as well as they could in the fight against cancer.

    Cancer Care: Assuring Quality to Improve Survival surveys the policy trends in cancer care over recent  years and looks at survival rates to identify the why some countries are doing better than others. It sets out what governments should do to reduce the burden of cancer in their countries. As well as an adequate level of resourcing, a comprehensive national cancer control plan appears critical, emphasising initiatives such as early detection and fast-track treatment pathways. Countries also need better data, particularly for patients’ experiences of care, in order to provide high quality, continuously improving cancer care.

  • 5-June-2013

    English

    Putting Green Growth at the Heart of Development

    Green growth is vital to secure a brighter, more sustainable future for developing countries. Developing countries will pay a high price for failing to tackle local and global environmental threats because they are more dependent on natural resources and are more vulnerable to resources scarcity and natural disasters.

    This book presents evidence that green growth is the only way to sustain growth and development over the long-term. Green growth does not replace sustainable development, but is a means to achieve it. Green growth values natural assets, which are essential to the well-being and livelihoods of people in developing countries, and if policies are designed to respond to the needs of the poorest, green growth can contribute to poverty reduction and social equity.

    Building on experience with green growth policies in developing countries and extensive consultations with developing country stakeholders, this report provides a twin-track approach with agendas for national and international action. It responds to developing country concerns about the technical challenges arising from early efforts to “go green” and documents a wealth of examples from developing countries. Green growth objectives and policies will need to be mainstreamed into every government objective and most importantly, into national budgets. Green growth policies can use untapped opportunities to boost domestic fiscal revenues and attract quality investment for years to come. International co-operation is needed to help mitigate the short-term costs that may be associated with pursuing green growth. International flows of money, trade and technology know-how is vital to encourage pursuit of green growth in developing countries.

  • 15-September-2014

    English

    Accountability and Democratic Governance - Orientations and Principles for Development

    The ability of citizens to demand accountability and more open government is fundamental to good governance. There is growing recognition of the need for new approaches to the ways in which donors support accountability, but no broad agreement on what changed practice looks like. This publication aims to provide more clarity on the emerging practice. Based on four country studies Mali, Mozambique, Peru and Uganda, a survey of donor innovations and cutting-edge analysis in this field, and the findings of a series of special high-level international dialogues on how to best support accountability support to parliaments, political parties, elections and the media. The publication takes the view that a wholesale shift in behaviour is required by parts of the development assistance community - moving outside conventional comfort zones and changing reflexes towards new approaches to risk taking, analysis and programming around systems of accountability and ‘do no harm’ efforts in political engagement.

    This piece is aimed at a range of development practitioners, as well as a wider audience, including civil society actors and citizens around the world who interact with donors working on accountability support.

  • 5-February-2013

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Sweden 2012

    This OECD Review of Innovation Policy for Sweden offers a comprehensive assessment of Sweden's  innovation system, focusing on the role of government. It provides concrete recommendations on how to improve policies that affect innovation performance, including R&D policies, and identifies good practices from which other countries can learn.
  • 27-September-2012

    English

    Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles

    This roadmap explores the potential improvement of existing technologies to enhance the average fuel economy of motorised vehicles; the roadmap’s vision is to achieve a 30% to 50% reduction in fuel use per kilometre from new road vehicles  including 2-wheelers, LDV s and HDV s) around the world in 2030, and from the stock of all vehicles on the road by 2050. This achievement would contribute to significant reductions in GHG emissions and oil use, compared to a baseline projection. Different motorised modes are treated separately, with a focus on LDV s, HDV s and powered two-wheelers. A section on in-use fuel economy also addresses technical and nontechnical parameters that could allow fuel economy to drastically improve over the next decades. Technology cost analysis and payback time show that significant progress can be made with low or negative cost for fuel-efficient vehicles over their lifetime use. Even though the latest data analysed by the IEA for fuel economy between 2005 and 2008 showed that a gap exists in achieving the roadmap’s vision, cutting the average fuel economy of road motorised vehicles by 30% to 50% by 2030 is achievable, and the policies and technologies that could help meet this challenge are already deployed in many places around the world.

  • 25-June-2013

    English

    OECD Compendium of Agri-environmental Indicators

    Agriculture can have significant impacts on the environment as it uses on average over 40% of water and land resources in OECD countries. The impacts occur on and off farm, including both pollution and degradation of soil, water and air. But agriculture also supplies ecosystem services, such as biodiversity, provides a sink for greenhouse gases, and contributes to flood control and the aesthetic value of landscapes.

    This compendium updates the data issued in Environmental Performance of Agriculture at a Glance and provides comprehensive data and analysis on the environmental performance of agriculture in OECD countries since 1990, covering soil, water, air and biodiversity and looking at recent policy developments in all 34 OECD countries.

  • 8-March-2013

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Italy 2013

    The OECD Environmental Performance Review Programme provides independent assessments of countries’ progress in achieving their domestic and international environmental policy commitments, together with policy relevant recommendations. They are conducted to promote peer learning, to enhance countries’ accountability to each other and to the public, and to improve governments’ environmental performance, individually and collectively. The Reviews are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data. Each cycle of the Environmental Performance Reviews covers all OECD member countries and selected partner countries. The most recent reviews include: Mexico (2013), Germany (2012) and Slovenia (2012).

    This report is the third OECD review of Italy’s environmental performance. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on policies that promote more effective and efficient water management and provide better incentives to tackle climate change.

  • 29-April-2013

    English

    Mexico: Key Issues and Policies

    During the past decade, the Mexican government has put into place a strong policy framework for the promotion of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and entrepreneurship.   It has created a sequence of policy support running from the development of new entrepreneurs, micro-enterprises, SMEs and gazelles  to the stimulation of linkages between SMEs and so-called 'tractor' firms.  New co-ordination arrangements have also been created across government ministries and among national and state governments to increase the coherence and integration of their  programmes.  This publication takes stock of this progress and assesses the opportunities for further strengthening of the Mexican economy through SMEs and entrepreneurship.  It shows that the framework conditions are generally good in Mexico, and have improved in recent years thanks to reforms such as regulatory simplification, the expansion of the national loan guarantee programme, and the inclusion of the micro-enterprise sector as a target of the public support system.  At the same time, more can be done to shift entrepreneurs into the formal business sector and to develop more medium-sized companies able to innovate and trade internationally. There is also scope to improve the process of delivering the highest quality and most relevant policy support to beneficiary enterprises by simplifying the rules and operations of the SME Fund, developing the professional capacities of the staff and consultants who provide business development services and using available company-level data for the purposes of policy evaluation.

  • 19-October-2012

    English

    Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Ukraine 2012

    Ukraine’s energy sector faces unprecedented challenges, from a heavy reliance on expensive fossil-fuel imports to inefficient infrastructure and markets. Yet there is also potential for Ukraine to experience an energy revolution, one that could boost employment, lift economic growth and enhance energy security. Modernisation of Ukraine’s energy-supply sectors has only begun and will require investment on a huge scale, complemented by a fundamental reform of the business environment. A strong dependency on oil and gas imports and often-inefficient energy production, transportation and supply sectors means that reducing energy demand must be a greater priority. The potential for energy efficiency gains in the residential, district heating and industrial sectors is large. Endowed with large conventional energy reserves, alongside sizeable renewable potential, Ukraine can build the capacity to significantly increase its resource production.

    Releasing this potential will require deep regulatory reform and full implementation of international treaty provisions. Effective competition, alongside a progressive move towards market prices, will also help Ukraine attract investment to develop the sector. A draft energy strategy, which sets out a series of supply-side measures, was published in 2012. Broadening and implementing a comprehensive energy strategy, one that takes greater account of demand-side policies, could significantly improve progress in the medium term.

    This review analyses the large energy-policy challenges facing Ukraine and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide policy makers in the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  • 29-January-2013

    English

    Mental Health and Work: Belgium

    Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Belgium is the first in a series of reports looking at how the broader education, health, social and labour market policy challenges identified in Sick on the Job? Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work (OECD, 2012) are being tackled in a number of OECD countries. It concludes that Belgium can build on a system with a number of structural strengths that are not yet exploited to the best possible extent.

  • 28-January-2013

    English

    Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels 2013

    This Inventory is concerned with direct budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to fossil fuels, regardless of their impact or of the purpose for which the measures were first put in place. It has been undertaken as an exercise in transparency, and to inform the international dialogue on fossil-fuel subsidy reform. For each of the 34 OECD countries covered, the Inventory provides a succinct summary of its energy economy, and of the budgetary and tax-related measures provided at the central-government level (and, in the case of federal countries, for selected sub-national units of government) relating to fossil-fuel production or consumption. The transfers associated with these measures are reported for recent years using the Producer Support Estimate (PSE) and Consumer Support Estimate (CSE) as organising frameworks. These frameworks have already been used extensively by the OECD, most notably in respect of agriculture. The Inventory covers a wide range of measures that provide a benefit or preference for a particular activity or a particular product, either in absolute terms or relative to other activities or products, against a specified baseline. Many measures listed in this inventory are relative preferences within a particular country’s tax system rather than absolute support that can be readily compared across countries, and for that reason no national totals are provided.
  • 5-February-2013

    English

    Brazil's Supreme Audit Institution - The Audit of the Consolidated Year-end Government Report

    Supreme audit institutions have a distinct role in supporting the development of a more strategic and forward looking state. This report assesses the role of Brazil's SAI – the Federal Court of Accounts (Tribunal de Contas da União or TCU) – in enhancing accountability and informing decision making within the federal government. The review focuses specifically on the audit of the Consolidated Year end Government Report (Prestação de Contas da Presidenta de República or PCPR). Although the TCU is a well respected independent government institution and completes the audit of the PCPR in line with constitutional provisions and international best practice,  several challenges remain. Deepening TCU understanding of challenges and barriers affecting the use of its audit – especially by the legislature – is critical for enhancing accountability and informing decision making.  Moreover, framing clearly and concisely the main findings will make the TCU work audit more accessible and elevate the imperative for action. Creating a more explicit and co-ordinated TCU communication strategy will also improve the value and benefit of the audit findings.
  • 18-December-2013

    English

    The Missing Entrepreneurs - Policies for Inclusive Entrepreneurship in Europe

    Entrepreneurship development is an important requirement for achieving of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It is also a means to respond to new economic challenges, to create jobs and to fight social and financial exclusion. The impact of the global financial and economic crisis calls for giving entrepreneurship and self-employment a stronger role in economic and social development policies.

    This book collects and synthesizes information and data on entrepreneurship activities in Europe, focusing on people that are at the greatest risk of social exclusion. These groups include young people, older people, women, ethnic minorities and migrants, people with disabilities and the unemployed.

  • 7-November-2012

    English

    Nuclear Energy and Renewables - System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems

    This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a “generator pays” principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly decarbonised electricity systems.

  • 25-February-2013

    English

    Mental Health and Work: Denmark

    Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Denmark is the third in a series of reports looking at how the broader education, health, social and labour market policy challenges identified in Sick on the Job? Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work (OECD, 2012) are being tackled in a number of OECD countries. It concludes that the Danish system has a number of strengths that have yet to be used in a more effective way, but also that quite a few changes are needed in order to raise the labour market particiption of people with mental ill-health.

  • 5-March-2013

    English

    Mental Health and Work: Sweden

    Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Sweden is the second in a series of reports looking at how the broader education, health, social and labour market policy challenges identified in Sick on the Job? Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work (OECD, 2012) are being tackled in a number of OECD countries. It concludes that Swedish policy makers recognise the need to take steps to tackle mental ill-health and its labour market implications, but that a more comprehensive reform effort and a long-term commitment to it is needed in order to prevent problems from arising in the first place and respond more effectively when they do occur.
  • 26-March-2013

    English

  • 15-November-2012

    English

    Hydropower

    Hydropower could double its contribution by 2050, reaching 2 000 GW of global capacity and over 7 000 TWh. This achievement, driven primarily by the quest of clean electricity, could prevent annual emissions of up to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 from fossil-fuel plants. The bulk of this growth would come from large plants in emerging economies and developing countries.

    Hydroelectricity’s many advantages include reliability, proven technology, large storage capacity, and very low operating and maintenance costs. Hydropower is highly flexible, a precious asset for electricity network operators, especially given rapid expansion of variable generation from other renewable energy technologies such as wind power and photovoltaics. Many hydropower plants also provide flood control, irrigation, navigation and freshwater supply.

    The technology roadmap for Hydropower details action needed from policy makers to allow hydroelectric production to double, and addresses necessary conditions, including resolving environmental issues and gaining public acceptance.

  • 2-May-2013

    English

    Korea: Improving the Re-employment Prospects of Displaced Workers

    In Korea's dynamic labour market, job displacement (involuntary job loss due to firm closure or downsizing) affects many workers over the course of their working lives. Some workers are more vulnerable than others to this risk and may face long periods of unemployment/inactivity after displacement, particularly if their skills are not well-matched to emerging job opportunities. Even when they find new jobs, displaced workers tend to be paid less, have fewer benefits and are more likely to be overskilled than in the jobs they held prior to displacement. Helping displaced workers get back into good jobs quickly should be a key goal of labour market policy. To achieve this goal, Korea needs to increase resources devoted to re-employment programmes, such as job-search training and job matching, to improve their performance and better target those who need the most help. Existing training programmes need to be revised to ensure that people are obtaining skills that will help them find work. The social safety net also needs to be strengthened to lower the personal and societal costs of displacement, notably by improving the coverage of unemployment benefits.

  • 28-May-2013

    English

    Interconnected Economies - Benefiting from Global Value Chains

    Global Value Chains (GVCs) have exploded in the past decade and refer to the international dispersion of design, production, assembly, marketing and distribution of services, activities, and products. Different stages in the production process are increasingly located across different economies, and intermediate inputs like parts and components are produced in one country and then exported to other countries for further production and/or assembly into final products. The functional and spatial fragmentation that has occurred within GVCs has significantly reshaped the global economic landscape, thereby raising some new major policy challenges for OECD countries and emerging countries alike: trade policy, competitiveness, upgrading and innovation and the management of global systemic risk.

  • 27-June-2013

    English

    Getting It Right - Strategic Agenda for Reforms in Mexico

    Getting it Right is one of the most complete toolkits that the OECD has designed to help a country at the start of a new government administration. In this publication, the focus of the Organisation’s multidisciplinary knowledge is on Mexico; the discussion is enriched with international experience, and comparison based on best practices. In addition, the report identifies the Mexican economy’s strengths and weaknesses so as to support the design, promotion and implementation of key public policies for better economic performance.

  • 4-March-2013

    English

    Fragile States - Resource Flows and Trends

    By 2015, half of the world’s people living on less than USD 1.25 a day will be in fragile states. While poverty has decreased globally, progress on Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1 is slower in fragile states than in other developing countries. Fragile states are also off-track to meet the rest of the MDGs by 2015.

    Fragile situations became a central concern of the international development and security agenda in the 1990s. Since then, powerful forces have been influencing the causes and manifestations of fragility, including the combination of democratic aspirations, new technologies, demographic shifts and climate change. The last five years have been especially tumultuous, encompassing the 2008 food, fuel and financial crisis and the Arab Spring, which began in 2011.

    These events have influenced the international debate on the nature, relevance and implications of fragility. While situations of fragility clearly have common elements – including poverty, inequality and vulnerability – how can we make sense of the great diversity in their national income, endowment in natural resources or historical trajectories? How do we move towards a more substantive concept of fragility that goes beyond a primary focus on the quality of government policies and institutions to include a broader picture of the economy and society?

    This publication takes stock of i) the evolution of fragility as a concept, ii) analyses of financial flows to and within fragile states between 2000 and 2010, and iii) trends and issues that are likely to shape fragility in the years to come.
  • 5-February-2013

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Sweden 2013

    Sweden has made progress in recent years towards a more secure, sustainable energy future. The Scandinavian nation already has an almost carbon-free electricity supply and has phased out oil use in residential and power sectors. It is increasingly integrated within the Nordic and Baltic electricity markets, and its joint renewable electricity certificate market with Norway offers a unique model for other countries.

    Now Sweden must take concrete steps to realise its vision of a fossil-fuel-independent vehicle fleet by 2030 and no net greenhouse-gas emissions by 2050. Although Sweden has decided to allow the replacement of its existing nuclear reactors, further emission reductions will come at a higher cost and require technology change. This means Sweden will need to carefully evaluate the most cost-effective pathways for its transition to a low-carbon economy.

    Sweden has a high energy-intensity level, which requires greater energy efficiency in industry, buildings, heat and transport.  A decarbonisation vision should be mapped out for each industry sector. Starting with transport, Sweden must specify how it will wean its vehicle fleet from fossil fuels by 2030.

    Sweden’s industry lead in smart grids is an asset. Sweden should scale up investment in clean energy technologies. As all Nordic countries decarbonise, cost-effective regional solutions can control consumers’ costs. The large-scale deployment of renewable and energy technologies in a common Northern European energy market can drive decarbonisation without comprising competitiveness, security of supply and affordability.

    This review analyses the energy-policy challenges currently facing Sweden, and provides studies and recommendations for each sector.

  • 24-May-2013

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Germany 2013

    Since the IEA last reviewed Germany’s energy policies in 2007, the country has taken two fundamental policy decisions that will guide its energy policy in coming decades.  In September 2010, the federal government adopted the Energy Concept, a comprehensive new strategy for a long-term integrated energy pathway to 2050. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011, Germany decided to accelerate the phase-out of nuclear power by 2022 starting with the immediate closure of the eight oldest plants. This decision resulted in the adoption of a new suite of policy measures, determined renewable energy as the cornerstone of future energy supply, a set of policy instruments commonly known as the Energiewende.

    In order to achieve the ambitious energy transformation set out in the Energiewende, by 2030 half of all electricity supply will come from renewable energy sources; Germany must continue to develop cost-effective market-based approaches which will support the forecast growth of variable renewable generation. Furthermore, the costs and benefits need to be allocated in a fair and transparent way among all market participants, especially households.

    Renewable energy capacity must expand alongside the timely development of the transmission and distribution networks. In addition, a stable regulatory system is necessary to ensure long-term finance to network operators. Furthermore, close monitoring of Germany’s ability to meet electricity demand at peak times should continue in the medium term.

    Energy policy decisions in Germany inevitably have an impact beyond the country’s borders and must be taken within the context of a broader European energy policy framework and in close consultation with its neighbours.

    This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing Germany and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  • 23-May-2013

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Finland 2013

    Finland’s economy is highly industrialised. Yet with over one-third of its territory located above the Arctic Circle, the country is largely rural and sparsely populated, except for its southern tip. With its energy-intensive industries and its cold climate, Finland’s energy consumption per capita is the highest in the IEA. Finland is highly dependent on imported fossil fuels, and energy policy is at the heart of the government’s concerns. The government’s energy strategy aims to strengthen Finland’s energy security, to move progressively towards a decarbonised economy, and to deepen its integration in the wider European market. Finland has a very ambitious renewable energy programme, with a view to producing 38% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2020. Finland is the most forested country in Europe; biomass will thus play a central role in meeting the target Finland is one of few IEA countries with plans to expand its nuclear capacity, and the Parliament has approved the construction of two more nuclear power plants. If all planned projects are completed, the share of electricity produced by nuclear could double by 2025, reaching around 60%. This would contribute to diversifying Finland’s energy security and meeting its low-carbon objectives. Also, Finland participates in the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP), which aims to further regional integration through EU-supported infrastructure projects. This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Finland, and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  • 20-September-2013

    English

    Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Estonia 2013

    This review of Estonia’s energy policies analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It finds that Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it provides a large degree of energy security, oil shale is highly carbon-intensive.
    The government is seeking to lessen the negative environmental impact by phasing out old power plants and developing new technologies to reduce significantly CO2 emissions.

    The efforts on oil shale complement Estonia’s solid track record of modernising its overall energy system. Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalised its electricity and gas markets and attained most national energy policy targets and commitments for 2020. It has also started preparing its energy strategy to 2030, with an outlook to 2050. Estonia is also promoting energy market integration with neighbouring EU member states.

  • 30-April-2013

    English

    OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality: Denmark 2013 - Raising Standards

    This review of health care quality in Denmark examines policies related to quality and includes chapters covering primary and integrated care, hospital specialisation and equity. It finds that with a dense array of disease- and service-focused quality initiatives, and with information on the quality of care stored in separate data repositories, Denmark needs to create effective links and synergies between them to drive up quality in the healthcare system as a whole, rather than in disconnected elements.

    Primary care will be central in meeting Denmark’s future healthcare challenges of an ageing population with multiple chronic conditions. Therefore, an urgent need is to create a national vision of how a modernised primary care sector will fulfill this new coordination role. National standards, clinical guidelines, accreditation of clinical pathways and targeted financial incentive programmes could support this role, along with more transparent and formalised continual professional development.

    To facilitate quality improvement from the ambitious hospital rationalisation, Denmark should collect and disseminate data on the quality of individual physicians as well as the hospitals. Undergraduate training and medical research should be reviewed in light of the new service arrangements.  Close surveillance will be needed to monitor whether certain patient groups forego healthcare because travel times to providers are too long. Limited data availability complicate Denmark’s ability to monitor its commitment to equitable healthcare. There is an urgent need for renewed action to tackle risk factors of chronic ill-health that disproportionately affect low-income groups. Better information on the impact of user-charges on unmet need in low-income groups is needed.    

  • 8-October-2013

    English

    The OECD Handbook for Fisheries Managers - Principles and Practice for Policy Design

    The Fisheries Manager's Handbook is a compilation of OECD work designed to aid policy makers develop and implement good policies and management tools in fisheries.  Drawing upon years of OECD research, it demonstrates how an open policy design process with clear objectives, using market-based instruments and focussed on effective stock management can benefit all those involved in or concerned about the fisheries sector.  Of interest not only to policy makers, it will provides a useful guide to NGOs and other interested parties on the principles and processes of good policy design.

  • 20-March-2013

    English

    OECD Guidelines on Measuring Subjective Well-being

    Being able to measure people’s quality of life is fundamental when assessing the progress of societies. There is now widespread acknowledgement that measuring subjective well-being is an essential part of measuring quality of life alongside other social and economic dimensions. As a first step to improving the measures of quality of life, the OECD has produced Guidelines which provide advice on the collection and use of measures of subjective well-being.  These Guidelines have been produced as part of the OECD Better Life Initiative, a pioneering project launched in 2011, with the objective to measure society’s progress across eleven domains of well-being, ranging from jobs, health and housing, through to civic engagement and the environment.

    These Guidelines represent the first attempt to provide international recommendations on collecting, publishing, and analysing subjective well-being data. They provide guidance on collecting information on people's evaluations and experiences of life, as well as on collecting “eudaimonic” measures of psychological well-being. The Guidelines also outline why measures of subjective well-being are relevant for monitoring and policy making, and why national statistical agencies have a critical role to play in enhancing the usefulness of existing measures. They identify the best approaches for measuring, in a reliable and consistent way, the various dimensions of subjective well-being, and provide guidance for reporting on such measures. The Guidelines also include a number of prototype survey modules on subjective well-being that national and international agencies can use in their surveys.

  • 29-April-2013

    English

    OECD Review of Agricultural Policies: Kazakhstan 2013

    This Review, undertaken in close co-operation with the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan and conducted within the framework of the OECD Eurasia Competitiveness Programme, assesses the performance of agriculture in Kazakhstan over the last two decades. It evaluates agricultural policy reforms in Kazakhstan and provides recommendations to address key challenges in the future. This analysis is based on the approach that agriculture policy should be evidence-based and designed to support productivity, competitiveness and sustainable development, while avoiding unnecessary distortions to production decisions and to trade. A special chapter of the Review highlights the constraints to farm incomes that exist beyond the farm gate and related policy issues.

  • 3-May-2001

    English

    The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture - An Evaluation of its Implementation in OECD Countries

    The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) was a turning point in the reform of the agricultural trade system. It imposed disciplines on trade-distorting domestic policies and established new rules in the areas of market access and export competition. How effective have the three disciplines contained in the URAA been in bringing about a reduction in the level of production-related support and protection? Which elements of the disciplines have proved effective and which ineffective? What policy lessons can be drawn from the experience so far? What might be inferred about opportunities and challenges for further trade liberalisation? This report provides some answers to these questions for all OECD countries.

    A key conclusion of the report is that the immediate quantitative effects of the URAA on trade and protection levels have been modest. The reasons for this include the weakness of many specific features of the URAA including implementation and methodological issues.

    Countries have already embarked on a new round of multilateral trade negotiations on agriculture. The challenge facing policy makers is to build upon the foundation of the URAA to further reduce trade distortions. This requires strengthening the disciplines already established under the URAA and addressing those weaknesses of the current agreement which have been identified in this study.

  • 12-February-2013

    English

    Addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting

    Base erosion constitutes a serious risk to tax revenues, tax sovereignty and tax fairness for many countries. While there are many ways in which domestic tax bases can be eroded, a significant source of base erosion is profit shifting. This report presents the studies and data available regarding the existence and magnitude of base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS), and contains an overview of global developments that have an impact on corporate tax matters and identifies the key principles that underlie the taxation of cross-border activities, as well as the BEPS opportunities these principles may create. The report concludes that current rules provide opportunities to associate more profits with legal constructs and intangible rights and obligations, and to legally shift risk intra-group, with the result of reducing the share of profits associated with substantive operations. The report recommends the development of an action plan to address BEPS issues in a comprehensive manner.

  • 24-May-2013

    English

    Scaling-up Finance Mechanisms for Biodiversity

    This report examines six mechanisms that can be used to scale-up financing for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use and to help meet the 2011-20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The mechanisms are environmental fiscal reform, payments for ecosystem services, biodiversity offsets, green markets, biodiversity in climate change funding, and biodiversity in international development finance. Drawing on literature and more than 40 case studies worldwide, this book addresses the following questions: What are these mechanisms and how do they work? How much finance have they mobilised and what potential is there to scale this up? And what are the key design and implementation issues that need to be addressed so that governments can ensure these mechanisms are environmentally effective, economically efficient and distributionally equitable?

  • 17-June-2013

    English

    A Good Life in Old Age? - Monitoring and Improving Quality in Long-term Care

    As ageing societies are pushing a growing number of frail old people into needing care, delivering quality long-term care services – care that is safe, effective, and responsive to needs – has become a priority for governments. Yet much still remains to be done to enhance evidence-based measurement and improvement of quality of long-term care services across EU and OECD countries. This book offers evidence and examples of useful experiences to help policy makers, providers and experts measure and improve the quality of long-term care services.

  • 12-June-2013

    English

    OECD Framework for Statistics on the Distribution of Household Income, Consumption and Wealth

    This publication presents an internationally agreed framework to support the joint analysis of micro-level statistics on household income, consumption and wealth. Its aim is to extend the existing international frameworks for measuring household income and consumption at the micro level to include wealth, and describes income, consumption and wealth as three separate but interrelated dimensions of people’s economic well-being. The framework, prepared by an international expert group working under the auspices of the OECD, is intended to assist national statistical offices and other data producers to develop data sets at the household level that are suitable for integrated analysis, and for facilitating comparisons between countries. The Framework is widely applicable, with relevance to countries that are at different stages of statistical development, that have different statistical infrastructures, and that operate in different economic and social environments.

  • 12-June-2013

    English

    OECD Guidelines for Micro Statistics on Household Wealth

    This publication presents an internationally agreed set of guidelines for producing micro statistics on household wealth, It addresses the common conceptual, definitional and practical problems that countries face in producing such statistics, and are meant to improve the comparability of the currently available country data. The Guidelines, prepared by an international expert group working under the auspices of the OECD,  propose a set of standard concepts, definitions and classifications for micro wealth statistics, and cover different phases in the statistical production process, including sources and methods for measuring particular forms of wealth, best practice in using household surveys or other sources to compile wealth statistics, the development of analytic measures, the dissemination of data, and data quality assurance.

  • 23-May-2013

    English

    Green Growth in Cities

    This report synthesises the findings from six case studies of urban green growth policies, four at city level (Paris, Chicago, Stockholm, Kitakyushu) and two at the national level (China, Korea). It offers a definition of urban green growth and a framework for analysing how it might play out in different types of cities. It demonstrates the importance of urban policies for achieving national environmental policy goals and discusses the increased efficiency of policy intervention at the urban level. It identifies urban activities to reduce environmental impact that are most likely to contribute to the policy priorities of job creation, urban attractiveness, metro-regional supply of green products and services, and increased urban land values. It also provides guidance on addressing potential financing and governance challenges that may arise in pursuing urban green growth. Finally, the report offers a preliminary proposal for how green growth in cities could be measured.
  • 19-June-2013

    English

    Global Food Security - Challenges for the Food and Agricultural System

    This study examines how changes to the functioning of the world’s food and agriculture system can contribute to reduced hunger and the attainment of global food security. The challenge is wide ranging and multi-faceted. While food production will respond to the demands of a rising and more affluent world population, effective government policies can stimulate productivity and contain upward pressure on food prices. They can also help ensure that land and water resources are used more sustainably, and that farmers have the capacity to manage risk and adapt to climate change. Trade will have an important role to play in ensuring that resources are used efficiently and sustainably, and in getting food from surplus to deficit regions. At the same time, multilateral reforms are needed to ensure that the world trading system functions more smoothly and fairly than it has done in the past.

    Approximately two-thirds of the world’s poor live in rural areas, where farming is the principal economic activity. This study considers how government policies can raise the incomes of agricultural and rural households, and thereby improve poor peoples’ access to food. Yet while income growth is essential for long-term food security, it is not sufficient. Complementary policies, for example to improve health and sanitation, are required to ensure improvements in peoples’ nutrition. Action is thus required on many fronts. The purpose of this study is to help policymakers establish priorities at global, regional and national levels.

  • 4-November-2013

    English

    Effective Carbon Prices

    Economic textbooks predict that taxes and emission trading systems are the cheapest way for societies to reduce emissions of CO2. This book shows that this is also the case in the real world. It estimates the costs to society of reducing CO2 emissions in 15 countries using a broad range of policy instruments in 5 of the sectors that generate most emissions: electricity generation, road transport, pulp & paper and cement, as well as households’ domestic energy use. It finds wide variations in the costs of abating each tonne of CO2 within and among countries, as well as in the sectors examined and across different types of policy instruments. Market-based approaches like taxes and trading systems consistently reduced CO2 at a lower cost than other instruments. Capital subsidies and feed-in tariffs were among the most expensive ways of reducing emissions.

  • 28-February-2013

    English

    Low-Carbon Technology for the Indian Cement Industry

    This roadmap outlines emissions reduction potential from all technologies that can be implemented in the Indian cement industry. Taking into account the specificities of the Indian context, markets and opportunities, this roadmap outlines a possible transition path for the Indian cement industry to support the global goal of halving CO 2 emissions by 2050.

  • 5-December-2013

    English

    Investing Together - Working Effectively across Levels of Government

    Why 'investing together'? Public investment is not only a major strategic responsibility for governments but also a shared one: almost two-thirds of public investment is undertaken by sub-national governments and major projects tend to involve more than one government level. In a tight fiscal landscape, improving the efficiency and effectiveness of investment, while maximising its impact on growth outcomes, is paramount. Identifying and addressing the governance bottlenecks that impede smooth co-ordination across levels of government can make a significant contribution towards reaching that end.

    This report dissects the relationships different government actors form vertically, across levels of government, and also horizontally, across both sectors and jurisdictions. It helps policy makers to understand more systematically how co-ordination works and why it so often doesn’t, as well as shedding light on the mechanisms countries have developed to govern these interactions. In doing so, it addresses another key requisite to organising co-ordination, namely government capacity. Sub-national actors, especially, need to be equipped with the right skills and resources to carry out their responsibilities and to engage with stakeholders, across the public, private and civil society sectors. This report offers a toolkit to policy makers to assess their needs for capacity development

  • 22-April-2013

    English

    Handbook on Residential Property Price Indices

    For most citizens, buying a residential property (dwelling) is the most important transaction during their lifetime. Residential properties represent the most significant component of households’ expenses and, at the same time, their most valuable assets. The Residential Property Prices Indices (RPPIs) are index numbers measuring the rate at which the prices of residential properties are changing over time. RPPIs are key statistics not only for citizens and households across the world, but also for economic and monetary policy makers. Among their professional uses, they serve, for example, to monitor macroeconomic imbalances and risk exposure of the financial sector.

    This Handbook provides, for the first time, comprehensive guidelines for the compilation of Residential Property Price Indexes and explains in depth the methods and best practices used to calculate an RPPI. It also examines the underlying economic and statistical concepts and defines the principles guiding the methodological and practical choices for the compilation of the indices. The Handbook primarily addresses official statisticians in charge of producing residential property price indices; at the same time, it addresses the overall requirement on RPPIs by providing a harmonised methodological and practical framework to all parties interested in the compilation of such indices.

    The RPPIs Handbook has been written by leading academics in index number theory and by recognised experts in RPPIs compilation. Its development has been co-ordinated by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union, with the collaboration of the International Labour Organization (ILO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the World Bank.

  • 28-June-2013

    English

    Providing Agri-environmental Public Goods through Collective Action

    This study analyses the promotion of collective action for agri-environmental public goods and addresses externalities by reviewing the experience of various OECD member countries. Twenty-five cases from
    13 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom) are examined. The study shows that collective action should be given serious consideration as a means of addressing many agricultural and natural resource issues, and in some cases collective action should be actively promoted.

  • 2-September-2013

    English

    Water and Climate Change Adaptation - Policies to Navigate Uncharted Waters

    This report sets out the challenge for freshwater in a changing climate and provides policy guidance on how to navigate this new “waterscape”. It highlights the range of expected changes in the water cycle and the challenge of making practical, on-site adaptation decisions for water. It offers policymakers a risk-based approach to better “know”, “target” and “manage” water risks and proposes policy guidelines to prioritise action and improve the efficiency, timeliness and equity of adaptation responses.

    The report also highlights general trends and good practices drawn from the OECD Survey of Policies on Water and Climate Change Adaptation, covering all 34 member countries and the European Commission. Individual country profiles are available, which provide a snapshot of the challenges posed by climate change for freshwater and the emerging policy responses (on-line only).

    Finally, the report highlights the benefits of well-designed economic instruments (e.g. insurance schemes, water trading, water pricing), ecosystem-based approaches and ‘real options’ approaches to financing. These approaches can improve the flexibility of water policy and investment, reducing the cost of adjusting to changing conditions.

  • 24-April-2013

    English

    International Regulatory Co-operation - Addressing Global Challenges

    The world is becoming increasingly global. This raises important challenges for regulatory processes which still largely emanate from domestic jurisdictions.   In order to eliminate unnecessary regulatory divergences and to address global challenges pertaining to systemic risks, the environment, and human health and safety, governments increasingly seek to better articulate regulations across borders and to ensure greater enforcement of rules and their application across jurisdictions.

    This report gathers in a synthetic manner the knowledge and evidence available to date on the various mechanisms available to governments to promote regulatory co-operation, and their benefits and challenges. The review of evidence confirms the increased internationalisation of regulation, which takes place through a wide variety of mechanisms and multiple actors, and highlights a shift in the nature of IRC from complete 'harmonisation' of regulation to more flexible options - such as mutual recognition agreements. Despite growing regulatory co-operation, however, decision making on IRC is not informed by a clear understanding of benefits costs and success factors of the diverse IRC options.

  • 30-April-2013

    English

    International Regulatory Co-operation: Case Studies, Vol. 1 - Chemicals, Consumer Products, Tax and Competition

    The world is becoming increasingly global. This raises important challenges for regulatory processes which still largely emanate from domestic jurisdictions. In order to eliminate unnecessary regulatory divergences and to address the global challenges pertaining to systemic risks, the environment, and human health and safety, governments increasingly seek to better articulate regulations across borders and to ensure greater enforcement of rules. But, surprisingly, the gains that can be achieved through greater co-ordination of rules and their application across jurisdictions remain largely under-analysed.
     
    This volume complements the stocktaking report on International Regulatory Co-operation: Rules for a Global World by providing evidence on regulatory co-operation in four sectors: chemical safety, consumer product safety, model tax convention, and competition law enforcement. The four case studies follow the same outline to allow for comparison. 

  • 13-May-2013

    English

    International Regulatory Co-operation: Case Studies, Vol. 2 - Canada-US Co-operation, EU Energy Regulation, Risk Assessment and Banking Supervision

    The world is becoming increasingly global. This raises important challenges for regulatory processes which still largely emanate from domestic jurisdictions. In order to eliminate unnecessary regulatory divergences and to address the global challenges pertaining to systemic risks, the environment, and human health and safety, governments increasingly seek to better articulate regulations across borders and to ensure greater enforcement of rules. But, surprisingly, the gains that can be achieved through greater co-ordination of rules and their application across jurisdictions remain largely under-analysed.
     
    This volume complements the stocktaking report on International Regulatory Co-operation: Rules for a Global World by providing evidence on regulatory co-operation in the framework of the Canada-U.S. Regulatory Cooperation Council, as part of EU energy regulation, under the Global Risk Assessment Dialogue, and in the area of prudential regulation of banks. The four case studies provided in this volume follow the same outline to allow for comparison.

  • 22-May-2013

    English

    International Regulatory Co-operation: Case Studies, Vol. 3 - Transnational Private Regulation and Water Management

    The world is becoming increasingly global. This raises important challenges for regulatory processes which still largely emanate from domestic jurisdictions. In order to eliminate unnecessary regulatory divergences and to address the global challenges pertaining to systemic risks, the environment, and human health and safety, governments increasingly seek to better articulate regulations across borders and to ensure greater enforcement of rules. But, surprisingly, the gains that can be achieved through greater co-ordination of rules and their application across jurisdictions remain largely under-analysed.

    This volume complements the stocktaking report on International Regulatory Co-operation: Rules for a Global World by providing evidence on regulatory co-operation in the area of transboundary water management and through the fast development of transnational private regulation. 

  • 19-June-2013

    English

    Agricultural Innovation Systems - A Framework for Analysing the Role of the Government

    This report reviews recent trends in agricultural innovation systems (AIS) and discusses the impact of a wide range of policies on the creation and diffusion of innovation in the agricultural and agrifood sector. It suggests a framework for analysing the role of governments in fostering increased innovation, with a view to helping to identify practical actions that governments could take to improve productivity growth, sustainable use of resources, and resilience to future market developments in national and global agriculture and agri-food systems.

  • 28-April-2014

    English

    Energy Policy Highlights - In-Depth Energy Policy Reviews (IDRs) of 21st Century

    Energy Policy Highlights showcases what the 28 IEA member countries identified as key recent developments in their energy policies. Each country contribution covers a range of energy-related topics, with best practices and policy examples from their respective governments, including objectives, characteristics, challenges and successes, and shared lessons. Each contribution underscores the changing nature of both global and domestic energy challenges, as well as the commonality of energy concerns among member countries. For example, many of the policies highlighted identify an urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a clear objective. Electricity, enhancing energy efficiency and increasing the share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost effective manner are likewise areas of common focus. Overall, the energy concerns reflect key areas of focus for the IEA – energy security, environmental protection and economic development.

    On the end-user side, increasing public awareness of domestic energy policies through improved transparency and engagement is an important facet of policy support among IEA member countries. The successful implementation of policies and other initiatives benefitted from efforts to inform the public. The IEA hopes that Energy Policy Highlights will provide a useful point of reference and dialogue for the 2013 IEA Ministerial, and will help advance the Agency’s well-established practice of co-operation and worldwide engagement through the sharing of experiences, best practices and lessons learned, among IEA member countries and partner countries alike.

  • 1-August-2013

    English

    Together for Better Outcomes - Engaging and Involving SME Taxpayers and Stakeholders

    Revenue bodies are increasingly focusing on improving their understanding of taxpayers and taking advantage of opportunities for collaboration where win-win situations exists. This is not least true for the large and heterogeneous SME segment, which in many countries has proven difficult and costly to administer with traditional approaches.

    This Forum on Tax Administration study provides inspiration and guidance to revenue bodies wishing to explore the potential for improving outcomes, reducing costs, improving services and generating other benefits by engaging and involving SME taxpayers and stakeholders. The study provides a conceptual framework illustrating the benefits and situating the approach in the context of public sector reform, technological developments and trends in compliance risk management. It further provides a comprehensive review of current and emerging practices across the areas of information and guidance, compliance risk management, and systemic solutions. Finally the study provides guidance to support successful implementation.

    The study finds that while revenue bodies have substantial experience to build on, there is also potential for more systematic, far-reaching and potentially transformative approaches. A key barrier in this regard is that performance metrics relying extensively on output measures channel resources and attention away from innovative approaches that work back from the desired ultimate outcomes.

  • 29-July-2013

    English

    Co-operative Compliance: A Framework - From Enhanced Relationship to Co-operative Compliance

    This report examines the relationship between large business taxpayers and revenue bodies, five years on from the publication of the FTA’s Study into the Role of Tax Intermediaries. The study recommended that revenue bodies develop a relationship based on trust and co-operation. The report is based on a detailed examination of the practical experiences of countries that have established this type of relationship.

    The report finds that the pillars of an improved relationship highlighted in the Study remain valid. However, it identifies some additional features that are equally important: the part played by the tax control framework used by a large business in providing an objective basis for trust is emphasised. It also suggests that “co-operative compliance” is a better description of the recommended approach than the original “enhanced relationship” label.
     
    The report addresses some questions that have been raised about the compatibility of the new approach with certain legal principles and discusses the internal governance of these programmes within revenue bodies. The importance of making a sound business case for the approach and how to measure the results of co-operative compliance programmes is addressed. The report concludes with some thoughts about the future direction of the co-operative compliance concept.

  • 29-July-2013

    English

    Managing Service Demand - A Practical Guide to Help Revenue Bodies Better Meet Taxpayers' Service Expectations

    This book provides guidance on a whole-of-revenue body approach for managing service demand effectively. It sets out a possible ‘model’ for governance arrangements based on leading revenue body practice – in this case the Australian Taxation Office—that has been examined and is supported by the FTA’s Taxpayer Services Sub-group. It also sets out practical steps in the form of a step-by-step framework to support revenue bodies in their efforts to better identify, analyse and address the causes of service demand.


    The guide has been designed to support all revenue bodies, from those that are in the early stages of developing comprehensive service delivery programs to those with mature programs in place. While it focuses on the revenue body’s role in tax administration it acknowledges that some revenue bodies have a broader set of responsibilities, for example, in the administration of some social policies. This guide has not explored how such roles should integrate at a broader demand management level and revenue bodies will need to assess this issue, if relevant, having regard to their individual circumstances.

  • 22-May-2013

    English

    Succeeding with Trade Reforms - The Role of Aid for Trade

    Succeeding with Trade Reforms: The Role of Aid for Trade highlights the potential of aid for trade to boost economic growth and reduce poverty, while discussing the various reasons why it may not be realised. In so doing, this book draws lessons for the design of aid-for-trade projects and programmes and for increasing their effectiveness. Building on this analysis, the book also quantifies the binding constraints to trade in developing countries and the importance of complementary and compatible policies (such as education, governance, business environment and macroeconomic stability) to maximise the impact of trade reforms on trade and economic growth.
  • 6-October-2014

    English

    OECD Regional Outlook 2014 - Regions and Cities: Where Policies and People Meet

    Regions and cities are on the front lines of many challenges faced by OECD countries today, from education and jobs to health care and quality of life. Getting regions and cities “right”, adapting policies to the specificities of where people live and work,  is vital to improving citizens’ well-being. This second edition of the OECD Regional Outlook aims to help countries do just that. Part I describes the main trends and challenges today. Part II has a special focus on cities, looking at public investment, urban framework policies, and rural-urban issues. Part III presents a Policy Forum on the future of cities, with five contributions from distinguished authors and policy makers. Part IV offers profiles of regional development in all 34 OECD countries.

  • 11-June-2013

    English

    Aid for Trade in Action

    History has shown that openness to trade is a key ingredient for economic success and for improved living standards. But simply opening the economy to international trade is not enough. Developing countries – especially the least developed – require help in building their trade-related capacities in terms of information, policies, procedures, institutions and infrastructure, so as to compete effectively in the global economy. Aid for trade aims to help countries overcome the supply-side constraints that inhibit their ability to benefit from market access opportunities. The almost 300 case stories show clear results of how aid-for-trade programmes are helping developing countries to build human, institutional and infrastructure capacity to integrate into regional and global markets and to make good use of trade opportunities. Together, these stories are a rich and varied source of information on the results of aid for trade activities – an indication of the progress achieved by the Aid-for-Trade Initiative.

  • 21-June-2013

    English

    Ageing and Employment Policies: Norway 2013 - Working Better with Age

    This report provides an overview of the substantial ageing and employment policy initiatives already implemented in Norway over the past decade and identifies areas where more should be done, covering both supply-side and demand-side aspects.

    To give better incentives to carry on working, the report recommends further reforms in the second-pillar pension schemes, particularly for public sector employees. On the side of employers, it is important to progress towards more age-neutral hiring decisions and to review of age limits for mandatory retirement.

    To improve the employability of older workers, the focus should be to promote job-related training with a particular focus on mid-career workers and to encourage initiatives based on a full-time culture and good working conditions for all.

  • 1-June-2011

    English

    A Framework for Growth and Social Cohesion in Korea

    Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, the Better Policies series tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of member and partner countries, focusing on how governments can make reform happen.

  • 15-September-2012

    English

    Mexico: Better Policies for Inclusive Development

    Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, this book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of Mexico, focusing on how its government can make reform happen.

  • 15-April-2013

    English

    Slovak Republic: Fostering an Inclusive Job-rich Recovery

    Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, this book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of the Slovak Republic, focusing on how its government can make reform happen.

  • 15-October-2012

    English

    Addressing the Competitiveness Challenges in Germany and the Euro Area

    Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, this book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of Germany and the Euro Area, focusing on how their governments can make reform happen.
     

  • 15-October-2012

    English

    India: Sustaining High and Inclusive Growth

    Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, this book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of India, focusing on how its government can make reform happen.
     

  • 15-September-2012

    English

    Italy: Reviving Growth and Productivity

    Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, this book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of Italy, focusing on how its government can make reform happen.

  • 15-April-2012

    English

    Policies for a revitalisation of Japan

    Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, the Better Policies series tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of member and partner countries, focusing on how governments can make reform happen.

  • 22-May-2010

    English

    Greece at a Glance - Policies for a Sustainable Recovery

    Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, this book summarises OECD’s policy advice for Greece in a wide variety of policy areas. It proposes a strategy to correct imbalances and modernize the economy, accompanied by action plans in public administration and budgets; pensions; the governance of state owned enterprises; tax policies; employment and social policy; education; new sources of growth, innovation and green growth; competition; and the complex political economy problems associated with reforms in the public sector.

  • 31-May-2013

    English

    Poland: Implementing Strategic-State Capability

    This report proposes a practical, country-based framework for developing good governance indicators for programmes funded by the European Union in Poland. The concepts presented and the challenges discussed are, however, relevant to a wide range of OECD member and non-member countries in the development of indicators-based performance measurement systems.

     
  • 25-November-2014

    English

    OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality: Turkey 2014 - Raising Standards

    Turkey underwent a very ambitious reform programme  in 2003, the so-called "Health Transformation Programme". Access to healthcare in Turkey has greatly increased with the attainment of Universal Health Coverage, as also demonstrated by improvement in health outcomes, most notably around maternal and child health and infectious diseases. However, despite these significant achievements, Turkey has a significant way to travel to deliver high-quality health services to its population. Governance of the health system is highly centralised and typified by directive control from the Ministry of Health, and information collected in different part of the system is not always fully exploited.

    The OECD Review of Health Care Quality in Turkey recommends a number of changes to address these shortcomings. The key recommendations are that: i) Turkey needs to develop robust systems to standardise and monitor the quality of care, encourage continuous professional development and incorporate patient views; ii) some loosening of the governance structure would be welcome, to allow regions greater flexibility to assess and respond to local health needs and to continue to provide health workers with incentives for improve quality; iii) data on health sector activity and outcomes need to be made more available and more usable for individual patients and clinicians, while greater effort is needed to increase the robustness of Turkey’s information systems at national level and harmonise performance measures to OECD and other international comparators.

  • 15-October-2011

    English

    OECD Perspectives: Spain, Policies for a Sustainable Recovery

    Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, the Better Policies series tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of member and partner countries, focusing on how governments can make reform happen.

  • 15-July-2010

    English

    United Kingdom: Policies for a Sustainable Recovery

    Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, the Better Policies series tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of member and partner countries, focusing on how governments can make reform happen.

  • 28-October-2013

    English

    Gender and Statebuilding in Fragile and Conflict-affected States

    This publication provides an overview of the key issues, challenges and opportunities for ensuring more systematic consideration of gender issues in statebuilding in fragile and conflict-affected countries. It makes the case for gender-sensitive statebuilding based on the inherent value of gender equality as well as its contribution to better development outcomes and the achievement of peacebuilding and statebuilding goals. The report also spells out some of the contextual challenges and operational constraints that stifle progress in this area. Based on a series of empirical examples of donor practices, the report finally distills key success factors and concrete entry points for tackling these challenges and achieving a more effective, more politically informed approach to integrating gender into statebuilding.

  • 2-September-2013

    English

    Water Security for Better Lives

    This publication examines the critical issues surrounding water security (water shortage, water excess, inadequate water quality, the resilience of freshwater systems), providing a rationale for a risk-based approach and the management of trade-offs between water and other (sectoral and environmental) policies.
     
    The report sets out a three-step process to “know”, “target” and “manage” water risks: (1) appraising the risks, (2) judging the tolerability and acceptability of risks and weighing risk-risk trade-offs, and (3) calibrating appropriate responses.
     
    The publication provides policy analysis and guidance on the use of market-based instruments and the complex links between water security and other policy objectives, such as food security, energy security, climate mitigation and biodiversity protection.

  • 19-July-2013

    English

    Action Plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting

    Taxation is at the core of countries' sovereignty, but in recent years, multinational companies have avoided taxation in their home countries by pushing activities abroad to low or no tax jurisdictions.  The G20 asked OECD to address this growing problem by creating this action plan to address base erosion and profit shifting. This plan identifies a series of domestic and international actions to address the problem and sets timelines for the implementation.

  • 3-December-2013

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: South Africa 2013

    This report is the first OECD review of South Africa’s environmental performance. It has been carried out as part of the OECD dialogue with South Africa as Key Partner. The report evaluates South Africa's progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on policies that provide incentives to protect South Africa's exceptionally rich biodiversity and promote more effective and efficient environmental management across different levels of public administration.

  • 6-November-2013

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Austria 2013

    This report is the third OECD review of Austria’s environmental performance. The report evaluates Austria's progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on chemicals management and climate change adaptation.

  • 27-June-2013

    English

    Transition to Sustainable Buildings - Strategies and Opportunities to 2050

    Buildings are the largest energy consuming sector in the world, and account for over one-third of total final energy consumption and an equally important source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Achieving significant energy and emissions reduction in the buildings sector is a challenging but achievable policy goal.

    Transition to Sustainable Buildings presents detailed scenarios and strategies to 2050, and demonstrates how to reach deep energy and emissions reduction through a combination of best available technologies and intelligent public policy. This IEA study is an indispensible guide for decision makers, providing informative insights on:

    -Cost-effective options, key technologies and opportunities in the buildings sector;
    -Solutions for reducing electricity demand growth and flattening peak demand;
    -Effective energy efficiency policies and lessons learned from different countries;
    -Future trends and priorities for ASEAN, Brazil, China, the European Union, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa and the United States;
    -Implementing a systems approach using innovative products in a cost effective manner; and
    -Pursuing whole-building (e.g. zero energy buildings) and advanced-component policies to initiate a fundamental shift in the way energy is consumed.

  • 10-December-2014

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Botswana 2014

    OECD's comprehensive review of investment policy in Botswana.  After an overview of the country, the review examines investment policy, investment promotion and facilitation as well as infrastructure in Botswana.

  • 21-October-2013

    English

    OECD Territorial Reviews: Puebla-Tlaxcala, Mexico 2013

    Encompassing 39 municipalities in two states, Puebla-Tlaxcala is the fourth-largest metropolitan zone in Mexico. Over the past five decades, the region has successfully attracted major national and international firms, building its reputation as both a manufacturing hub specialising in auto production and one of Mexico’s most important centres of higher education. Yet it also faces important challenges. Compared to other large Mexican metropolitan zones, Puebla-Tlaxcala has a disproportionate share of individuals with low skills, which could represent a bottleneck to future growth. Urban sprawl is another challenge with important economic, environmental and social consequences. Puebla-Tlaxcala's urban footprint expanded nearly eight times faster than its population over the past three decades, contributing to inadequate service provision and high levels of social marginalisation, particularly in the metropolitan periphery. To ensure that the region remains competitive and grows sustainably over the long term, this review recommends (i) improving workforce and economic development outcomes, particularly by raising the level of low-skilled workers; (ii) guiding urban growth more effectively to tackle urban sprawl and improve serve delivery; (iii) and addressing governance challenges by building capacity in the public sector and transitioning to forms of metropolitan governance.

  • 23-April-2014

    English

    Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries - Measuring OECD Responses

    This publication identifies the main areas of weakness and potential areas for action to combat money-laundering, tax evasion, foreign bribery, and to identify, freeze and return stolen assets. It also looks at the role of development agencies and finds that the potential returns to developing countries from using ODA on issues like combating tax evasion or asset recovery are significant.  Finally, it identifies some opportunities for a scaled-up role for development agencies.

  • 14-October-2013

    English

    Policy Instruments to Support Green Growth in Agriculture

    This report synthesises the experience of OECD countries in developing and implementing policies, programmes and initiatives related to green growth in the agricultural sector, based primarily on material provided by governments. It discusses the overall approach that countries are taking towards establishing a green growth strategy in agriculture; the implementation of the OECD framework for monitoring progress towards green growth in agriculture; and the various policy instruments used.

    A key conclusion is that, while most countries have some policies in place that relate to the concept of green growth, the degree of ambition shows considerable variation. A wide range of instruments and a variety of “policy mixes” are currently applied across OECD countries, with the majority of countries appearing to have strategic objectives covering a wide range of subjects related to green growth, particularly in the area of improving energy efficiency and reducing the carbon footprint of agriculture. A coherent overall policy framework that has clear objectives, sets R&D priorities, and policy measures that are targeted and implemented at the appropriate levels are essential to establish a comprehensive strategy for green growth in agriculture.

  • 27-September-2013

    English

    OECD Territorial Reviews: Antofagasta, Chile 2013

    Chile has been very successful in turning its natural resource endowments into a generator of growth and modernisation. However, its mining regions, including Antofagasta, face the challenge of developing a critically important primary sector in a manner that contributes to both economic growth and broader measures of well-being. Antofagasta's long term sustainability goals include a more diversified economic base, supported by a city that is lived in for its high quality of life and the opportunities it offers. To achive this, it will need to make the most of its natural endowments, improve the city's physical attractiveness and ensure better urban policy outcomes. It will also require regional and local actors to act in a strategic and innovative manner. This study focuses on economic diversification, urbanism and governance in the city of Antofagasta. Consideration is given to: economic and socio-economic trends such as those associated with labour markets and skills, as well as quality of life factors; opportunities for specialisation, diversification and innovation within and beyond the mining cluster, including throught its port network; urban policy challenges especially in land use, waste management, environment and public transport; and to the role of public governance in helping the city realise its economic and quality of life objectives.

  • 24-February-2014

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Croatia 2013

    This OECD Review of Innovation Policy in Croatia offers a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of Croatia, focusing on the role of government. It suggests that EU integration opens a window of opportunity for strengthening Croatia's science, technology and innovation systems, and recommends that Croatia improve governance, rebalance the innovation mix and do more to foster business innovation.
     

  • 3-July-2014

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Colombia 2014

    This review offers a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of Colombia, focusing on the role of government. It provides concrete recommendations on how to improve policies that affect innovation performance, including R&D policies and identifies good practices from which other countries can learn.

    The Overall assessment and recommendations is also available in French and Spanish.

  • 12-December-2013

    English

    OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality: Sweden 2013

    This report reviews the quality of health care in Sweden. It begins by providing an overview of the range of policies and practices aimed at supporting quality of care in Sweden (Chapter 1). It then focuses on three key areas particularly relevant to elderly populations: strengthening primary care in Sweden (Chapter 2), better assurance for quality in long-term care (Chapter 3), and improving care after hip fracture and stroke (Chapter 4). In examining these areas, this report highlights best practices and provides recommendations to improve the quality of care in Sweden.

  • 24-October-2013

    English

    Rural-Urban Partnerships - An Integrated Approach to Economic Development

    Urban and rural areas enjoy different and often complementary assets, and better integration between them is important for socio-economic performance. This report provides a framework to understand the changing relationships between urban and rural areas. It is focused on one approach that can enhance and better manage rural-urban relationships – the use of rural-urban partnerships. Specifically, it documents the characteristics of these partnerships and the factors that can hinder as well as enable rural-urban co-operation. Different governance approaches to manage rural-urban relationships are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided to help national, regional and local policy makers to build effective and sustainable rural-urban partnerships for better economic development.

  • 23-January-2014

    English

    Mental Health and Work: Switzerland

    Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Switzerland is the fifth in a series of reports looking at how the broader education, health, social and labour market policy challenges identified in Sick on the Job? Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work (OECD, 2012) are being tackled in a number of OECD countries. It concludes that the Swiss system is well resourced to address the challenges in various policy fields; that due the involvemnet of a large number of stakeholders much needed policy coordination across different sectors is a difficult task; and that a stronger mental health focus is required in Switzerland's health, social and labour market policies.

  • 10-February-2014

    English

    Mental Health and Work: United Kingdom

    Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on the United Kingdom is the sixth in a series of reports looking at how the broader education, health, social and labour market policy challenges identified in Sick on the Job? Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work (OECD, 2012) are being tackled in a number of OECD countries.

  • 5-June-2013

    English

    Crisis Communication: Facing the Challenges - Workshop Proceedings, Madrid, Spain, 9-10 May 2012

    As manifested by an increasingly globalised media, a nuclear accident anywhere quickly becomes a potential concern for people everywhere. It is therefore of prime importance that nuclear regulators’ communication strategies take into consideration the expectations and concerns of the public and provide sound information not only for the people of the affected country, but also for citizens worldwide. Public trust is a key element in being able to do so effectively and of particular importance when there are consequences for people or the environment. International co-operation can play a fundamental role in helping to improve crisis communication on national and global scales in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. These proceedings contain the papers, recommendations and conclusions of the workshop, which was attended by over 180 experts from 27 countries and 6 international organisations.

  • 1-March-2013

    English

    Stakeholder Confidence in Radioactive Waste Management - An Annotated Glossary of Key Terms

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) Annotated Glossary is a review of concepts central to societal decision making about radioactive waste management. It records the evolution in understanding that has taken place in the group as the FSC has worked with these concepts over time. This should be a useful resource not only for new FSC participants but also for others: this annotated glossary forms a good reference handbook for future texts regarding societal aspects of radioactive waste management and its governance.

  • 24-September-2013

    English

    Transition Towards a Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Future fuel cycle characteristics, feasibility and acceptability will be crucial for the continued development of nuclear energy, especially in the post-Fukushima context. Fuel cycle choices have both long- and short-term impacts, and a holistic assessment of their characteristics, cost and associated safety issues is of paramount importance. This report associates quantified impacts with foreseeable nuclear energy development in different world regions. It gives initial results in terms of uranium resource availability, fuel cycle facility deployment and reactor types. In particular, the need to achieve short doubling times with future fast reactors is investigated and quantified. The report also provides guidelines for performing future studies to account for a wider range of hypotheses on energy demand growth, different hypotheses regarding uranium resource availability and different types of reactors to be deployed.

  • 24-September-2013

    English

    Summary of the Fourth International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX-4) - Exercise Conduct and Evaluation Questionnaires

    The International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) series, organised under the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters (WPNEM), has proven successful in testing, investigating and improving national and international response arrangements for nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies. Early INEX exercises focused on the national and international aspects of early phase management of nuclear power plant emergencies. Starting with INEX-3 (2005-2006), the international community began looking at issues concerning longer-term consequence management. In 2008, the WPNEM started preparing the INEX-4 series, which was conducted in 2010-2011 and addressed consequence management and transition to recovery in response to malicious acts involving the release of radioactive materials in an urban setting. The goal of INEX-4 was to provide a basis for enhancing emergency management through the exchange of exercise experiences from participating countries and the identification of good practices and common issues. This summary report provides general outcomes based on country responses to the INEX-4 evaluation questionnaire and suggests areas of focus for future consideration.

  • 7-November-2013

    English

  • 29-April-2014

    English

    Innovation and Modernising the Rural Economy

    This publication is a result of the discussions from the OECD 8th Rural Development Policy Conference: "Innovation and modernising the rural economy" which took place in Krasnoyarsk, Russia on 3-5 October 2012. It provides an overview of the two themes of modernisation and innovation, focusing on identifying the attributes of the modern rural economy and showing how it differs from the traditional rural economy and from metropolitan economies. It also shows how rural innovation is a key driver of rural economic growth using patents as a measure.

    The second part of the book consists of four chapters that offer evidence of rural regions’ potential to contribute to national economic growth. In addition, each provides useful context for Part I by outlining four different perspectives on the process of modernisation and innovation, and specifically, how they can take place in the rural territories of OECD countries. In each paper, the authors explore the opportunities and impediments to these twin processes and how government policy can help or hinder them.

  • 16-October-2013

    English

    Energy Efficiency - Market Trends and Medium-Term Prospects

    Energy efficiency has been referred to as a “hidden fuel”, one that extends energy supplies, increases energy security, lowers carbon emissions and generally supports sustainable economic growth. Yet it is hiding in plain sight: in 2011, investments in the energy efficiency market globally were at a similar scale to those in renewable energy or fossil-fuel power generation.

    The Energy Efficiency Market Report provides a practical basis for understanding energy efficiency market activities, a review of the methodological and practical challenges associated with measuring the market and its components, and statistical analysis of energy efficiency and its impact on energy demand. It also highlights a specific technology sector in which there is significant energy efficiency market activity, in this instance appliances and ICT. The report presents a selection of country case studies that illustrate current energy efficiency markets in specific sectors, and how they may evolve in the medium term.

    The energy efficiency market is diffuse, varied and involves all energy-consuming sectors of the economy. A comprehensive overview of market activity is complicated by the challenges associated with quantifying the components of the market and the paucity of comparable reported data. This report underscores how vital high-quality and timely energy efficiency data is to understanding this market.

    This first Energy Efficiency Market Report sits alongside IEA market reports for oil, gas, coal and renewable energy, highlighting its place as a major energy resource. It summarises in one place the trends and prospects for investment and energy cost savings in the medium term, up to 2020.

    This Report joins the IEA market reports for oil, gas, coal and renewable energy, highlighting energy efficiency’s place as a major energy resource. It summarises the trends and prospects for investment and energy cost savings in the medium term, up to 2020.

  • 28-March-2014

    English

    Pomegranate

    This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. This is the first OECD brochure which is based on a Codex Standard. It interprets the first international standard on pomegranates, which was adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 2013. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of this new standard. This new brochure illustrates the standard text and demonstrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. Thus, it is a valuable tool for the inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in international trade in pomegranates. The brochure also includes a USB key containing the hyperlinked electronic version of the publication, as well as all illustrative materials in high definition photographs.  .

  • 11-June-2014

    English

    Ageing and Employment Policies: France 2014 - Working Better with Age

    People today are living longer than ever before, while birth rates are dropping in the majority of OECD countries. In such demographics, public social expenditures require to be adequate and sustainable in the long term. Older workers play a crucial role in the labour market. Now that legal retirement ages are rising, older workers will work longer and employers will have to retain them. But those older workers who have lost their job have experienced long term-unemployment and low probabilities to return to work. What can countries do to help? How can they give older people better work incentives and opportunities? How can they promote age diversity in firms? This report offers analysis and assessment on what the best policies are for fostering employability, job mobility and labour demand at an older age in France.

  • 23-April-2014

    English

    Chile's Supreme Audit Institution - Enhancing Strategic Agility and Public Trust

    This review focuses on advancing the performance-management vision of the Comptroller General of the Republic of Chile (Contraloría General de la Republica, CGR) with a view to enhance the relevance and positive impact of its work on accountability and decision making within the public administration. The review explores how the CGR’s audit assignments could be adjusted to enhance the institution’s impact on good public governance, and how it could further leverage knowledge gathered through existing and new audit assignments to deliver additional value to its diverse range of stakeholders.

  • 28-April-2014

    English

    Secure and Efficient Electricity Supply - During the Transition to Low Carbon Power Systems

    Electricity shortages can paralyse our modern economies. All governments fear rolling black-outs and their economic consequences, especially in economies increasingly based on digital technologies.

    Over the last two decades, the development of markets for power has produced cost reduction, technological innovation, increased cross border trade and assured a steady supply of electricity. Now, IEA countries face the challenge of maintaining security of electricity supply during the transition to low-carbon economies.

    Low-carbon policies are pushing electricity markets into novel territories at a time when most of the generation and network capacity will have to be replaced. Most notably, wind and solar generation, now an integral part of electricity markets, can present new operating and investment challenges for generation, networks and the regional integration of electricity markets. In addition, the resilience of power systems facing more frequent natural disasters is also of increasing concern.

    IEA ministers mandated the Secretariat to work on the Electricity Security Action Plan (ESAP), expanding to electricity the energy security mission of the IEA. This paper outlines the key conclusions and policy recommendations to "keep the lights on" while reducing CO

    2 emissions and increasing the efficiency.

  • 28-April-2014

    English

    Energy Technology Initiatives 2013 - Implementation through Multilateral Co-operation

    Ensuring energy security and addressing climate change cost-effectively are key global challenges. Tackling these issues will require efforts from stakeholders worldwide. To find solutions, the public and private sectors must work together, sharing burdens and resources, while at the same time multiplying results and outcomes.

    Through its broad range of multilateral technology initiatives (Implementing Agreements), the IEA enables member and non-member countries, businesses, industries, international organisations and non-governmental organisations to share research on breakthrough technologies, to fill existing research gaps, to build pilot plants and to carry out deployment or demonstration programmes across the energy sector. In short, their work can comprise any technology-related activity that supports energy security, economic growth, environmental protection and engagement worldwide.

    Some 40 Implementing Agreements carry out programmes in the areas of energy efficiency (buildings, electricity, industry, and transport), fossil fuels (clean coal, enhanced oil recovery, carbon capture and storage), fusion power (tokamaks, materials, technologies, safety, alternate concepts) and renewable energy technologies, and cross-cutting topics (technology transfer, research databases, and modeling).

    This publication highlights the most significant recent achievements of the IEA Implementing Agreements. The core of the IEA Energy Technology Network, these initiatives are a fundamental building block for facilitating the entry of new and improved energy technologies into the marketplace.

  • 10-January-2014

    English

    Regulatory Policy and Behavioural Economics

    Over the past five years, behavioural economics has been rapidly propelled from the margins of economic analysis towards the policy mainstream. In this context, this study offers an international review of the initial applications of behavioural economics to policy, with a particular focus on regulatory policy. It describes the extent to which behavioural findings have begun to influence public policy in a number of OECD countries, referring to a total of more than 60 instances, the majority of which concern regulatory policy.

  • 24-July-2014

    English

    Tourism and the Creative Economy

    As the significance of the creative economy continues to grow, important synergies with tourism are emerging, offering considerable potential to grow demand and develop new products, experiences and markets.These new links are driving a shift from conventional models of cultural tourism to new models of creative tourism based on intangible culture and contemporary creativity. This report examines the growing relationship between the tourism and creative sectors to guide the development of effective policies in this area. Drawing on recent case studies, it considers how to strengthen these linkages and take advantage of the opportunities to generate added value. Active policies are needed so that countries, regions and cities can realise the potential benefits from linking tourism and creativity. Key policy issues are identified.

  • 3-February-2014

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Australia

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Australia focuses on the role of local employment and training agencies in contributing to job creation and productivity. It looks at the role of Local Employment Coordinators, introduced by the Department of Employment to work in 20 "priority employment areas" which were identified as needing extra assistance following the global financial crisis. This report is part of a comparative OECD review of local job creation policies, which explores how countries are putting measures in place at the local level to stimulate quality employment, social inclusion and growth.

  • 27-March-2014

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Ireland

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Ireland focuses on the role of local employment and training agencies in contributing to job creation and productivity. This report looks at the range of institutions and bodies involved in employment and skills policies, focusing on local activities in the Dublin and South East regions. It can help national, regional and local policy makers in Ireland build effective and sustainable partnerships at the local level, which join-up efforts and achieve stronger outcomes across employment, training, and economic development policies. The report is part of a comparative OECD review of local job creation policies, which explores how countries are putting measures in place at the local level to stimulate quality employment, social inclusion and growth.

  • 28-November-2013

    English

    France: Restoring Competitiveness

    This report summarizes key recent key finds by the OECD relative to the French economy. Overall it finds that productivity is high but not dynamic enough to sustain growth. In particular, it looks at boosting research and encouraging innovation, strengthening competition and the regualtory framework, making the public sector more efficient, reforming taxation to promote employment and investment, improving the performance of the education system and vocational training and improving the functioning of the housing market.

  • 15-September-2013

    English

    The People's Republic of China – Avoiding the middle-income trap: Policies for sustained and inclusive growth

    This book provides an overview of the key challenges currently faced in China and OECD's main policy recommendations to address them. Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, the book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of China, focusing on how its government can make reform happen.

  • 15-May-2013

    English

    Portugal: Reforming the State to promote growth

    Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, the Better Policies series tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of member and partner countries, focusing on how governments can make reform happen.

  • 15-April-2013

    English

    Russia: Modernising the economy

    Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, this book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of Russia, focusing on how its government can make reform happen.

  • 26-February-2014

    English

    The Power of Transformation - Wind, Sun and the Economics of Flexible Power Systems

    Wind power and solar photovoltaics (PV) are crucial to meeting future energy needs while decarbonising the power sector. Deployment of both technologies has expanded rapidly in recent years, one of the few bright spots in an otherwise bleak picture of clean energy progress. However, the inherent variability of wind power and solar PV raises unique and pressing questions. Can power systems remain reliable and cost-effective while supporting high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE)? And if so, how?

    Based on a thorough review of the integration challenge, this publication gauges the economic significance of VRE integration impacts, highlights the need for a system-wide approach to integrating high shares of VRE and recommends how to achieve a cost-effective transformation of the power system.

    This book summarises the results of the third phase of the Grid Integration of VRE (GIVAR) project, undertaken by the IEA over the past two years. It is rooted in a set of seven case studies, comprising 15 countries on four continents. It deepens the technical analysis of previous IEA work and lays out an analytical framework for understanding the economics of VRE integration impacts. Based on detailed modelling, the impact of high shares of VRE on total system costs is analysed. In addition, the four flexible resources which are available to facilitate VRE integration – generation, grid infrastructure, storage and demand side integration – are assessed in terms of their technical performance and cost-effectiveness.

  • 16-May-2014

    English

    Regulatory Enforcement and Inspections

    This report provides guidance to policy makers on improving regulatory enforcement and inspections and provides some examples of good practices in this area.

  • 16-April-2014

    English

    Ageing and Employment Policies: Netherlands 2014 - Working Better with Age

    Given the ageing challenges, there is an increasing pressure in OECD countries to further boost the employability of the working-age population over the coming decades. This report provides an overview of policy iniatives implemented over the past decade in the Netherlands and identifies areas where more should be done, covering both supply-side and demand-side aspects. To give better incentives to carry on working, the report recommends to promote longer contribution periods in the second-pillar pension schemes, and ensure better information and transparency of pension schemes, with a special focus on groups with low financial literacy. On the side of employers, it is important to progress towards more age-neutral hiring decisions and wage-setting procedures with more focus on performance and less on tenure and seniority. To improve the employability of older workers, the focus should be to promote training measures for older unemployed which are directly linked to a specific job. The large diversity in municipal "Work-First"programmes should be utilised in designing mor effective activation policies targetted on those at risk of losing contact with the labour market.

  • 10-April-2014

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Colombia 2014

    This report is the first OECD review of Colombia’s environmental performance. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on waste and chemicals management and policies that promote more effective and efficient protection and sustainable use of biodiversity.

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  • 8-July-2014

    English

    Making Mental Health Count - The Social and Economic Costs of Neglecting Mental Health Care

    Despite the enormous burden that mental ill-health imposes on individuals, their families, society, health systems and the economy, mental health care remains a neglected area of health policy in too many countries. Mental disorders represent a considerable disease burden, and have a significant impact on the lives of the OECD population, and account for considerable direct and indirect costs. This report argues that even in those OECD countries with a long history of deinstitutionalisation, there is still a long way to go to make community-based mental health care that achieves good outcomes for people with severe mental illness a reality. The disproportionate focus on severe mental illness has meant that mild-to-moderate mental illnesses, which makes up the largest burden of disease, have remained overwhelmingly neglected. This book addresses the high cost of mental illness, weaknesses and innovative developments in the organisation of care, changes and future directions for the mental health workforce, the need to develop better indicators for mental health care and quality, and tools for better governance of the mental health system. The high burden of mental ill health and the accompanying costs in terms of reduced quality of life, loss of productivity, and premature mortality, mean that making mental health count for all OECD countries is a priority.

  • 21-May-2014

    English

    OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality: Norway 2014 - Raising Standards

    This book presents a comprehensive review of health care quality in Norway. It finds that Norway has an impressive and comprehensive health system, which is the result of sustained commitment to providing health care for the whole Norwegian population, investment in the health system, and readiness to make changes to drive improvements. On most indicators Norway’s health system appears to be performing well, although there is some room for improvement. There have been a number of significant health care reforms in Norway over the last decade, most recently the Coordination Reform, which took effect in January 2012.

    Broadly this is a positive story, but challenges do lie ahead for Norway. Norway is putting in place measures to respond to these challenges, notably with the 2012 Coordination Reform, but still has some way to go before the fruits of such labour are truly felt across the health system. Norway’s ambitious reform agenda must now be balanced by structured efforts ‘on the ground’. Attention should now turn to putting in place appropriate data infrastructures, promoting meaningful engagement between key stakeholders, and by balancing a generous health budget that allows for important investments in developing new structures and services with attention to getting the most out of existing services.

  • 7-January-2014

    English

    The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    The feasibility and costs of spent nuclear fuel management and the consequent disposal of ultimate waste continue to be the subject of public debate in many countries, with particular concern often expressed over the lack of progress in implementing final disposal. Uncertainties about back-end costs and the financial risks associated with management of the back end have also been singled out as possible deterrents to investment in new nuclear power plants.

    This report offers an appraisal of economic issues and methodologies for the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste from commercial power reactors. It includes a review of different backend options and current policies and practices, with a focus on the cost estimates for these options and the funding mechanisms in place or under consideration in OECD/NEA countries. A generic economic assessment of high-level estimates of back-end cost impacts on fuel cycle costs is undertaken for selected idealised scenarios, by means of a simple static model. Sensitivity analyses are conducted for the evaluation of uncertainties in major components and the identification of cost drivers. Since factors other than economics are an important part of the decision-making process, an analysis of the influence of key qualitative parameters in the selection of back-end strategies is also presented in this report.

  • 7-January-2014

    English

    Minor Actinide Burning in Thermal Reactors - A Report by the Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems

    A modern light water reactor (LWR) of 1 GWe capacity will typically discharge about 20-25 tonnes of irradiated fuel (spent fuel) per year of operation. Despite the low content of about 0.1-0.2% of minor actinides in spent fuel, these actinides can nonetheless contribute significantly to decay heat loading and neutron output, as well as to the overall radiotoxic hazard of spent fuel. For this reason, there has long been an interest in transmuting minor actinides to reduce their impact on the back end of the fuel cycle. Fast reactors are needed to effectively transmute transuranics (TRUs), including minor actinides. However, recent studies have demonstrated that TRU transmutation rates can also be achieved in thermal reactors, although with certain limitations due to the accumulation of transuranics through recycling and their impact on the safety of power plants. The transmutation of TRUs could potentially be implemented in a substantial number of thermal reactors operating today, while waiting for a similar programme in fast reactors to allow for commercial-scale operations in 20 to 30 years or more.

    This publication provides an introduction to minor actinide nuclear properties and discusses some of the arguments in favour of minor actinide recycling, as well as the potential role of thermal reactors in this regard. Various technical issues and challenges are examined from the fuel cycle, operations, fuel designs, core management and safety/dynamics responses to safety and economics. The focus of this report is on the general conclusions of recent research that could be applied to thermal reactors. Further research and development needs are also considered, with summaries of findings and recommendations for the direction of future R&D efforts.

  • 7-January-2014

    English

    Shielding Aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities - SATIF-11 - Workshop Proceedings, Tsukuba, Japan, 11-13 September 2012

    Particle accelerators have evolved over the last decades from simple devices to powerful machines and are having an increasingly important impact on research, technology and daily life. Today, they have a wide range of applications in many areas including material science and medical applications. In recent years, new technological and research applications have helped to define requirements while the number of accelerator facilities in operation, being commissioned, designed or planned has grown significantly. Their parameters, which include the beam energy, currents and intensities, and target composition, can vary widely, giving rise to new radiation shielding issues and challenges.

    Particle accelerators must be operated in safe ways to protect operators, the public and the environment. As the design and use of these facilities evolve, so must the analytical methods used in the safety analyses. These workshop proceedings review the state of the art in radiation shielding of accelerator facilities and irradiation targets. They also evaluate progress in the development of modelling methods used to assess the effectiveness of such shielding as part of safety analyses.

  • 7-January-2014

    English

    Status Report on Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Systems

    Materials performance is critical to the safe and economic operation of any nuclear system. As the international community pursues the development of Generation IV reactor concepts and accelerator driven transmutation systems, it will be increasingly necessary to develop advanced materials capable of tolerating the more challenging environments of these new systems. The international community supports numerous materials research programmes, with each country determining its individual focus on a case-by-case basis. In many instances, similar alloys of materials systems are being studied in several countries, providing the opportunity for collaborative and cross-cutting research that benefits different systems.

    This report is a snapshot of the current materials programmes supporting the development of advanced concepts. The descriptions of the research are grouped by concept, and national programmes
    are described within each concept. The report provides an overall sense of the importance of materials research worldwide and the opportunities for synergy among the countries represented in this overview.

     

  • 25-June-2014

    English

    OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality: Czech Republic 2014 - Raising Standards

    This book presents a comprehensive review of health care quality in the Czech Republic. It finds that over the past 20 years, the Czech Republic witnessed the unprecedented gains in quality of health care and life expectancy and successfully transferred its Semaschko system into the modern accessible health care system with private-public mix of providers. Nevertheless the health care system in the Czech Republic still has some way to go to achieve the outcomes of the best performing OECD members. While some of the gap might be caused by the one of the lowest levels of health care expenditures among OECD countries (7.2% GDP in 2011) there are possibilities to improve the outcomes without incurring much of the additional costs.

    The Czech authorities should reach a consensus on the development of quality of care and data infrastructure and aim for sustainable long-term initiatives undisturbed by the political cycles in both of these areas. While the adverse events reporting and voluntary accreditation are the good steps towards the accountability of the providers, the government should do more in this area, undertake the effort to broaden the accreditation process and include outpatient care and link public health authorities to the quality agenda of inpatient care. In the area of data infrastructure more data should be gathered, the process of data gathering should be streamlined and administrative burden for the providers lowered primarily via the merging the data-collecting agencies. Finally, without the active participation of health insurance funds and proper reimbursement mechanisms in place the quality agenda will not be perceived as the priority.

  • 13-February-2014

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    Greener Skills and Jobs

    Green skills, that is, skills needed in a low-carbon economy, will be required in all sectors and at all levels in the workforce as emerging economic activities create new (or renewed) occupations. Structural changes will realign sectors that are likely to decline as a result of the greening of the economy and workers will need to be retrained accordingly. The successful transition to a low-carbon economy will only be possible if workers can flexibly adapt and transfer from areas of decreasing employment to new industries. This report suggests that the role of skills and education and training policies should be an important component of the ecological transformation process.

  • 18-December-2014

    English

    Seine Basin, Île-de-France, 2014: Resilience to Major Floods

    This study examines flood risk prevention of the Seine in the Ile-de-France region. It highlights the impacts a major flood, like the one in 1910, could have on the well-being of citizens, city management and the economy.

  • 18-April-2014

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Northern Ireland, United Kingdom

    This book focuses on the role of employment and training agencies in contributing to job creation and productivity in Northern Ireland. It explores how Northern Ireland is  implementing labour market and skills policy and putting measures in place at the local level to stimulate quality employment, inclusion and growth.

  • 21-May-2014

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in the Czech Republic

    This review looks at a range of institutions and bodies involved in employment and skills policies in the Czech Republic, focusing on local strategies on the Ústí nad Labem and South Moravian regions.

  • 29-July-2014

    English

    The Governance of Regulators

    This publication provides guidance on the institutional arrangements for regulators.

  • 18-June-2014

    English

    Climate Change, Water and Agriculture - Towards Resilient Systems

    This report reviews the main linkages between climate change, water and agriculture as a means to identifying and discussing adaptation strategies for better use and conservation of water resources. It aims to provide guidance to decision makers on choosing an appropriate mix of policies and market approaches to address the interaction between agriculture and water systems under climate change.

  • 18-July-2014

    English

    Nanotechnology and Tyres - Greening Industry and Transport

    New nanomaterials offer promising avenues for future innovation, which can contribute towards the sustainability and resource efficiency of the tyre industry. Yet uncertainty over environmental health and safety (EHS) risks appears to be a main and continuous concern for the development of new nanomaterials in tyre production, even for those closest to market. Lack of sector-specific guidance represents a major gap.

     

  • 3-April-2014

    English

    Making Development Co-operation More Effective - 2014 Progress Report

    In 2011 the international development community committed to make development co-operation more effective to deliver better results for the world’s poor. At the mid-point between commitments endorsed in the High-Level Forum in Busan, Korea in 2011 and the 2015 target date of the Millennium Development Goals,  this report takes stock of how far we have come and where urgent challenges lie.

    This report - a first snapshot of the state-of-play since Busan - reveals both successes and shortfalls. It draws on the ten indicators of the Global Partnership monitoring framework. Despite global economic turbulence, changing political landscapes and domestic budgetary pressure, commitment to effective development co-operation principles remains strong. Longstanding efforts to change the way that development co-operation is delivered are paying off. Past achievements on important aid effectiveness commitments that date back to 2005 have been sustained. Nevertheless, much more needs to be done to translate political commitments into concrete action. This report highlights where targeted efforts are needed to make further progress and to reach existing targets for more effective development co-operation by 2015.

  • 11-June-2014

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Canada

    This report delivers evidence-based and practical recommendations on how to better support employment and economic development in Canada. It builds on sub-national data analysis and consultations with local stakeholders in four case study areas across Ontario and Quebec. It provides a comparative framework to understand the role of the local level in contributing to more and better quality jobs. The report can help federal, provincial, local policy makers in Canada build effective and sustainable partnerships at the local level, which join-up efforts and achieve stronger outcomes across employment, training, and economic development policies. Co-ordinated policies can help workers find suitable jobs, while also stimulating entrepreneurship and productivity, which increases the quality of life and prosperity within a community as well as throughout the country.

  • 18-September-2014

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in the United States

    How to stimulate growth and support job creation are two critical challenges that countries confront following the global financial crisis. The Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Programme of the OECD has developed international cross-comparative reviews on local job creation policies to examine the contribution of local labour market policy to boosting quality employment. Each country review examines the capacity of employment services and training providers to contribute to a long-term strategy which strengthens the resiliency of the local economy, increases skills levels and job quality. This report looks at the range of institutions and bodies involved in workforce and skills development in two states – California and Michigan. In-depth fieldwork focused on two local Workforce Investment Boards in each state: the Sacramento Employment and Training Agency (SETA); the Northern Rural and Training and Employment Consortium (NoRTEC); the Southeast Michigan Community Alliance (SEMCA); and the Great Lakes Bay Michigan Works. The report concludes with a number of recommendations and actions to promote job creation at the federal, state and local levels.

  • 14-August-2014

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of Uruguay - Volume 1: Initial Assessment

    Uruguay has made remarkable progress over the past decade. Stable macroeconomic policies and a favourable external environment have permitted brisk growth and the financing of social policies. Substantial improvements in several dimensions of human well-being have occurred during this period, alongside considerable reductions in external risks. The conditions ahead, however, may present challenges to maintaining performance. Overcoming these challenges will require finding the appropriate balance between long run objectives and macroeconomic and fiscal stability.

    One of the main obstacles to economic growth is the insufficient and inadequate provision of human capital and skills. A number of challenges remain for education, which, together with fiscal policy, are key means of reducing inequalities and sustaining economic growth. In addition, Uruguay needs to address labour shortages to avoid constraints on future growth, especially as exports become more skills-intensive. It is important to orient social policies and expenditures towards the most vulnerable groups.

  • 22-April-2014

    English

    Climate Resilience in Development Planning - Experiences in Colombia and Ethiopia

    Climate-related disasters have inflicted increasingly high losses on developing countries, and with climate change, these losses are likely to worsen. Improving country resilience against climate risks is therefore vital for achieving poverty reduction and economic development goals.

    This report discusses the current state of knowledge on how to build climate resilience in developing countries. It argues that climate-resilient development requires moving beyond the climate-proofing of existing development pathways, to consider economic development objectives and resilience priorities in parallel. Achieving this will require political vision and a clear understanding of the relation between climate and development, as well as an adapted institutional set-up, financing arrangements, and progress monitoring and evaluation. The report also discusses two priorities for climate-resilient development: disaster risk management and the involvement of the private sector.

    The report builds on a growing volume of country experiences on building climate resilience into national development planning. Two country case studies, Ethiopia and Colombia, are discussed in detail.

  • 24-April-2014

    English

    OECD Territorial Reviews: Netherlands 2014

    The Dutch economy has been traditionally very competitive among OECD countries. The global financial crisis however has brought new challenges, especially during the second shock, from 2011 onwards. The government’s recovery plan, which includes various measures such as fiscal consolidation, stimulating innovation and sub-national government reform has an important territorial dimension. This review focuses on how sub-national institutions and development can help the Netherlands meet its challenges. In the short-term, factors such as the contribution of all regions, better use of resources, and more efficient provision of goods and services can help the recovery. In the long term, improving national competitiveness will largely depend on a strong performance of the polycentric city structure, which characterises the Netherlands. The key policy areas explored in this review include: the recently created top-sector innovation policy; decentralisation; and territorial reforms such as municipal and provincial re-scaling through mergers or co-operation.

  • 9-April-2014

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Austria 2014

    The International Energy Agency's 2014 review of Austria’s energy policy analyses the energy policy challenges facing Austria and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It finds that Austria's energy policy  rests on three pillars – security of supply, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources.

    The country’s decarbonisation drive has strengthened as the economy and renewable energy use have continued to grow, while fossil fuel use has decreased. Notably, Austria has more than tripled the public funding for energy research, development and demonstration since 2007.

    Greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, which peaked in 2005, still need to be reduced further, and the transport sector offers prime opportunities for this. In the context of EU negotiations on an energy and climate policy framework to 2030, Austria should develop a strategy that also integrates security of supply and internal market dimensions.

    Closer cross-border integration of both electricity and natural gas markets and systems is required to build a single European market. This calls for increased co-ordination and co-operation with neighbouring countries. Austria should also encourage investment in networks, optimise demand response and integrate variable renewable energy supply in a cost-effective and market-based manner.

    A well-functioning internal market can help reduce the growing concerns over energy prices and costs, both for industry and for citizens. Austria could address these concerns also by implementing more energy efficiency measures and facilitating greater retail market competition.

     

  • 2-February-2015

    English

    A Skills beyond School Review of Egypt

    Higher level vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. This report on Egypt examines what type of training is needed to meet the needs of a changing economy,  how programmes should be funded,  how theyshould be linked to academic and university programmes and how employers and unions can be engaged.  The country reports in this series look at these and other questions. They form part of Skills beyond School, the OECD policy review of postsecondary vocational education and training.

  • 28-April-2014

    English

    Better Policies for Development 2014 - Policy Coherence and Illicit Financial Flows

    This edition of Better Policies for Development focuses on illicit financial flows and their detrimental effects on development and growth. Every year, huge sums of money are transferred out of developing countries illegally. The numbers are disputed, but illicit financial flows are often cited as outstripping official development aid and inward investment. These flows strip resources from developing countries that could be used to finance much-needed public services, such as health care and education.

    This report defines policy coherence for development as a global tool for creating enabling environments for development in a post-2015 context. It shows that coherent policies in OECD countries in areas such as tax evasion, anti-bribery and money laundering can contribute to reducing illicit financial flows from developing countries. It also provides an update on OECD efforts to develop a monitoring matrix for policy coherence for development, based upon existing OECD indicators of ‘policy effort’. The report also includes contributions from member states. Most illustrate national processes to deal with policy coherence for development beyond 2015.

  • 21-May-2014

    English

    The Cost of Air Pollution - Health Impacts of Road Transport

    Outdoor air pollution kills more than 3 million people across the world every year, and causes health problems from asthma to heart disease for many more. This is costing societies very large amounts in terms of the value of lives lost and ill health. Based on extensive new epidemiological evidence since the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study, and OECD estimates of the Value of Statistical Life, this report provides evidence on the health impacts from air pollution and the related economic costs.

  • 22-April-2014

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Netherlands 2014

    Since the last review in 2008, the Netherlands has attracted investment in oil and gas storage; coal, oil and gas import terminals; and efficient power plants. This additional capacity provides flexibility and energy security both in the Netherlands and across EU markets. However, the outlook for Europe’s second-largest producer of natural gas is challenging amid declining gas production and uncertain prospects for unconventional gas. Developing the remaining natural gas potential, the market integration and ensuring the security of supply and resilience of the energy infrastructure during the transition should be top priorities.

    The Netherlands stimulates energy efficiency and innovation in energy-intensive industries along the whole supply chain, notably in the Dutch refining, petrochemical and agriculture sectors, a practice that contributes to industrial competitiveness.

    Despite successful decoupling of greenhouse-gas emissions from economic growth between 1990 and 2012, however, the Netherlands remains one of the most fossil-fuel- and CO2-intensive economies among IEA countries. In September 2013, the Netherlands reached an agreement with key stakeholders on priority actions to support sustainable economic growth through 2020. In addition to implementing the agreement, the government must set the scene for a stable policy framework up to 2030, which is also crucial for renewable energies.

    The Netherlands has accelerated permit procedures for new energy infrastructure and is driving technology cost reduction with reformed renewable support. The country can benefit from further interconnections with neighbouring countries, as renewables become an integral part of wholesale and balancing electricity markets in the EU.

    This review analyses the energy policy challenges currently facing the Netherlands, and provides recommendations for each sector. It gives advice on implementing the Energy Agreement and how to leverage international opportunities from clean energy technologies. It is only available in PDF format.

  • 6-May-2014

    English

    Revenue Statistics in Asian Countries 2014 - Trends in Indonesia and Malaysia

    This publication provides internationally comparable data on tax levels and tax structures for Indonesia and Malaysia. The model is the OECD Revenue Statistics database which is a fundamental reference, backed by a well-established methodology, for OECD member countries. By extending this OECD methodology to Asian countries, Revenue Statistics in Asian Countries enables meaningful cross-country comparisons about tax levels and structures not only between Asian economies, but also between them and their industrialised peers. Future editions will cover additional Asian countries.

  • 16-July-2014

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Luxembourg 2014

    This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides recommendations for each sector. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future and the development of its 2030 energy strategy.

    It finds that since 2008, Luxembourg’s energy policy has focused on mitigating CO2 emissions in transport and industry and on supporting renewable energies and energy efficiency towards 2020. Luxembourg’s greenhouse gas emissions have stabilised as energy-intensive industries have scaled back their activities and the government put strong energy efficiency policies in place, notably for buildings.

    Since 2009, the country’s research and development (R&D) policies have promoted eco-innovation and clean energy technologies. In 2012, government spending on energy R&D as a ratio of gross domestic product was the highest among IEA members. Luxembourg is creating a national platform for smart meters and electric vehicles, the first of its kind country-wide roll out.

    Nonetheless, Luxembourg faces several energy challenges. Oil consumption in transport is rising because of growing road fuel sales, largely the result of tax differences to neighbouring countries. This increases Luxembourg’s emissions and its oil stockholding needs. Because the country imports all of its energy needs, energy security is a priority. Luxembourg has sought to address this through greater regional integration such as merging its gas market with Belgium and increasing its electricity interconnection with France and Belgium. Yet the benefits of regional integration of wholesale energy markets have not yet translated to retail markets. Moreover, as regional electricity trade grows and neighbouring countries introduce ambitious decarbonisation policies and capacity markets, Luxembourg will need to define its priorities for an energy strategy through 2030.

  • 16-June-2014

    English

    Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Russia 2014

    Russia holds among the world’s largest resources of gas, oil and coal. Its liquids production has reached historical highs, yet major additional upstream investments and technology upgrades will be needed to sustain these levels in the long term. Since the IEA’s last review of Russia’s energy policies in 2002, the power sector has also liberalised considerably. However, the Russian economy remains largely inefficient, with twice as much energy used per GDP compared with IEA member countries. Ambitious energy efficiency policies have been introduced but have not led to significant improvements so far. At the same time, the electricity and district heating infrastructure is ageing and requires rapid investments. Russia’s overall energy sector would benefit considerably from a more competitive, market-oriented environment.

    While a number of policies aimed at modernising the energy sector and increasing its efficiency and sustainability are being developed or implemented, further reforms are needed. This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing Russia and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements.

  • English

    Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2014

    As the supply revolution enters a new phase, oil’s role in the global energy mix is being redefined. More than ever, getting a handle on these developments is key to ensuring that energy security is maintained or enhanced, investment is appropriately targeted and resources are optimally leveraged. That makes the Medium-Term Oil Market Report's insights into the oil market for the next five years essential reading for

  • 28-March-2014

    English

    How2Guide for Wind Energy - Roadmap Development and Implementation

    This How2Guide for Wind Energy (Wind H2G) is designed to provide interested stakeholders from both government and industry with the necessary tools to plan and implement a roadmap for wind energy technology at the national or regional level.

  • 28-March-2014

    English

    Energy Storage

    This roadmap aims to increase understanding among a range of stakeholders of the applications that electricity and thermal energy storage technologies can be used for at different locations in the energy system. Emphasis is placed on storage technologies that are connected to a larger energy system (e.g. electricity grid), while a smaller portion of the discussion focuses on off-grid storage applications. This focus is complemented by a discussion of the existing technology, policy, and economic barriers that hinder energy storage deployment. Specific actions that can be taken to remove these obstacles are identified for key energy system stakeholder groups.

  • 27-February-2015

    English

    Policy Guidance for Investment in Clean Energy Infrastructure - Expanding Access to Clean Energy for Green Growth and Development

    This publication provides governments with guidance on the policy options that are available to make the most of private investment opportunities in clean energy infrastructure, drawing on the expertise of climate and investment communities among others. It identifies key issues for policy makers to consider, including in investment policy, investment promotion and facilitation, competition policy, financial markets, and public governance. It also addresses cross-cutting issues, including regional co-operation and international trade for investment in clean energy infrastructure.

  • 16-September-2014

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Netherlands 2014

    This book provides a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of the Netherlands, focusing on the role of government and including concrete recommendations on how to improve policies that affect innovation and R&D performance.

     

     

  • 21-May-2014

    English

    Industry and Technology Policies in Korea

    The Korean innovation system is in many ways highly developed and has helped to underpin Korea’s rapid industrialisation. However, long-standing policy emphases on manufacturing and large firms are today in question. Structural problems - such as the relatively weak innovation performance of SMEs, a lagging services sector and limited domestic job creation among the industrial conglomerates - have led to a shift in policy priorities. This shift is crystallised in the current government’s Creative Economy Strategy, which entails a far-reaching set of measures aimed at fostering cutting-edge innovation and consolidating a knowledge-based economy increasingly driven by high-value services. This review addresses Korea’s industry and technology policies and institutions, and provides policy recommendations.

  • 9-December-2014

    English

    Shallots

    These guidelines published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. They include explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the Shallots Standard. This book illustrates the standard text and demonstrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. It therefore is a valuable tool for the inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in international trade in Shallots.

  • 7-July-2014

    English

    Melons

    This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the current melons standard. This new brochure illustrates the standard text and demonstrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. Thus, it is a valuable tool for the inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in international trade in melons. The electronic version of this brochure is available on the OECD website.

  • 24-November-2014

    English

    Science, Technology and Innovation in Viet Nam

    This book offers a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of Viet Nam, focusing on the role of government and providing concrete recommendations on how to improve policies that affect innovation and R&D performance.

  • 18-June-2014

    English

    The 2012 Labour Market Reform in Spain - A Preliminary Assessment

    This report provides an initial evaluation of the comprehensive reform of the Spanish labour market undertaken in 2012. It describes the key components of the 2012 reform and places them in the context of the evolution of labour market institutions in other OECD member countries, with a particular focus on collective bargaining and employment protection legislation. The report also assesses the impact of the reform on the ability of firms to adjust wages and working time to cope with demand shocks, as well as the flows in the labour market for different types of contracts and the overall duality of the Spanish labour market. It also considers what complementary reforms would be required to improve the effectiveness of the labour market reform, in particular in the area of active labour market policies.

  • 28-November-2014

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Sweden 2014

    This report is the third OECD review of Sweden’s environmental performance. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on Sweden's longstanding commitment to mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases and its management of marine ecosystem services and water.
     

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  • 18-November-2014

    English

    Italy: Key Issues and Policies

    This review underlines some important points of strength with respect to Italian SMEs and entrepreneurship, notably for medium-sized firms that very often excel in their market niches, have a strong propensity to business collaboration, as well as favourable access to finance. The review also looks at the challenges that lie ahead for Italy, hard hit by the global economic crisis, notably among micro and small firms. Recovery will mean, among other things, removing barriers to business growth, streamlining the complexity of the Italian tax system, and opening the business environment to competition, foreign direct investment and equity financing, as well as improving training and workforce skills.

  • 4-September-2014

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Iceland 2014

    This report is the third OECD review of Iceland’s environmental performance. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on the environmental aspects of Iceland's energy and tourism policies.

  • 27-November-2014

    English

    Lobbyists, Governments and Public Trust, Volume 3 - Implementing the OECD Principles for Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying

    This report takes stock of progress made in implementing the 2010 Recommendation on Principles for Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying – the only international instrument addressing major risks in the public decision-making process related to lobbying. The review process found that although there is an emerging consensus on the need for transparency to shed light on lobbying, new regulations are often scandal-driven instead of forward looking.

    In countries that have regulations in place, the degree of transparency in lobbying varies considerably across OECD members. Moving forward, it will be essential for countries to focus efforts on the implementation of the Recommendation, in order to strengthen confidence in the public decision-making process and restore trust in government. It will also be crucial to strengthen the implementation of the wider integrity framework, as it is the prime tool for safeguarding transparency and integrity in the decision-making process in general and lobbying practices in particular.

  • 2-October-2014

    English

    How Was Life? - Global Well-being since 1820

    How was life in 1820, and how has it improved since then? What are the long-term trends in global well-being? Views on social progress since the Industrial Revolution are largely based on historical national accounting in the tradition of Kuznets and Maddison. But trends in real GDP per capita may not fully re­flect changes in other dimensions of well-being such as life expectancy, education, personal security or gender inequality. Looking at these indicators usually reveals a more equal world than the picture given by incomes alone, but has this always been the case? The new report How Was Life? aims to fill this gap. It presents the first systematic evidence on long-term trends in global well-being since 1820 for 25 major countries and 8 regions in the world covering more than 80% of the world’s population. It not only shows the data but also discusses the underlying sources and their limitations, pays attention to country averages and inequality, and pinpoints avenues for further research.

    The How Was Life? report is the product of collaboration between the OECD, the OECD Development Centre and the CLIO-INFRA project. It represents the culmination of work by a group of economic historians to systematically chart long-term changes in the dimensions of global well-being and inequality, making use of the most recent research carried out within the discipline. The historical evidence reviewed in the report is organised around 10 different dimensions of well-being that mirror those used by the OECD in its well-being report How’s Life? (www.oecd.org/howslife), and draw on the best sources and expertise currently available for historical perspectives in this field. These dimensions are:per capita GDP, real wages, educational attainment, life expectancy, height, personal security, political institutions, environmental quality, income inequality and gender inequality.

  • 14-February-2014

    English

    Euro Area: Economic Challenges and Policy Recommendations

    This book provides an overview of the key challenges currently faced in the Euro Area and OECD's main policy recommendations to address them. Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, the book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of the Euro Area, focusing on how its government can make reform happen.

  • 20-October-2014

    English

    Understanding National Accounts - Second Edition

    This second edition of Understanding National Accounts, that provides a comprehensive explanation of how national accounts are compiled, contains new data and new chapters, and is adapted to the new systems of national accounts, SNA 2008 and ESA 2010, that came into effect in September 2014. It approaches national accounts from a truly global perspective, with special chapters dedicated to international comparisons, globalisation and well-being as well as to the national systems used in major OECD economies, such as the United States.

    Each chapter of the manual uses practical examples to explain key concepts in national accounts in a clear and accessible way. And, each chapter concludes with a synthesis of key points covered in the chapter, followed by resources for further exploring the topic, and by a set of exercises to test your knowledge. It is an ideal guide to national accounts for students and other interested readers.

  • 13-November-2014

    English

    Skills beyond School - Synthesis Report

    Higher level vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. What type of training is needed to meet the needs of changing economies? How should the programmes be funded? How should they be linked to academic and university programmes? How can employers and unions be engaged? This report synthesises the findings of the series of  country reports done on skills beyond school.

  • 7-July-2014

    English

    Jobs for Immigrants (Vol. 4) - Labour Market Integration in Italy

    Until the mid-1990s, the share of migrants in Italy was relatively low in international comparison. With a persistent demand for foreign workers in low-skilled and low-paid jobs, the proximity of conflict areas and the enlargement of the European Union to Romania and Bulgaria in 2007, migration to Italy increased rapidly over the last 15 years. This report presents an overview of the skills and qualifications of immigrants in Italy, their key labour market outcomes in international comparison, and their evolution over time, given the highly segmented Italian labour market and its high share of informal jobs.

    It analyses the framework for integration and the main integration policy instruments. Special attention is paid to funding issues and to the distribution of competences between national and sub-national actors. Finally, this report reviews the integration at school and the school-to-work transition of the children of immigrants

  • 19-November-2014

    English

    Job Creation and Local Economic Development

    This publication highlights new evidence on policies to support job creation, bringing together the latest research on labour market, entrepreneurship and local economic development policy to help governments support job creation in the recovery. It  also includes  a set of country pages featuring, among other things, new data on skills supply and demand at the level of smaller OECD regions (TL3).

    This publication is the first in a series to take this integrative approach, and it is designed to be user friendly and accessible to all government officials, academics, practitioners and civil society with an interest in local economic development and job creation.

  • 5-June-2014

    English

    Trade Policy in Asia: Higher Education and Media Services

    Education and media services both provide services that embody local cultures, in which there is extensive public sector participation and significant domestic regulation. At the same time, they are dramatically affected by the information and communication technology revolution. The production of information content now involves huge costs in terms of research and development or artistic talent, while the cost of making such products available to other consumers is very low. This in turn challenges the effectiveness of domestic regulation and raises fundamental questions about its purpose, calling for an increased scope for international trade and investment, and the development of supply chains. This book provides readers with a comprehensive and consistent treatment of policy in the higher education and media services sector across a range of Asian economies little studied in the existing literature. It gives an overview of global trends in each area, followed by detailed, country-specific studies. Through comparative work, it identifies common elements across these sectors and highlights critical implications for trade policy.

  • 8-April-2016

    English

    OECD Factbook 2015-2016 - Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics

    OECD Factbook 2015-2016 is a comprehensive and dynamic statistical publication from the OECD. Close to 100 indicators cover a wide range of areas: economy, education, energy, transportation, environment, development, health, industry, information and communications, population, employment and labour, trade and investment, taxation, public expenditure and R&D. This year, the OECD Factbook includes new indicators on a number of regional indicators including GDP by metropolitan area.

    Data are provided for all OECD countries, including the OECD aggregate, euro area, European Union, and where data are available, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia, and South Africa.

    For each indicator, there is a two-page spread. A text page includes a short introduction followed by a detailed definition of the indicator, comments on comparability of the data, an assessment of long-term trends related to the indicator, and a list of references for further information on the indicator. The second page contains a table and a graph providing – at a glance – the key message conveyed by the data. Each indicator includes StatLinks which allow readers to download the corresponding data.

    OECD Factbook 2015-2016 is a key reference tool for users working on economic and policy issues.

  • 23-July-2015

    English

    Energy Statistics of OECD Countries 2015

    This volume contains data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Complete data are available for 2012 and 2013 and supply estimates are available for the most recent year (i.e. 2014). Historical tables summarise production, trade and final consumption data as well as key energy and economic indicators. The book also includes definitions of products and flows, explanatory notes on the individual country data and conversion factors from original units to energy units.

    More detailed data in original units are published in the 2015 edition of Energy Statistics of OECD Countries, the sister volume of this publication.
     

  • 10-August-2015

    English

    Energy Balances of non-OECD Countries 2015

    This volume contains data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Complete data are available for 2012 and 2013 as well as provisional data for the most recent year (i.e. 2014). Historical tables summarise data on production, trade and final consumption by sector as well as key energy and economic indicators. The book also includes definitions of products and flows, explanatory notes on the individual country data and conversion factors from original units to energy units.

    More detailed data in original units are published in the 2015 edition of Energy Statistics of OECD Countries, the sister volume of this publication.

  • 27-November-2015

    English

    Nuclear Energy Data 2015

    Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency’s annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting nuclear power status in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants increased slightly in 2014, by 1.4% and 0.3% respectively, despite Japan’s nuclear fleet remaining offline throughout the year. No new reactor was connected to the grid in OECD countries and one, in the United States, was permanently shut down. Governments committed to having nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for developing or increasing nuclear generating capacity, with the preparation of new build projects making progress in Finland, Hungary, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication’s numerous tables, graphs and country reports.
    This publication contains "StatLinks". For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link.

  • 10-August-2015

    English

    Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries 2015

    This volume contains data for 2012 and 2013 on energy supply and consumption in original units for coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste for over 100 non-OECD countries. Historical tables summarise data on production, trade, final consumption by sector and oil demand by product. These tables also include initial estimates for 2014 production (and trade when available) for natural gas, primary coal and oil. The book also includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data and sources.

    In the 2015 edition of Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, the sister volume of this publication, data are presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent.

  • 3-December-2015

    English

    Revenue Statistics 2015

    Data on government sector receipts, and on taxes in particular, are basic inputs to most structural economic descriptions and economic analyses and are increasingly used in economic comparisons. This annual publication gives a conceptual framework to define which government receipts should be regarded as taxes. It presents a unique set of detailed and internationally comparable tax data in a common format for all OECD countries from 1965 onwards.

  • 18-December-2014

    English

    Annual Report on the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises 2014 - Responsible Business Conduct by Sector

    This 14th annual report on the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises describes the activities undertaken to promote the observance of the Guidelines during the implementation cycle of June 2013-June 2014. This includes work on due diligence in the financial and extractive sectors, as well as along agricultural supply chains, strengthened co-operation with non-adhering countries, the outcomes of the 2nd Global Forum on Responsible Business Conduct, as well as the activities of National Contact Points who promote the observance of the Guidelines' principles and standards in the 46 adhering countries.

  • 23-May-2016

    English

    African Economic Outlook 2016 - Sustainable Cities and Structural Transformation

    The African Economic Outlook 2016 presents the continent’s current state of affairs and forecasts its situation for the coming two years. This annual report examines Africa’s performance in crucial areas: macroeconomics, financing, trade policies and regional integration, human development, and governance. For its 15th edition, the African Economic Outlook  takes a hard look at urbanisation and structural transformation in Africa and proposes practical steps to foster sustainable cities.

    A section of country  notes summarises recent economic growth, forecasts gross domestic product for 2016 and 2017, and highlights the main policy issues facing each of the 54 African countries. A statistical annex compares country-specific economic, social and political variables.

  • 1-July-2015

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    OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2015

    This edition of the Agricultural Outlook – the twenty-first OECD edition and the eleventh prepared jointly with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) – provides projections to 2024 for major agricultural commodities, biofuels and fish. The 2015 report provides a special focus on prospects and challenges for Brazilian agriculture.

    The market projections not only cover OECD member countries (European Union as a region) but also FAO member countries, notably Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, People's Republic of China and South Africa.

  • 9-July-2015

    English

    OECD Employment Outlook 2015

    The 2015 edition of the OECD Employment Outlook provides an in-depth review of recent labour market trends and short-term prospects in OECD countries. Chapter 1 looks at recent labour market developments focusing on minimum wages, while Chapter 2 draws on the OECD’s International Survey of Adult Skills and considers skills and wage inequality. Chapter 3 looks how policies to get job seekers back into work can help make labour markets more inclusive, while Chapter 4 examines job quality in terms of earnings mobility, labour market risk and long-term inequality. Finally, Chapter 5 discusses how job quality in emerging economies can be enhanced.

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  • 4-November-2015

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    Health at a Glance 2015 - OECD Indicators

    This new edition of Health at a Glance presents the most recent comparable data on the performance of health systems in OECD countries. Where possible, it also reports data for partner countries (Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, India, Indonesia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russian Federation and South Africa). Compared with the previous edition, this new edition includes a new set of dashboards of health indicators to summarise in a clear and user-friendly way the relative strengths and weaknesses of OECD countries on different key indicators of health and health system performance, and also a special focus on the pharmaceutical sector. This edition also contains new indicators on health workforce migration and on the quality of health care.

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  • 1-December-2015

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    Pensions at a Glance 2015 - OECD and G20 indicators

    The 10-year anniversary edition of Pensions at a Glance highlights the pension reforms undertaken by OECD and G20 countries over the last two years. Two special chapters provide deeper analysis of first-tier pension schemes and of the impact of short or interrupted careers, due to late entry into employment, childcare or unemployment, on pension entitlements. Another chapter analyses the sensitivity of long-term pension replacement rates on various parameters. A range of indicators for comparing pension policies and their outcomes between OECD and G20 countries is also provided.

  • 12-November-2014

    English

    OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2014

    The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2014 reviews key trends in science, technology and innovation (STI) policies, and performance in more than 45 economies, including OECD countries and major emerging economies. The report draws on the latest OECD work on science and innovation policy analysis and measurement.

    Following an overview of the STI global landscape and policy trends, key policy issues are discussed across a series of thematic policy profiles. The third section examines individual STI country performances, along with the most recent national policy developments. These global and national policy trends are monitored by a unique international policy survey conducted by the OECD every two years.

  • 11-July-2013

    English

    OECD Communications Outlook 2013

    Published every two years, the OECD Communications Outlook provides an extensive range of indicators for the development of different communications networks and compares performance indicators such as  revenue, investment, employment and prices for service throughout the OECD area. These indicators are essential for industry and regulators who use benchmarking to evaluate policy performance.

    This edition is based on data from the OECD Telecommunications Database 2013, which provides time series of telecommunications and economic indicaors such as network dimension, revenues, investment and employment for OECD countries from 1980 to 2011. The data provided in this report map the second decade of competition for many OECD countries that fully opened their markets to competition in 1998.

  • 15-March-2012

    English

    OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 - The Consequences of Inaction

    Humanity has witnessed unprecedented growth and prosperity in the past decades, with the size of the world economy more than tripling and population increasing by over 3 billion people since 1970. This growth, however, has been accompanied by environmental pollution and natural resource depletion. The current growth model and the mismanagement of natural assets could ultimately undermine human development.

    The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 asks “What will the next four decades bring?” Based on joint modelling by the OECD and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, it looks forward to the year 2050 to find out what demographic and economic trends might mean for the environment if the world does not adopt more ambitious green policies. It also looks at what policies could change that picture for the better. This Outlook focuses on four areas: climate change, biodiversity, freshwater and health impacts of pollution. These four key environmental challenges were identified by the previous Environmental Outlook to 2030 (OECD, 2008) as “Red Light” issues requiring urgent attention.

  • 11-April-2016

    English

    Energy Prices and Taxes - Volume 2016 Issue 1

    This quarterly report contains a major international compilation of energy prices of OECD countries: including crude oil and oil product spot prices, import costs by crude stream, industry prices and consumer prices. The end-user prices cover the main oil products, gas, coal and electricity. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country. Time series availability varies with each data series.

  • 30-March-2016

    English

    Oil, Gas, Coal and Electricity - Volume 2016 Issue 2

    This publication provides detailed and up-to-date quarterly statistics on oil, natural gas, coal and electricity for the OECD countries. Oil statistics cover production, trade, refinery intake and output, stock changes and consumption for crude oil, NGL and nine selected product groups. Statistics for electricity, natural gas and coal show supply and trade. Oil and coal import and export data are reported by origin and destination. Gas imports and exports data are reported by entries and exits of physical flows. Moreover, oil and hard coal production are reported on a worldwide basis.

  • 17-July-2014

    English

    Oil Information 2014

    Oil Information is a comprehensive reference book on current developments in oil supply and demand. The first part of this publication contains key data on world production, trade, prices and consumption of major oil product groups, with time series back to the early 1970s.

    The second part gives a more detailed and comprehensive picture of oil supply, demand, trade, production and consumption by end-user for each OECD country individually and for the OECD regions. Trade data are reported extensively by origin and destination.

    Oil Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Coal Information, Electricity Information, Natural Gas Information and Renewables Information.

  • 19-August-2014

    English

    Natural Gas Information 2014

    Natural Gas Information is a detailed reference work on gas supply and demand covering not only OECD countries but also the rest of the world. This publication contains essential information on LNG and pipeline trade, gas reserves, storage capacity and prices.

    The main part of the book, however, concentrates on OECD countries, showing a detailed supply and demand balance for each country and for the three OECD regions: Americas, Asia-Oceania and Europe, as well as a breakdown of gas consumption by end user. Import and export data are reported by source and destination.

    Natural Gas Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publication on major energy sources; other reports are Coal Information, Electricity Information, Oil Information and Renewables Information.

  • 27-August-2015

    English

    Coal Information 2015

    Coal Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in the world coal sector, including 2014 provisional data. It provides a review of the world coal market in 2014, alongside a statistical overview of developments, which covers world coal production and coal reserves, coal demand by type, coal trade and coal prices. A detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of historical and current coal developments in the 34 OECD member countries, by region and individually is presented in tables and charts. Complete coal balances and coal trade data for selected years are presented on 22 major non-OECD coal-producing and -consuming countries, with summary statistics on coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions worldwide.

    Coal Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Electricity Information, Natural Gas Information, Oil Information and Renewables Information.

  • 23-July-2015

    English

    Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2015

    This volume contains data on energy supply and consumption in original units for coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste. Complete data are available for 2012 and 2013 and supply estimates are available for the most recent year (i.e. 2014). Historical tables summarise data on production, trade and final consumption. The book also includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data.

    In the 2015 edition of Energy Balances of OECD Countries, the sister volume of this publication, the data are presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent.

  • 16-June-2016

    English

    OECD Regions at a Glance 2016

    OECD Regions at a Glance shows how regions and cities contribute to national economic growth and well-being. This edition updates more than 40 region-by-region indicators to assess disparities within countries and their evolution over the past 15 years. The report covers all the OECD member countries and, where data are available, Brazil, People’s Republic of China, Colombia, India, Latvia, Lithuania, Peru, the Russian Federation and South Africa.
    New to this edition:
    - A comprehensive picture of well-being in the 391 OECD regions based on 11 aspects that shape people's lives: income, jobs, housing, education, health, environment, safety, civic engagement and governance, access to services, social connections, and life satisfaction.  
    - Recent trends in subnational government finances and indicators on how competencies are allocated and co-ordinated across levels of governments.

  • 10-December-2014

    English

    Consumption Tax Trends 2014 - VAT/GST and excise rates, trends and policy issues

    Consumption Tax Trends provides information on Value Added Tax/Goods and Services Tax (VAT/GST) and excise duty rates in OECD member countries. It also contains information about indirect tax topics such as international aspects of VAT/GST developments in OECD member countries as well as in selected non-OECD economies, and describes a range of taxation provisions such as the taxation of motor vehicles, tobacco and alcoholic beverages.

  • 19-August-2011

    English

    Trends in the Transport Sector 2011

    How have the passenger and freight transport sectors evolved in recent years and during the crisis? And what about road safety? This publication presents data on global trends in the transport sector with up-to-date figures on the impact of the recent economic crisis.

    In addition to highlighting major trends in the transport sector, this brochure provides the reader with the latest statistics on transport markets in the International Transport Forum member countries for the period 1970-2009 for all modes of transport. It also describes trends on transport infrastructure investment and maintenance expenditure.

  • 22-September-2015

    English

    International Migration Outlook 2015

    This publication analyses recent development in migration movements and policies in OECD countries and some non member countries as well as the evolution of recent labour market outcomes of immigrants in OECD countries. It includes a special chapter on : “Changing Patterns in the international migration of doctors and nurses to OECD countries”, as well as country notes and a statistical annex.

    Also AvailableEgalement disponible(s)
  • 22-November-2010

    English

    OECD Information Technology Outlook 2010

    Information technology (IT) and the Internet are major drivers of research, innovation, growth and social change. The 2010 edition of the OECD Information Technology Outlook analyses the economic crisis and recovery, and suggests that the outlook for IT goods and services industries is good after weathering a turbulent economic period better than during the crisis at the beginning of the 2000s. The industry continues to restructure, with non-OECD economies, particularly China and India, major suppliers of information and communications technology-related goods and services.

    The role of information and communications technologies (ICTs) in tackling environmental problems and climate change is analysed extensively, with emphasis on the role of ICTs in enabling more widespread improvements in environmental performance across the economy and in underpinning systemic changes in behaviour.

    Recent trends in OECD ICT policies are analysed to see if they are rising to new challenges in the recovery. Priorities are now on getting the economy moving, focusing on ICT skills and employment, broadband diffusion, ICT R&D and venture finance, and a major new emphasis on using ICTs to tackle environmental problems and climate change.

  • 24-November-2015

    English

    Education at a Glance 2015 - OECD Indicators

    Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators is the authoritative source for accurate information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the output of educational institutions; the impact of learning across countries; the financial and human resources invested in education; access, participation and progression in education; and the learning environment and organisation of schools.

    The 2015 edition introduces more detailed analysis of participation in early childhood and tertiary levels of education. The report also examines first generation tertiary-educated adults’ educational and social mobility, labour market outcomes for recent graduates, and participation in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education. Readiness to use information and communication technology for problem solving in teaching and learning is also examined. The publication provides indicators on the impact of skills on employment and earnings, gender differences in education and employment, and teacher and school leader appraisal systems. For the first time, this edition includes highlights of each indicator inside the book. The report covers all 34 OECD countries and a number of partner countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Latvia, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia and South Africa, and for the first time, Costa Rica and Lithuania).

    The Excel™ spreadsheets used to create the tables and charts in Education at a Glance are available via the StatLinks provided throughout the publication.

    Also AvailableEgalement disponible(s)
  • 12-April-2016

    English

    Taxing Wages 2016

    This annual flagship publication provides details of taxes paid on wages in OECD countries.  It covers: personal income taxes and employee contributions paid by employees, social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by employers, and cash benefits received by in-work families. It illustrates how these taxes and benefits are calculated in each member country and examines how they have an impact on household incomes. The results also enable quantitative cross-country comparisons of labour cost levels and the overall tax and benefit position of single persons and families on different levels of earnings.
    The publication shows the amounts of taxes and social security contributions levied and cash benefits received for eight different family types, which vary by a combination of household composition and household type.  It also presents: the resulting average and marginal tax rates (that is, the tax burden); the average tax rates (showing the part of gross wage earnings or total labour costs taken in tax and social security contributions, both before and after cash benefits); and the marginal tax rates (showing the part of a small increase of gross earnings or total labour costs that is paid in these levies).

  • 12-December-2015

    English

    Latin American Economic Outlook 2016 - Towards a New Partnership with China

    The Latin American Economic Outlook 2016 is devoted to the evolving relationship between Latin America and China, as well as its prospects in the long term. China's transformation involves a gradual shift in its development strategy, including the rebalancing process from investment to consumption, the demographic transition, the structural transformation towards high value-added goods and services, and a "going-out" policy to approach other regions. This report lays the ground for discussing future trends in the relationship between China and Latin America, given these changing patterns. Based on the analysis of potential transmission channels of China’s new model to the region, which include issues on trade, finance and skills, the outlook aims to identify strategies and policy responses for Latin America to overcome development challenges. Latin America and China can complement each other further and build a mutually beneficial partnership for development.

  • 13-November-2014

    English

    World Energy Outlook 2014

    The global energy landscape is evolving at a rapid pace, reshaping long-held expectations for our energy future. The 2014 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO) will incorporate all the latest data and developments to produce a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of medium- and longer-term energy trends. It will complement a full set of energy projections – which extend from today through, for the first time, the year 2040 – with strategic insights into their meaning for energy security, the economy and the environment. Oil, natural gas, coal, renewables and energy efficiency will be covered, along with updates on trends in energy-related CO2 emissions, fossil-fuel and renewable energy subsidies, and universal access to modern energy services.

    The WEO-2014 will also provide in-depth analysis of some topical energy sector issues:

    Africa: This continent-wide focus, paying particular attention to the energy outlook for sub-Saharan Africa, will include data and projections for the entire region as well as for its key energy-producing and consuming countries. Key elements for analysis will be the prospects for improving access to modern energy services and for developing the region’s huge resource potential in a way that contributes not only to regional and global energy balances but also to local economic and social well-being.

    Nuclear power: Uncertainties continue to cloud the future for nuclear – government policy, public confidence, financing in liberalised markets, competitiveness versus other sources of generation and the looming retirement of a large fleet of older plants. The study will assess the outlook for nuclear power and its implications.

    Energy sector investment (WEO Special Report to be released 3 June): The analysis will provide a detailed assessment of current flows and future investment needs along the entire energy value chain, examining the scale of investment required and financing options. The report will also show how barriers to investment vary according to the strength of decarbonisation policies.

  • 11-September-2014

    English

    Uranium 2014 - Resources, Production and Demand

    Uranium is the raw material used to fuel over 400 operational nuclear reactors around the world that produce large amounts of electricity and benefit from life cycle carbon emissions as low as renewable energy sources. Although a valuable commodity, declining market prices for uranium since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, driven by uncertainties concerning the future of nuclear power, have led to the postponement of mine development plans in a number of countries and raised questions about continued uranium supply. This 25th edition of the “Red Book”, a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 45 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It includes data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It offers updated information on established uranium production centres and mine development plans, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, in order to address long-term uranium supply and demand issues.

  • 19-October-2015

    English

    OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2015 - Innovation for growth and society

    Science, technology and innovation foster competitiveness, productivity and growth. Over 200 indicators in the OECD Science, Technology and Industry (STI) Scoreboard show how OECD and major non-OECD economies are starting to move beyond the crisis, increasingly investing in the future.
    The charts and underlying data in the OECD STI Scoreboard 2015 are available for download and selected indicators contain additional data expanding the time and country coverage of the print edition.

  • 23-February-2016

    English

    Geographical Distribution of Financial Flows to Developing Countries 2016 - Disbursements, Commitments, Country Indicators

    This publication provides comprehensive data on the volume, origin and types of aid and other resource flows to around 150 developing countries.  The data show each country's intake of official development assistance as well as other official and private funds from members of the Development Assistance Committee of the OECD, multilateral agencies and other key providers.  Key development indicators are given for reference.

  • 20-August-2014

    English

    Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital: Condensed Version 2014

    The OECD Model Tax Convention provides the basis for the negotiation and interpretation of more than 3000 tax treaties that make up a network that co-ordinate the income and corporate tax systems of most countries with the objective of removing tax barriers to cross-border trade and investment.

    This publication is the ninth edition of the condensed version of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital. This shorter version contains the full text of the Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital as accepted on 15 July 2014, but without the historical notes, the detailed list of conventions between OECD member countries and the background reports that are included in the full-length version, which will appear soon.

  • 9-September-2014

    English

    Education at a Glance 2014 - Highlights

    Education at a Glance 2014: Highlights summarises the OECD’s flagship compendium of education statistics, Education at a Glance. It provides easily accessible data on key topics in education today, including:
    • Education levels and student numbers: How far have adults studied, and how does early childhood education affect student performance later on?
    • Higher education and work: How many young people graduate from tertiary education, and how easily do they enter the world of work?
    • Economic and social benefits of education: How does education affect people’s job prospects, and what is its impact on incomes?
    • Paying for education: What share of public spending goes on education, and what is the role of private spending?
    • The school environment: How many hours do teachers work, and how does class size vary?

    Each indicator is presented on a two-page spread. The left-hand page explains the significance of the indicator, discusses the main findings, examines key trends and provides readers with a roadmap for finding out more in the OECD education databases and in other OECD education publications. The right-hand page contains clearly presented charts and tables, accompanied by dynamic hyperlinks (StatLinks) that direct readers to the corresponding data in Excel™ format.

  • 9-March-2016

    English

    OECD Tourism Trends and Policies 2016

    Tourism Trends and Policies, published biennially, analyses tourism performance and major policy trends, initiatives and reforms across 50 OECD countries and partner economies, providing up-to-date tourism data and analysis. The report is an international reference and benchmark on how effectively countries are supporting competitiveness, innovation and growth in tourism.

    Tourism has successfully weathered the effects of the global economic crisis, and active tourism policies have played an essential role in supporting a competitive and sustainable tourism economy. The 2016 edition captures these ongoing trends - presenting standardised data covering domestic, inbound and outbound tourism, enterprises and employment, and internal tourism consumption - and reports on how seamless transport can enhance the tourism experience, as well as the opportunities, challenges and implications of the sharing economy for tourism.

  • 16-August-2010

    English

    OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations 2010

    The OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations provide guidance on the application of the “arm’s length principle”, which is the international consensus on transfer pricing, i.e. on the valuation, for tax purposes, of cross-border transactions between associated enterprises. In a global economy where multinational enterprises (MNEs) play a prominent role, transfer pricing is high on the agenda of tax administrators and taxpayers alike. Governments need to ensure that the taxable profits of MNEs are not artificially shifted out of their jurisdictions and that the tax base reported by MNEs in their respective countries reflect the economic activity undertaken therein. For taxpayers, it is essential to limit the risks of economic double taxation that may result from a dispute between two countries on the determination of an arm’s length remuneration for their cross-border transactions with associated enterprises.

    After having been originally published in 1979, the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines were approved by the OECD Council in their original version in 1995. A limited update was made in 2009, primarily to reflect the adoption, in the 2008 update of the Model Tax Convention, of a new paragraph 5 of Article 25 dealing with arbitration, and of changes to the Commentary on Article 25 on mutual agreement procedures to resolve cross-border tax disputes. In the 2010 edition, Chapters I-III were substantially revised, with new guidance on: the selection of the most appropriate transfer pricing method to the circumstances of the case; the practical application of transactional profit methods (transactional net margin method and profit split method); and on the performance of comparability analyses. Furthermore, a new Chapter IX, on the transfer pricing aspects of business restructurings, was added. Consistency changes were made to the rest of the Guidelines.

  • 19-August-2014

    English

    Electricity Information 2014

    Electricity Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in the OECD electricity sector, including 2014 provisional data. It provides an overview of the world electricity developments in 2013 covering world electricity and heat production, input fuel mix, supply and consumption, and electricity imports and exports. More detail is provided for the 34 OECD countries with information covering production, installed capacity, input energy mix to electricity and heat production, consumption, electricity trades, input fuel prices and end-user electricity prices  as well as monthly OECD production and trade electricity data for 2014. It provides comprehensive statistical details on overall energy consumption, economic indicators, electricity and heat production by energy form and plant type, electricity imports and exports, sectoral energy and electricity consumption, as well as prices for electricity and electricity input fuels for each country and regional aggregate.

    Electricity Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Coal Information, Natural Gas Information, Oil Information and Renewables Information.

  • 12-May-2014

    English

    Energy Technology Perspectives 2014

    As climate negotiators work towards a deal that would limit the increase in global temperatures, interest is growing in the essential role technology innovation can and must play in enabling the transition to a low-carbon energy system. Indeed, recent success stories clearly indicate that there is significant and untapped potential for accelerating innovation in clean technologies if proper policy frameworks are in place.

    In an especially timely analysis, the 2015 edition of Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP 2015) examines innovation in the energy technology sector and seeks to increase confidence in the feasibility of achieving short- and long-term climate change mitigation targets through effective research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D). ETP 2015 identifies regulatory strategies and co‑operative frameworks to advance innovation in areas like variable renewables, carbon capture and storage, and energy-intensive industrial sectors. The report also shows how emerging economies, and China in particular, can foster a low-carbon transition through innovation in energy technologies and policy. Finally, ETP 2015 features the IEA annual Tracking Clean Energy Progress report, which this year shows that efforts to decarbonise the global energy sector are lagging further behind.

    By setting out pathways to a sustainable energy future and by incorporating detailed and transparent quantitative modelling analysis and well-rounded commentary, ETP 2015 and its series of related publications are required reading for experts in the energy field, policy makers and heads of governments, as well as business leaders and investors.

  • 25-March-2010

    English

    Projected Costs of Generating Electricity 2010

    This joint IEA/NEA report on electricity generating costs presents the latest data available for a wide variety of fuels and technologies, including coal and gas (with and without carbon capture), nuclear, hydro, onshore and offshore wind, biomass, solar, wave and tidal as well as combined heat and power (CHP).  It provides levelised costs of electricity (LCOE) per MWh for almost 200 plants, based on data covering 21 countries (including four major non-OECD countries), and several industrial companies and organisations.  For the first time, the report contains an extensive sensitivity analysis of the impact of variations in key parameters such as discount rates, fuel prices and carbon costs on LCOE.  Additional issues affecting power generation choices are also examined.

  • 19-August-2014

    English

    Renewables Information 2014

    Renewables Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in OECD countries, including 2014 provisional data. It provides an overview of the development of renewables and waste in the world over the 1990 to 2013 period. A greater focus is given to the OECD countries with a review of electricity generation and capacity from renewable and waste energy sources, including detailed tables. However, an overview of developments in the world and OECD renewable and waste market is also presented. The publication encompasses energy indicators, generating capacity, electricity and heat production from renewable and waste sources, as well as production and consumption of renewables and waste.

    Renewables Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Coal Information, Electricity Information, Natural Gas Information and Oil Information.

  • 18-January-2016

    English

    Trends Shaping Education 2016

    Did you ever wonder if education has a role to play in stemming the obesity epidemic sweeping across all OECD countries? Or what the impact of increasing urbanisation might be on our schools, families, and communities? Or whether new technologies really are fundamentally changing the way our children think and learn?

    Trends Shaping Education examines major trends affecting the future of education and sets the background on upcoming challenges for policy makers and education providers alike. This work does not give conclusive answers: it is not an analytical report nor is it a statistical compendium, and it is certainly not a statement of OECD policy on these different developments. It is instead a stimulus for thinking about major tendencies that have the potential to influence education, and conversely, the potential of education to influence these trends.

  • 13-May-2016

    English

    Main Economic Indicators - Volume 2016 Issue 5

    The monthly Main Economic Indicators (MEI) presents comparative statistics that provide an overview of recent international economic developments for the 34 OECD countries, the euro zone and a number of non-member economies. This indispensable and unique source of key short-term statistics is a vehicle for analysis for corporate planners, economists, academics, researchers and students. Using the most up-to-date, user-friendly tabular presentation, the indicators cover national accounts, business surveys and consumer opinions, leading indicators, retail sales, production, construction, prices, employment, unemployment, wages, finance, international trade and balance of payments.
     

  • 17-January-2014

    English

    Highlights of the International Transport Forum 2013 - Funding Transport: Session Summaries

    Demand for mobility around the globe is growing rapidly. Motorisation in emerging economies continues at breath-taking pace, with the number of motor vehicles on the world’s streets rising, according to some estimates, from just over 1 billion today to 2 billion in 2020. Air passenger travel could double, air freight could triple and container handling in ports could quadruple within the next 15 years or so, according to OECD projections.

    If we do not want to stifle trade and economic growth and the opportunities these bring for our citizens, we must invest in infrastructure - and we must do so now. Global investment needs to 2030 for key global transport infrastructure alone is estimated by OECD at USD 11 trillion. But policy makers face a difficult dilemma: Almost everywhere public budgets are squeezed as never before in the wake of the global financial and economic crisis. And they are likely to remain tight for quite some time.

    The International Transport Forum’s Summit brought together Ministers from ITF member countries and many business leaders in total 1 000 delegates from 79 nations to test ideas, to engage with experts, to align perceptions on the funding issue and explore ways to address it. This publication presents the essence of this substantive debate. An accompanying brochure, “Highlights in Pictures” is also available from www.internationaltransportforum.org/pub.

  • 25-November-2015

    English

    International Trade by Commodity Statistics - Volume 2015 Issue 5

    This reliable source of yearly data covers a wide range of statistics on international trade of OECD countries and provides detailed data in value by commodity and by partner country. Each of the first four volumes of International Trade by Commodity Statistics contains the tables for seven countries, published in the order in which they become available. The fifth volume contains the tables for the remaining six countries and OECD Total and EU28-Extra.

  • 7-January-2016

    English

    Quarterly National Accounts - Volume 2015 Issue 3

    The OECD’s Quarterly National Accounts contains a selection of the accounts most widely used by economic analysts: GDP by expenditure and by industry, gross fixed capital formation by asset, gross fixed capital formation by institutional sector, and components of disposable income are all shown at both current and constant prices. Saving and Net lending and GDP by income at current prices are also provided as well as population and employment data (national concept) and employment by industry (domestic concept).

    The data cover 34 OECD countries, and totals are provided for the following groups: OECD, OECD-Europe, European Union, Euro area, G7 and G20.

    Data are based on the System of National Accounts 1993 (1993 SNA) for all countries except Australia, Canada, Israel, Korea, Mexico and United States (2008 SNA).

  • 24-November-2015

    English

    CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2015

    In recognition of fundamental changes in the way governments approach energy related environmental issues, the IEA has prepared this publication on CO2 emissions from fuel combustion. This annual publication was first published in 1997 and has become an essential tool for analysts and policy makers in many international for a such as the Conference of the Parties, which will be meeting in Paris, France from 30 November to 11 December 2015.

    The data in this book are designed to assist in understanding the evolution of the emissions of CO2 from 1971 to 2013 for more than 140 countries and regions by sector and by fuel. Emissions were calculated using IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

     

  • 14-December-2015

    English

    National Accounts at a Glance 2015

    National Accounts at a Glance presents information using an "indicator" approach, focusing on cross-country comparisons. The aim being to make the national accounts more accessible and informative, whilst, at the same time, taking the opportunity to present the conceptual underpinning of, and comparability issues inherent in, each of the indicators presented.

    The range of indicators reflects the richness inherent in the national accounts dataset and encourages users to refocus some of the spotlight that is often placed on gross domestic product (GDP) to other economic important indicators, which may better respond to their needs. The publication is broken down into eight key chapters, and provides indicators related to GDP, income, disposable income, expenditure, production, household, government, corporations and capital respectively.

  • 24-September-2014

    English

    Key World Energy Statistics 2014

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful.

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources.

    The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Australian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Japan, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  • 17-September-2015

    English

    National Accounts of OECD Countries - Volume 2015 Issue 2

    The National Accounts of OECD Countries, Detailed Tables includes, in addition to main aggregates including GDP, final consumption expenditure of households by purpose, simplified accounts for three main sectors: general government, corporations and households. Data are shown for 34 OECD countries and the Euro area back to 2007. Country tables are expressed in national currency. Data are based on the System of National Accounts 2008 (2008 SNA) for all countries except Chile, Japan and Turkey which are presented on the basis of the 1993 SNA.

  • 4-May-2015

    English

    National Accounts of OECD Countries, Financial Balance Sheets 2014

    The National Accounts of OECD Countries, Financial Balance Sheets includes financial stocks (both financial assets and liabilities), by institutional sector (non-financial corporations, financial corporations, general government, households and non-profit institutions serving households, total economy and rest of the world) and by financial instrument.

  • 20-February-2015

    English

    National Accounts of OECD Countries, Financial Accounts 2014

    The National Accounts of OECD Countries, Financial Accounts includes financial transactions (both net acquisition of financial assets and net incurrence of liabilities), by institutional sector (non-financial corporations, financial corporations, general government, households and non-profit institutions serving households, total economy and rest of the world) and by financial operation. Country tables are expressed in national currency. Data are based on the System of National Accounts 1993 (1993 SNA) for all countries except Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia and Spain which are presented on the basis of the 2008 SNA.

  • 1-April-2016

    English

    National Accounts of OECD Countries, General Government Accounts 2015

    The 2015 edition of National Accounts of OECD Countries, General Government Accounts is an annual publication, dedicated to government finance which is based on the System of National Accounts 2008 (SNA 2008) for all countries except Chile, Japan, Korea and Turkey (SNA 1993). It includes tables showing government aggregates and balances for the production, income and financial accounts as well as detailed tax and social contribution receipts and a breakdown of expenditure of general government by function, according to the harmonised international classification, COFOG. These detailed accounts are available for the general government sector. Data also cover the following sub-sectors, according to availability: central government, state government, local government and social security funds.

    The data in this publication are also available on line via www.oecd-ilibrary.org under the title OECD National Accounts Statistics, General Government Accounts (http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/na-gga-data-en and http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/na-gga08-data-en).

  • 14-August-2015

    English

    Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation 2015

    This annual publication provides information on policy developments and related support to agriculture in OECD countries and selected partner economies, measured with the OECD Producer Support Estimate methodology. Countries covered represent about 80% of the global value added in agriculture. The report includes a general discussion on developments in agricultural policies and specific chapters for each country covered.

  • 31-May-2016

    English

    Secretary-General's Report to Ministers 2016

    The OECD Secretary-General's annual report to ministers covers not only the activities of the SG and his office, horizontal programs and activities of the directorates but also the activities of its agencies and special entities.

  • 30-June-2015

    English

    Aid for Trade at a Glance 2015 - Reducing Trade Costs for Inclusive, Sustainable Growth

    The Aid for Trade Initiative has allowed for the active engagement of a large number of organisations and agencies in helping developing countries and especially the least developed build the infrastructure and supply-side capacity they need to connect to regional and global markets and improve their trade performance. The new development paradigm under the post-2015 Development Agenda requires an integrated approach to ensure that the aid for trade achievement leads to inclusive and sustainable development outcomes. Embedding trade cost at the centre of the Aid for Trade Initiative provides an operational focal point for such action among a broad collation of stakeholders.
    The 2015 joint OECD/WTO publication Aid for Trade at a Glance focusses on how reducing trade costs will help in achieving inclusive and sustainable economic growth. The publication contains contributions from the Enhanced Integrated Framework, the International Trade Centre, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, and the World Bank.
     

  • 15-January-2015

    English

    OECD Institutional Investors Statistics 2014

    Institutional investors (investment funds, insurance companies and pension funds) are major collectors of savings and suppliers of funds to financial markets. Their role as financial intermediaries and their impact on investment strategies have grown significantly over recent years along with deregulation and globalisation of financial markets.

    This publication provides a unique set of statistics that reflect the level and structure of the financial assets of institutional investors in the OECD countries, and in the Russian Federation. Concepts and definitions are predominantly based on the System of National Accounts. Data are derived from national sources.

    Data include outstanding amounts of financial assets such as currency and deposits, securities, loans, and shares. When relevant, they are further broken down according to maturity and residency. The publication covers investment funds, of which open-end companies and closed-end companies, as well as insurance corporations and autonomous pension funds. Indicators are presented as percentages of GDP allowing for international comparisons, and at country level, both in national currency and as percentages of total financial assets of the investor. Time series display available data for the last eight years.

  • 26-May-2016

    English

    OECD Compendium of Productivity Indicators 2016

    The publication presents a comprehensive overview of recent and longer term trends in productivity levels and growth in OECD and some G20 countries. The statistics presented include measures of labour productivity, capital productivity and multifactor productivity, as well as indicators of international competitiveness.

  • 12-October-2015

    English

    OECD Review of Fisheries: Policies and Summary Statistics 2015

    The OECD Review of Fisheries provides information on developments in policies and activities in the fishing and aquaculture sectors of OECD countries and participating economies, mainly for the period 2012-13. This year’s edition includes Argentina, the People's Republic of China, Chinese Taipei, Indonesia and Latvia.

    Part I overviews the activities in the sector and includes a chapter containing two-page snapshots outlining country summary statistics and key developments in the fisheries and aquaculture sectors. Additional country-level data and detail on institutional and policy backgrounds, based on contributions by participating countries and economies, are provided in the electronic version of this report.

  • 18-February-2016

    English

    OECD Statistics on International Trade in Services - Volume 2015 Issue 2

    This OECD publication provides statistics on international trade in services by partner country for 31 OECD countries plus the European Union, the Euro area, Latvia and the Russian Federation as well as links to definitions and methodological notes. The data concern trade between residents and non-residents of countries and are reported within the framework of the Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services. This book includes summary tables of trade patterns listing the main trading partners for each country and by broad service category. Series are shown in US dollars and cover the period 2010-2014.

  • 5-August-2015

    English

    Entrepreneurship at a Glance 2015

    Entrepreneurship at a Glance, a product of the OECD-Eurostat Entrepreneurship Indicators Programme, presents an original collection of indicators for measuring the state of entrepreneurship, along with key facts and explanations of the policy context. The 2015 edition features a special chapter on the international activities of SMEs.

  • 27-November-2014

    English

    Health at a Glance: Asia/Pacific 2014 - Measuring Progress towards Universal Health Coverage

    This third edition of Health at a Glance Asia/Pacific presents a set of key indicators of health status, the determinants of health, health care resources and utilisation, health care expenditure and financing and health care quality across 27 Asia/Pacific countries and economies. Drawing on a wide range of data sources, it builds on the format used in previous editions of Health at a Glance, and gives readers a better understanding of the factors that affect the health of populations and the performance of health systems in these countries and economies.

    Each of the indicators is presented in a user-friendly format, consisting of charts illustrating variations across countries and over time, brief descriptive analyses highlighting the major findings conveyed by the data, and a methodological box on the definition of the indicator and any limitations in data comparability. An annex provides additional information on the demographic context in which health systems operate. It is a joint OECD and WHO/WPRO and WHO/SEARO publication.

  • 3-December-2014

    English

    Health at a Glance: Europe 2014

    This third edition of Health at a Glance: Europe presents a set of key indicators related to health status, determinants of health, health care resources and activities, quality of care, access to care, and health expenditure and financing in 35 European countries, including the 28 European Union member states, four candidate countries and three EFTA countries. The selection of indicators is based largely on the European Core Health Indicators (ECHI) shortlist, a set of indicators that has been developed to guide the reporting of health statistics in the European Union. This is complemented by additional indicators on quality of care, access to care and health expenditure, building on the OECD expertise in these areas.

    Compared with the previous edition, this third edition includes a greater number of ECHI indicators, reflecting progress in the availability of comparable data in the areas of non-medical determinants of health and access to care. It also includes a new chapter dedicated to access to care, including selected indicators on financial access, geographic access and timely access.

  • 27-February-2015

    English

    OECD Review of Fisheries: Country Statistics 2014

    This publication contains statistics on fisheries in OECD member countries (with the exception of Austria, Israel and Slovenia) and some non-member economies (Argentina, Colombia, Latvia, Chinese Taipei, Thailand) from 2006 to 2013. Data provided concern fishing fleet capacity, employment in fisheries, fish landings, aquaculture production, recreational fisheries, government financial transfers, and imports and exports of fish.

  • 14-April-2016

    English

    Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs 2016 - An OECD Scoreboard

    This report monitors SME and entrepreneur access to finance in 37 countries. It includes indicators of debt, equity, asset-based finance and framework conditions for SME and entrepreneurship finance, complemented by an overview of recent developments in public and private initiatives to support SME finance. Taken together, these indicators form a comprehensive framework for policy makers and other stakeholders to evaluate the financing needs of SMEs.

  • 4-June-2015

    English

    Medium-Term Gas Market Report 2015

    Global natural gas demand remained weak in 2014, falling well below its ten-year average. High prices for gas in the past two years undermined its competitiveness, bringing to light a harsh reality: in a world of cheap coal and falling costs for renewables, gas has laboured to compete. Although Asia has been regarded as an engine of future gas demand growth, the fuel has struggled to expand its share of the market in many parts of the region. This has raised questions over the viability of gas as an attractive strategic option across Asia.

    The context for gas markets is changing rapidly, however. Falling oil prices have resulted in much lower gas prices in many parts of the word. As a result, gas demand is enjoying the tailwind of substantial price drops while the upstream sector is suffering amid large capital expenditure cuts. The interaction of these opposing effects on gas markets is examined in the IEA Medium-Term Gas Market Report 2015, which provides a detailed analysis of global demand, supply and trade developments through 2020. The impact on global gas markets of Russia’s strategic shift in its gas export policy and the rising tide of liquefied natural gas supplies are given careful consideration. Two special insights also feature in this report. The first analyses the progress Europe has made in strengthening its gas infrastructure since 2010 and the major bottlenecks that still remain in enhancing the security of supply in the region. The second takes a close look at reforms to the gas and electricity sector in Mexico, investigating their impacts on North American gas markets.

  • 2-October-2015

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    Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2015

    Energy efficiency improvements over the last 25 years saved a cumulative USD 5.7 trillion in energy expenditures. This virtual supply of energy generates multiple benefits for governments, businesses and households, including greater energy security from reduced dependence on energy imports and billions of tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions reductions.

    Strengthening our understanding of the energy efficiency market and the prospects over the medium term is becoming increasingly important. The 2015 Energy Efficiency Market Report (EEMR) evaluates the impact of energy efficiency in the energy system and assesses the scale and outlook for further energy efficiency investment using detailed country-by-country energy efficiency indicator data and IEA expertise.

    This year’s report includes an in-depth look into the buildings energy efficiency market and the electricity sector. Energy efficiency investments in the buildings sector totalled between USD 90 billion in 2014. In the electricity sector, energy efficiency has proved critical in flattening electricity consumption in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries, driving utilities to adapt their business models.

    Promoting and expanding energy efficiency markets is a worldwide phenomenon, and EEMR 2015 presents a number of case studies at the national, state and municipal level. These include examinations of Latin America’s two largest economies, Brazil and Mexico, which are looking to efficiency to boost productivity and social development. Energy-exporting countries like Saudi Arabia and the Russian Federation are also increasingly turning to efficiency to increase exports and reduce the costs of growing domestic energy consumption. In addition to national governments, major urban areas such as Tokyo, Seoul and Paris are increasingly enabling energy efficiency investment.
     

  • 18-December-2015

    English

    Medium-Term Coal Market Report 2015

    Although it has received less attention than the plunge in oil prices since mid-2014, the drop in coal prices has had a profound impact on global energy markets. Underpinning the weakness in coal prices is the decline in coal consumption in China for the first time this century, while pledges to reduce CO2 emissions made by dozens of countries ahead of the UN climate negotiations in Paris in December 2015 are also providing negative sentiment for coal producers. Partly offsetting the gloom is demand from a few populous emerging economies in Asia – particularly India – and the high odds that coal will remain China’s top energy source for several years to come.
    Market players are now wondering if coal prices have hit the bottom, how long producers can survive at these levels and when oversupply will be balanced. Whereas the low prices make coal producers struggle, they prove very attractive for power generators despite increasingly strong environmental policies, growing competitiveness of renewables and declining gas prices.
    This year’s edition of the IEA’s Medium-Term Coal Market Report presents, for the first time, a Chinese “Peak Coal” case, which explores the factors that could cause coal use in China to enter a structural decline. It also studies the potential impact of such a peak on supply, prices and trade flows. As in past editions, the report analyses recent trends in coal supply, demand and trade; provides forecasts for the next five years, and gives insights on questions that concern industry and policymakers.
     

  • 11-August-2015

    English

    Tax Administration 2015 - Comparative Information on OECD and Other Advanced and Emerging Economies

    Tax Administration 2015, produced under the auspices of the Forum on Tax Administration, is a unique and comprehensive survey of tax administration systems, practices and performance across 56 advanced and emerging economies (including all OECD, EU, and G20 members). Its starting point is the premise that revenue bodies can be better informed and work more effectively together given a broad understanding of the administrative context in which each operates. However, its information content is also likely to be of interest to many external parties (e.g. academics, external audit agencies, regional tax bodies, and international bodies providing technical assistance).

    The series identifies some of the fundamental elements of national tax system administration and uses data, analyses and country examples to identify key trends, comparative levels of performance, recent and planned developments, and good practices.

    This edition updates performance-related and descriptive material contained in prior editions with new data up to end-fiscal year 2013, and supplements this information on some new topics (e.g. aspects of compliance management and strategic priorities for increased use of on-line services). It also includes coverage of four additional countries (i.e. Costa Rica, Croatia, Morocco, and Thailand).

  • 5-February-2015

    English

    OECD Insurance Statistics 2014

    This annual publication provides major official insurance statistics. The reader will find information on the diverse activities of this industry and on international insurance market trends. The data, which are standardised as far as possible, are broken down under numerous sub-headings, and a series of indicators makes the characteristics of the national markets more readily comprehensible.

  • 26-April-2013

    English

    OECD Central Government Debt Statistics 2012

    Governments are major issuers of debt instruments in the global financial market. This volume provides quantitative information on central government debt instruments for the 34 OECD member countries to meet the analytical requirements of users such as policy makers, debt management experts and market analysts.  Statistics are presented according to a comprehensive standard framework to allow cross-country comparison.  Country methodological notes provide information on debt issuance in each country as well as on the institutional and regulatory framework governing debt management policy and selling techniques.
  • 4-March-2016

    English

    OECD Labour Force Statistics 2015

    This annual edition of Labour Force Statistics provides detailed statistics on population, labour force, employment and unemployment, broken down by gender, as well as unemployment duration, employment status, employment by sector of activity and part-time employment. It also contains participation and unemployment rates by gender and detailed age groups as well as comparative tables for the main components of the labour force. Data are available for each OECD Member country and for OECD-Total, Euro area and European Union. The time series presented in the publication cover 10 years for most countries. It also provides information on the sources and definitions used by Member countries in the compilation of those statistics.

  • 13-October-2015

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    How's Life? 2015 - Measuring Well-being

    How’s Life? describes the essential ingredients that shape people’s well-being in OECD and partner countries. It includes a wide variety of statistics, capturing both material well-being (such as income, jobs and housing) and the broader quality of people’s lives (such as their health, education, work-life balance, environment, social connections, civic engagement, subjective well-being and safety). The report documents the latest evidence on well-being, as well as changes over time, and the distribution of well-being outcomes among different groups of the population.

    This third edition of How’s Life? develops our understanding of well-being in new ways. There is a special focus on child well-being, which finds that not all children are getting a good start in life, and those living in less affluent families face more risks to their well-being. The report introduces new measures to capture some of the natural, human, social and economic resources that play a role in supporting well-being over time. A chapter on volunteering suggests that volunteer work can create a virtuous circle: doing good makes people feel good, and brings a variety of other well-being benefits to both volunteers and to society at large. Finally, the report looks at inequalities in well-being across different regions within countries, demonstrating that where people live can shape their opportunities for living well.

    How’s Life? is part of the OECD Better Life Initiative, which features a series of publications on measuring well-being, as well as the Better Life Index, an interactive website that aims to involve citizens in the debate about what a better life means to them.

  • 5-November-2013

    English

    Pensions at a Glance Asia/Pacific 2013

    Pensions are a major policy issue in developed and developing countries alike. However, pension reform is challenging and controversial because it involves long-term planning by governments faced with numerous short-term pressures. It often provokes heated debates and, sometimes, street protests.

    Countries can learn valuable lessons from others’ pension systems and their experiences of retirement-income reforms. However, national pension systems are very complicated, involving much institutional, technical, and legal elements. Consequently, international comparisons are very difficult to undertake, making it difficult to transfer policy lessons between countries. Hence, this publication aims to fill this gap, with a particular focus on countries in the Asia/Pacific regions.

    This study combines rigorous analysis with clear and easy-to-understand presentations of empirical results. It does not advocate any particular kind of pension system or type of reform. The goal is to inform debates on retirement-income systems with data that people with different visions for the future of pensions can all use as a reference point.

  • 22-January-2016

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    Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India 2016 - Enhancing Regional Ties

    The annual Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India examines Asia’s regional economic growth, development and regional integration process. It focuses on the economic conditions of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It also addresses relevant economic issues in People’s Republic of China and India to fully reflect economic developments in the region. The 2016 edition of the Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India comprises three main parts, each highlighting a particular dimension of recent economic developments in the region. The first part presents the regional economic monitor, depicting the medium-term economic outlook and macroeconomic challenges in the region. The second part consists of three chapters on “enhancing regional ties”, which is the special thematic focus of this edition. The third part includes structural policy country notes.

  • 10-February-2015

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    Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2015

    The recent oil market sell‑off, brought on by deep imbalances after years of record-high prices, will likely prove a milestone in the history of oil.  However prices eventually evolve, markets may never be the same.  This edition of the Medium-Term Oil Market Report sizes up the magnitude of this transformation so far and sketches the oil landscape at the 2020 horizon.

    It is not just oil price signals that have changed, but also the market’s responsiveness to them. On the supply side, this Report’s forecast reflects not just lower price assumptions, but also the high price-sensitivity of US light tight oil compared to conventional crude, as well as OPEC’s embrace of market forces in late 2014 in a bid for market share.  On the demand front, it shows how the response to lower prices will differ in a low-growth, deflationary environment compared to a higher-growth one.

    Not all factors can be easily predicted. Much hangs on the outcome of talks between Iran and the “P5+1” on that of Islamist violence in oil-producing countries, and on future relations between Russia and the West. Such geopolitical risk factors are themselves a defining feature of the oil market for the medium term.

    As in previous editions, this Report also offers key projections of global refining capacity, crude trade flows and product supply, this year with special focus on the impact of changing bunker fuel legislation.

    Rarely has the oil market faced changes as sweeping as today. That makes the insights from the IEA 2015 Medium-Term Oil Market Report all the more timely and valuable.

  • 10-March-2015

    English

    Revenue Statistics in Latin America and the Caribbean 2015

    The Revenue Statistics in Latin America publication is jointly undertaken by the OECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, the OECD Development Centre, the Inter American Center of Tax Administrations (CIAT), the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the Inter-American Development bank (IDB). It compiles comparable tax revenue statistics for a number of Latin American and Caribbean economies, the majority of which are not OECD member countries. The model is the OECD Revenue Statistics database which is a fundamental reference, backed by a well-established methodology, for OECD member countries. Extending the OECD methodology to Latin American countries enables comparisons about tax levels and tax structures on a consistent basis, both among Latin American economies and between OECD and Latin American economies.

  • 12-October-2015

    English

    Road Safety Annual Report 2015

    The IRTAD Road Safety Annual Report 2015 provides an overview for road safety performance for 2013 in 38 countries, with preliminary data for 2014, and detailed reports for each country. It includes tables with cross country comparisons on key safety indicators.

    The report outlines the most recent safety data in IRTAD countries, including detailed analysis by road user, age group and type of road. It describes the crash data collection process in IRTAD countries, the road safety strategies and targets in place and information on recent trends in speeding, drink-driving and other aspects of road user behaviour.

  • 31-October-2014

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    Society at a Glance: Asia/Pacific 2014

    This is the third edition of Society at a Glance Asia/Pacific, a regularly updated OECD overview of social indicators, which addresses the growing demand for quantitative evidence on social well-being and its trends. This report starts with an introductory chapter providing a guide to help readers understanding the OECD Social Indicator framework. Chapters 2 and three are special thematic chapters to address two increasingly topical issues in the social debate: Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship and Social Protection Expenditure.

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  • 5-June-2014

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    Energy Efficiency Indicators - Essentials for Policy Making

    Energy efficiency is widely recognised as the most cost-effective and readily available means to address numerous energy-related issues, including energy security, the social and economic impacts of high energy prices, and concerns about climate change. At the same time, energy efficiency increases competitiveness and promotes consumer welfare. In this context, it is important to develop and maintain well-founded indicators to better inform policy making and help decision makers formulate policies that are best suited to domestic and/or international objectives.

    This publication enables energy analysts and policy makers to identify priority areas for the development of energy efficiency indicators, define which sector(s) offer the greatest potential to further improve energy efficiency, select the data and indicators that best support policy development in these sectors, and develop a strategy to advance policy development through the improved use of indicators to track progress of energy efficiency policies.

     

  • 5-June-2014

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    Energy Efficiency Indicators - Fundamentals on Statistics

    Energy efficiency is high on the political agenda as governments seek to reduce wasteful energy consumption, strengthen energy security and cut greenhouse gas emissions. However, the lack of data for developing proper indicators to measure energy efficiency often prevents countries from transforming declarations into actions.

    This manual identifies the main sectoral indicators and the data needed to develop these indicators; and to make surveying, metering and modeling practices existing all around the world available to all. It has been developed with a companion document, Energy Efficiency Indicators: Essentials for Policy Making, as a starting point towards enabling policymakers to understand where greater efficiency is needed, to implement appropriate policies and to measure their impact.

  • 30-May-2014

    English

    Slovenia: Reforms for a Strong and Sustainable Recovery

    This book reviews recent work related to Slovenia and summarised key findings and recommendations in such areas as unemployment and the labour market, skills and productivity, product market competition, corporate governance, boosting innovation and moving up the value chain, public finances, the tax system, the financial system, and greening the economy.

  • 30-April-2014

    English

    Japan: Advancing the Third Arrow for a Resilient Economy and Inclusive Growth

    This book provides an overview of the key challenges faced by Japan and OECD's main policy recommendations to address them. Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, the book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of Japan, focusing on how its government can make reform happen.

  • 31-March-2014

    English

    China: Structural Reforms for Inclusive Growth

    This book provides an overview of the key challenges faced by China and OECD's main policy recommendations to address them. Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, the book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of China, focusing on how its government can make reform happen.

  • 10-February-2014

    English

    Germany: Keeping the Edge - Competitiveness for Inclusive Growth

    This book provides an overview of the key challenges currently faced in Germany and OECD's main policy recommendations to address them. Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, the book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of Germany, focusing on how its government can make reform happen.

  • 3-November-2014

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    Regional Perspectives on Aid for Trade

    Deepening economic integration via regional co-operation has emerged as a key priority in the reform strategies of most developing economies over the past decade. This is evidenced by the explosive growth in bilateral and regional trading agreements in which they now participate. Regional aid for trade can help developing countries spur regional economic integration, enhance competitiveness, and plug into regional production networks.

    Based on a rich set of experiences regarding regional aid for trade projects and programmes, the study finds that regional aid for trade offers great potential as a catalyst for growth, development and poverty reduction. The study recommends greater emphasis on regional aid for trade as a means of improving regional economic integration and development prospects. While regional aid for trade faces many practical implementation challenges, experience has shown that associated problems are not insurmountable but do require thorough planning, careful project formulation, and prioritization on the part of policy makers.

  • 20-June-2014

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    Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining

    Uranium mining and milling has evolved significantly over the years. By comparing currently leading approaches with outdated practices, this report demonstrates how uranium mining can be conducted in a way that protects workers, the public and the environment. Innovative, modern mining practices combined with strictly enforced regulatory standards are geared towards avoiding past mistakes committed primarily during the early history of the industry when maximising uranium production was the principal operating consideration. Today’s leading practices in uranium mining aim at producing uranium in an efficient and safe manner that limits environmental impacts to acceptable standards. As indicated in this report, the collection of baseline environmental data, environmental monitoring and public consultation throughout the life cycle of the mine enables verification that the facility is operating as planned, provides early warning of any potentially adverse impacts on the environment and keeps stakeholders informed of developments. Leading practice also supports planning for mine closure before mine production is licensed to ensure that the mining lease area is returned to an environmentally acceptable condition. The report highlights the importance of mine workers being properly trained and well equipped, as well as that of ensuring that their work environment is well ventilated so as to curtail exposure to radiation and hazardous materials and thereby minimise health impacts.

  • 25-June-2014

    English

    A Teachers' Guide to TALIS 2013 - Teaching and Learning International Survey

    This publication not only presents the main results of TALIS 2013, it also takes those findings and, backed by the research literature on education and the large body of OECD work on education, offers insights and advice to teachers and school leaders on how they can improve teaching and learning in their schools. It is both a guide through TALIS and a handbook for building excellence into teaching.

  • 21-July-2014

    English

    Standard for Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information in Tax Matters

    The Standard for Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information, developed by the OECD with G20 countries, represents the international consensus on automatic exchange of financial account information for tax purposes, on a reciprocal basis. Over 60 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the Standard and all financial centres have been called to match those commitments, as of July 2014.

    This publication is the first edition of the full version of the Standard for Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information. It contains the text of the Model Competent Authority Agreement and the Common Reporting Standard, and the Commentaries thereon, as they read on 15 July 2014. It also includes multilateral and nonreciprocal versions of the Model Competent Authority Agreement, the technical modalities and a wider approach to the Common Reporting Standard.

  • 16-September-2014

    English

    Geographic Variations in Health Care - What Do We Know and What Can Be Done to Improve Health System Performance?

    Variations in health care use within a country are complicated. In some cases they may reflect differences in health needs, in patient preferences or in the diffusion of a therapeutic innovation; in others they may not. There is evidence that some of the observed variations are unwarranted, signalling under- or over-provision of health services, or both. This study documents geographic variations for high-cost and high-volume procedures in select OECD countries. It finds that there are wide variations not only across countries, but within them as well. A mix of patient preferences and physician practice styles likely play an important part in this, but what part of the observed variations reflects over-provision, or whether there are unmet needs, remain largely unexplained. This report helps policy makers better understand the issues and challenges around geographic variations in health care provision and considers the policy options.

  • 8-July-2014

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    Portugal: Deepening Structural Reform to Support Growth and Competitiveness

    Having been hit hard by the global crisis, the Portuguese government has taken action to put its economy back on track, and to correct external and budgetary imbalances. Public finances have strengthened, and the current account deficit has closed on the back of gains in competitiveness and improvements in export performance. Portugal has also been able to reduce income inequality and relative poverty, a major accomplishment during a severe crisis with record levels of unemployment. As Portugal successfully exits the EU-IMF-ECB-supported programme and emerges from recession, it is more important than ever to build on these achievements.

    At the request of the Portuguese authorities, the OECD has carried out an assessment of the impact of the reforms implemented to date on the economy’s longer-term growth outlook. The analysis is based on OECD indicators of the restrictiveness of Product Market Regulation (PMR) and the strictness of Employment Protection Legislation (EPL). It updates the OECD report Portugal: Reforming the State to Promote Growth, published in 2013.

    According to the OECD’s Going for Growth exercise, Portugal is among the OECD countries with the best recent track record of responsiveness to structural reform recommendations. The reforms undertaken since 2009 to promote competition in product markets and enhance the dynamism of the labour market are expected to raise productivity and potential GDP by at least 3.5% by 2020.

  • 23-October-2014

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    The Space Economy at a Glance 2014

    The space sector plays an increasingly pivotal role in the functioning of modern societies and their economic development as the use of satellite technology gives rise to new applications, uses and markets. Space Economy at a Glance offers a statistical overview of the global space sector and its contributions to economic activity using data from over 40 countries with space programmes, and identifies new dynamics in the space sector.

  • 6-October-2014

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    How's Life in Your Region? - Measuring Regional and Local Well-being for Policy Making

    How’s life? The answer can depend on the region in which you live. Many factors that influence people’s well-being are local issues, such as employment, access to health services, pollution and security. Policies that take into account regional differences beyond national averages can therefore have a greater impact on improving well-being for the country as a whole.

    This report presents the OECD analytical framework for measuring well-being at the regional level, as well as internationally comparable indicators on 9 well-being dimensions for 362 regions across 34 OECD countries. It also sets out guidance for all levels of government in using well-being measures to better target policies at the specific needs of different communities. Drawing on a variety of practical experiences from OECD regions and cities, the report discusses methodological and political solutions for selecting regional well-being outcome indicators, monitoring the progress of regional well-being performance over time, and implementing a process of multi-stakeholder engagement to promote social change.

  • 8-October-2014

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    Energy Efficiency Market Report 2014

    The evidence is clear: energy efficiency has played, and continues to play, a large and valuable role in the sustainable development of the global economy. The energy demand that is avoided as a result of steady improvements in the efficiency of energy-using stock such as buildings, cars and appliances is larger than the total final consumption from coal, oil or gas in IEA member countries.

    The market for energy efficiency investments is very large – estimated between USD 310 billion and USD 360 billion in 2011 – and this market is producing results: total final consumption in IEA countries is estimated to be 60% lower today because of energy efficiency improvements over the last four decades. Since 2001, investments in energy efficiency in 18 IEA countries have helped to avoid over 1 700 million tonnes of oil-equivalent from being consumed.

    This year’s report includes an in-depth look at energy efficiency developments in the transport sector and in finance. Huge new waves of demand for mobility are emerging in OECD non‑member economies, bringing with them the challenges of pollution and congestion already faced in OECD countries. Fuel-economy standards and other policies are expected to help shape the market for more energy-efficient vehicles in the years to come. In financial markets, energy efficiency is becoming an important segment in its own right, aided by a growing range of financial products. We document the growing scale and diversity of energy efficiency products and actors.

    Finally, this report reviews national energy efficiency market developments in various jurisdictions around the world, including Canada, China, the European Union, India and Italy. These case studies provide snapshots of specific energy efficiency sub-markets, and insights into how these markets may evolve in the coming years.

  • 19-August-2014

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    Energy Supply Security 2014 - Emergency Response of IEA Countries

    Ensuring energy security is a core responsibility of the International Energy Agency and a priority for its member countries. To this end, the ability to respond quickly and effectively in the event of a supply disruption is essential. Energy Supply Security 2014: The Emergency Response of IEA Countries provides an overview of the most recent oil and natural gas emergency policy reviews of the 29 IEA member countries as well as those of key partners such as Chile, China, India and ASEAN. The publication assesses each country’s emergency arrangements for security of supply of oil and gas, their stockholding structure, demand restraint measures and fuel switching capacity, and also provides a summary of energy security best practices among the IEA membership and beyond.

    Although the IEA was initially created to focus on oil supply security, energy markets have evolved, with other fuels playing increasingly important roles in the global energy mix. Thus, natural gas is highlighted in this publication, including assessments of measures to respond to and offset potential supply disruptions. Due to the increasing dependence of modern societies on reliable and secure electricity supplies, this publication also includes an overview of the electricity security assessment framework recently developed by the IEA for the purposes of strengthening countries’ electricity security.

  • 29-May-2015

    English

    All on Board - Making Inclusive Growth Happen

    All on Board: Making Inclusive Growth Happen puts forth a new approach to economic growth that goes beyond traditional monetary indicators and includes dimensions that reflect people's well-being. It introduces an analytical framework to assess economic growth based on a measurement of multidimensional living standards. The report also presents win-win policies that can deliver stronger growth and greater inclusiveness in areas such as: macroeconomic policies, labour market policies, education and skills, infrastructure and public services and development and urban policies. It underscores the need to assess and weigh trade-offs and complementarities between and among policies, and the crucial role of good governance in implementing an Inclusive Growth agenda.

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  • 16-July-2014

    English

    The Characteristics of an Effective Nuclear Regulator

    This regulatory guidance booklet describes the characteristics of an effective nuclear safety regulator in terms of roles and responsibilities, principles and attributes. Each of the characteristics discussed in this report is a necessary feature of an effective nuclear safety regulator but no one characteristic is sufficient on its own. It is the combination of these characteristics that leads to the effectiveness of a nuclear regulatory body. The report provides a unique resource to countries with existing, mature regulators and can be used for benchmarking as well as training and developing staff. It will also be useful for new entrant countries in the process of developing and maintaining an effective nuclear safety regulator.

  • 16-September-2014

    English

    Addressing the Tax Challenges of the Digital Economy

    The spread of the digital economy poses challenges for international taxation. This report sets out an analysis of these tax challenges. It notes that because the digital economy is increasingly becoming the economy itself, it would not be feasible to ring-fence the digital economy from the rest of the economy for tax purposes. The report notes, however, that certain business models and key features of the digital economy may exacerbate BEPS risks. These BEPS risks will be addressed by the work on the other Actions in the BEPS Action Plan, which will take the relevant features of the digital economy into account. The report also analyses a number of broader tax challenges raised by the digital economy, and discusses potential options to address them, noting the need for further work during 2015 to evaluate these broader challenges and potential options.

  • 16-September-2014

    English

    Neutralising the Effects of Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements

    This report sets out recommendations for domestic rules to neutralise the effect of hybrid mismatch arrangements and includes changes to the OECD Model Tax Convention to address such arrangements. Once translated into domestic law, the recommendations in Part 1 of the report will neutralise the effect of cross-border hybrid mismatch arrangements that produce multiple deductions for a single expense or a deduction in one jurisdiction with no corresponding taxation in the other jurisdiction. Part 1 of the report will be supplemented by a commentary, which will explain the recommended rules and illustrate their application with practical examples. Part 2 of the report sets out proposed changes to the Model Convention that will ensure the benefits of tax treaties are only granted to hybrid entities (including dual resident entities) in appropriate cases. Part 2 also considers the interaction between the OECD Model Convention and the domestic law recommendations in Part 1.

  • 16-September-2014

    English

    Countering Harmful Tax Practices More Effectively, Taking into Account Transparency and Substance

    Preferential regimes continue to be a key pressure area in international taxation. The OECD’s 2013 BEPS report recognises that these need to be dealt with more effectively and the work of the Forum on Harmful Tax Practices (FHTP) needs to be refocused with an emphasis on substance and transparency. This is an interim report that sets out the progress made to date.

  • 16-September-2014

    English

    Preventing the Granting of Treaty Benefits in Inappropriate Circumstances

    This report includes proposed changes to the OECD Model Tax Convention to prevent treaty abuse. Countries participating in the BEPS Project have agreed on a minimum standard to prevent treaty shopping and other strategies aimed at obtaining inappropriately the benefit of certain provisions of tax treaties. The report also ensures that tax treaties do not inadvertently prevent the application of legitimate domestic anti-abuse rules. The report clarifies that tax treaties are not intended to be used to generate double non-taxation and identifies the tax policy considerations that countries should consider before deciding to enter into a tax treaty with another country. The model provisions included in the report provide intermediary guidance as additional work is needed, in particular in relation to the limitation on benefits rule.

  • 16-September-2014

    English

    Guidance on Transfer Pricing Aspects of Intangibles

    This document contains revisions to the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines to align transfer pricing outcomes with value creation in the area of intangibles. The changes clarify the definition of intangibles and provide guidance for related parties; including transactions involving intangibles and the transfer pricing treatment of local market features and corporate synergies. Some transfer pricing issues relating to intangibles are closely related to other issues that are to be addressed during 2015, most notably in relation to the allocation of risk among MNE group members and recharacterisation of transactions. Because of those interactions some sections of this document are in intermediate form and will be finalised in 2015.

  • 16-September-2014

    English

    Guidance on Transfer Pricing Documentation and Country-by-Country Reporting

    This document contains revised standards for transfer pricing documentation and a template for country-by-country reporting of revenues, profits, taxes paid and certain measures of economic activity. These new reporting provisions, and the transparency they will encourage, will contribute to the objective of understanding, controlling, and tackling BEPS behaviours. Countries participating in the BEPS project will carefully review the implementation of these new standards and will reassess no later than the end of 2020 whether modifications should be made to require reporting of additional or different data. Effective implementation of the new reporting standards and reporting rules will be essential. Additional work will be undertaken to identify the most appropriate means of filing the required information with and disseminating it to tax administrations.

  • 16-September-2014

    English

    Developing a Multilateral Instrument to Modify Bilateral Tax Treaties

    This report identifies the issues arising from the development of a multilateral instrument that modifies bilateral tax treaties. Without a mechanism for swift implementation, changes to model tax conventions only widen the gap between the content of these models and the content of actual tax treaties. Developing such a mechanism is necessary not only to tackle base erosion and profit shifting, but also to ensure the sustainability of the consensual framework to eliminate double taxation. This is an innovative approach with no exact precedent in the tax world, but precedents for modifying bilateral treaties with a multilateral instrument exist in various other areas of public international law. Drawing on the knowledge of experts in public international law and taxation, the Report concludes that a multilateral instrument is desirable and feasible, and that negotiations for such an instrument should be convened quickly.

  • 14-January-2015

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of Myanmar - Volume 2. In-depth Analysis and Recommendations

    Building on an initial assessment of constraints to development in Myanmar (Volume 1), this second volume provides analysis and policy recommendations in three key areas: structural transformation, education and skills, and financing development. It finds that Myanmar faces a crucial few years to shape growth towards a higher, more sustainable and equitable trajectory. To succeed, it will require a transformation of the economy from an agrarian base reliant on small-scale agriculture at present towards a broad range of modern activities. Building up the right skills in the workforce will be essential to support this structural transformation. Myanmar’s transformation will also depend upon how effectively the country can mobilise and allocate the financial resources needed to support its development, which could amount to as much as an additional 5-10% of GDP on average over the next two decades.

  • 9-September-2014

    English

    Capturing the Multiple Benefits of Energy Efficiency - A Guide to Quantifying the Value Added

    The traditional focus on energy savings as the main goal of energy efficiency policy has, at times, led to an underestimation of the full value of energy efficiency in both national and global economies. Energy efficiency can bring multiple benefits, such as enhancing the sustainability of the energy system, supporting strategic objectives for economic and social development, promoting environmental goals and increasing prosperity.

    The aim of this book is two-fold: to build knowledge of the multiple benefits of energy efficiency, and to demonstrate how policy makers and other stakeholders can use existing tools to measure and maximise the benefits they seek. Five key benefits areas – macroeconomic development; public budgets; health and wellbeing; industrial productivity; and energy delivery – are investigated in-depth, showing compelling returns when the value of multiple benefits is calculated alongside traditional benefits of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Considering multiple benefits also has important implications for unravelling one of the persistent challenges in energy efficiency – the rebound effect – revealing that it often signals a positive outcome in terms of achieving broader social and economic goals.

    By identifying and quantifying a broader range of impacts of energy efficiency, the multiple benefits approach repositions energy efficiency as a mainstream tool for economic and social development, and has the potential to motivate higher uptake of energy efficiency opportunities in the market.

  • 10-December-2014

    English

    Energy, Climate Change and Environment - 2014 Insights

    Policies that respond to climate change and other environmental issues will increasingly impact the development of the global energy sector. The transition to low-carbon economies will need to be carefully managed, as the provision of secure, affordable energy is critical for economic growth and social development. More than ever, there is a need for a fuller understanding of the opportunities to promote synergies between energy, environmental and climate policies. Energy, Climate Change, and Environment: 2014 Insights helps address this need with in-depth analysis of selected policy questions at the energy-climate interface, including:

    • How can we accelerate the transition from (i.e. "unlock") existing high-emissions infrastructure?
    • What are the best ways to design cost-effective emissions trading systems that fit with national circumstances?
    • What are some alternative energy-specific metrics that support near-term emissions reductions and long-term decarbonisation of the energy sector?
    • And, in the special focus of this report, can curbing local air pollution help reconcile energy priorities with environmental sustainability, including greenhouse gas mitigation?

    Addressing these questions will help inform decisions that can boost decarbonisation of the energy sector while taking into account security and economic objectives.

    This report also features an update of key energy and emissions statistics for ten world regions that should interest energy practitioners and climate policy makers alike.

  • 8-December-2014

    English

    Measuring the Digital Economy - A New Perspective

    The growing role of the digital economy in daily life has heightened demand for new data and measurement tools. Internationally comparable and timely statistics combined with robust cross-country analyses are crucial to strengthen the evidence base for digital economy policy making, particularly in a context of rapid change. This report presents indicators traditionally used to monitor the information society and complements them with experimental indicators that provide insight into areas of policy interest. The key objectives of this publication are to highlight measurement gaps and propose actions to advance the measurement agenda.

  • 9-December-2014

    English

    A Skills beyond School Review of Kazakhstan

    Vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. How can employers and unions be engaged? How can workbased learning be used? How can teachers and trainers be effectively prepared? How should postsecondary programmes be structured? This country report on Kazakhstan looks at these and other questions.

  • 13-November-2014

    English

    A Skills beyond School Review of the Netherlands

    Vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. How can employers and unions be engaged? How can workbased learning be used? How can teachers and trainers be effectively prepared? How should postsecondary programmes be structured? This country report on the Netherlands looks at these and other questions.

  • 25-August-2014

    English

    Nuclear Site Remediation and Restoration during Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations - A Report by the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and related remedial actions are currently being undertaken around the world to enable sites or parts of sites to be reused for other purposes. Remediation has generally been considered as the last step in a sequence of decommissioning steps, but the values of prevention, long-term planning and parallel remediation are increasingly being recognised as important steps in the process. This report, prepared by the Task Group on Nuclear Site Restoration of the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning, highlights lessons learnt from remediation experiences of NEA member countries that may be particularly helpful to practitioners of nuclear site remediation, regulators and site operators. It provides observations and recommendations to consider in the development of strategies and plans for efcient nuclear site remediation that ensures protection of workers and the environment.

  • 25-August-2014

    English

    R&D and Innovation Needs for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    Nuclear decommissioning activities can greatly benefit from research and development (R&D) projects. This report examines applicable emergent technologies, current research efforts and innovation needs to build a base of knowledge regarding the status of decommissioning technology and R&D. This base knowledge can be used to obtain consensus on future R&D that is worth funding. It can also assist in deciding how to collaborate and optimise the limited pool of financial resources available among NEA member countries for nuclear decommissioning R&D.

  • 29-October-2014

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Belize 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Belize.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.

    The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. “Fishing expeditions” are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.

    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction’s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined – Phase 1 plus Phase 2 – reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.

  • 29-October-2014

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Ghana 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Ghana.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.

    The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. “Fishing expeditions” are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.

    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction’s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined – Phase 1 plus Phase 2 – reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.

  • 29-October-2014

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Gibraltar 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Gibraltar.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.

    The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. “Fishing expeditions” are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.

    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction’s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined – Phase 1 plus Phase 2 – reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.

  • 18-November-2014

    English

    OECD Rural Policy Reviews: Chile 2014

    This report looks at rural policy in Chile, examining the main trends in rural regions, policies and governance arrangements. It highlights the need to establish a national rural policy framework in Chile, in order to better coordinate the wide range of national policies and programmes currently targeting rural areas. It also investigates the evolving role of "rural" in development, highlighting the need to design rural policies in a strategic way so that complementarities with urban policy can be realised as the country develops.

  • 29-October-2014

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Grenada 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Grenada.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.

    The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. “Fishing expeditions” are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.

    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction’s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined – Phase 1 plus Phase 2 – reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.

  • 29-October-2014

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Israel 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Israel.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.

    The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. “Fishing expeditions” are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.

    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction’s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined – Phase 1 plus Phase 2 – reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.

  • 29-October-2014

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Russian Federation 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of the Russian Federation.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.

    The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. “Fishing expeditions” are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.

    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction’s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined – Phase 1 plus Phase 2 – reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.

  • 29-October-2014

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of the Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.

    The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. “Fishing expeditions” are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.

    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction’s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined – Phase 1 plus Phase 2 – reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.

  • 2-October-2014

    English

    Green Growth Indicators for Agriculture - A Preliminary Assessment

    An integral component of any green growth strategy is a highly-reliable set of measurement tools and indicators that would enable policy makers to evaluate how effective policies are, and to gauge the progress being achieved in shifting economic activity onto a greener path. These tools and indicators, which will need to be based on internationally comparable data, must also be embedded in a conceptual framework and selected according to a clearly-specified set of criteria.

    This report is a first step towards developing a framework to monitor progress on green growth in the agricultural sector in OECD countries. The goal is to identify relevant, succinct and measurable statistics to implement the OECD Green Growth Strategy Measurement Framework which provides a common basis for further developing green growth indicators in the agricultural sector in OECD countries.

  • 24-October-2014

    English

    Tax Compliance by Design - Achieving Improved SME Tax Compliance by Adopting a System Perspective

    This study introduces the concept of “Tax Compliance by design”. It describes how revenue bodies can exploit developments in technology and the ways in which modern SMEs organise themselves to incorporate tax compliance into the systems businesses use to manage their financial affairs.

  • 24-October-2014

    English

    Measures of Tax Compliance Outcomes - A Practical Guide

    This study provides practical guidance to revenue bodies wishing to enhance and enrich their existing measures with timely measures of compliance outcomes. The study shares experiences of what has worked for revenue bodies, what challenges have been faced and how they might be overcome.

  • 24-October-2014

    English

    Working Smarter in Tax Debt Management

    Many revenue bodies have been developing strategies and approaches to improve the tax collection and recovery processes, so that they are more effective and cost less. Very promising and proven new practices have emerged, which can deliver spectacular improvements in performance in tax collection and recovery. This report provides a comprehensive overview of the best practices in tax debt management, with a particular emphasis on how to better differentiate debtors when deciding how to best secure payment and what can be done to ensure that payment issues are considered earlier in the compliance and collection process.

  • 24-October-2014

    English

    Increasing Taxpayers' Use of Self-service Channels

    Building on prior work that resulted in the practical guide Managing Service Demand, this report explores the strategies revenue bodies can use to improve take-up of self-service channels in the context of a proposed future service experience for individuals, businesses and tax intermediaries.

  • 1-December-2014

    English

    Mental Health and Work: Netherlands

    Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on the Netherlands is the seventh in a series of reports looking at how the broader education, health, social and labour market policy challenges identified in Sick on the Job? Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work (OECD, 2012) are being tackled in a number of OECD countries.

  • 28-October-2014

    English

    Critical Maths for Innovative Societies - The Role of Metacognitive Pedagogies

    How can mathematics education foster the skills that are appropriate for innovative societies? Mathematics education is heavily emphasised worldwide, nevertheless it is still considered to be a stumbling block for many students. While there is almost a consensus that mathematics problems appropriate for the 21st century should be complex, unfamiliar and non-routine (CUN), most of the textbooks still mainly include routine problems based on the application of ready-made algorithms.

    The time has come to introduce innovative instructional methods in order to enhance mathematics education and students’ ability to solve CUN tasks. Metacognitive pedagogies can play a key role in this. These pedagogies explicitly train students to “think about their thinking” during learning. They can be used to improve not just academic achievement (content knowledge and understanding, the ability to handle unfamiliar problems etc.) but also affective outcomes such as reduced anxiety or improved motivation. This strong relationship between metacognition and schooling outcomes has implications for the education community and policy makers.

    This book is designed to assist practitioners, curriculum developers and policy makers alike in preparing today’s students for tomorrow’s world.

  • 23-June-2011

    English

    The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes - The Path to Reliability

    The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m (99mTc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes can delay or prevent important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, 99Mo-producing, research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have recently created global supply shortages.

    This report provides the findings and analysis of two years of extensive examination of the 99Mo/99mTc supply chain by the OECD/NEA High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). It puts forth a comprehensive policy approach that would help ensure long-term supply security of 99Mo/99mTc, detailing the essential steps to be taken by governments, industry and the health community to address the vulnerabilities of the supply chain, including its economic structure.

  • 4-May-2012

    English

    Main Benefits from 30 Years of Joint Projects in Nuclear Safety

    One of the major achievements of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is the knowledge it has helped to generate through the organisation of joint international research projects. Such projects, primarily in the areas of nuclear safety and radioactive waste management, enable interested countries, on a costsharing basis, to pursue research or the sharing of data with respect to particular areas or issues. Over the years, more than 30 joint projects have been conducted with wide participation of member countries.

    This report describes the achievements of the OECD/NEA joint projects on nuclear safety research that have been carried out over the past three decades, with a particular focus on thermal-hydraulics, fuel behaviour and severe accidents. It shows that the resolution of specific safety issues in these areas has greatly benefited from the joint projects’ activities and results. It also highlights the added value of international co-operation for maintaining unique experimental infrastructure, preserving skills and generating new knowledge.

  • 2-March-2012

    English

    International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations

    Cost estimation for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities can vary considerably in format, content and practice both within and across countries. These differences may have legitimate reasons but make the process of reviewing estimates complicated and the estimates themselves difficult to defend.  Hence, the joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission (EC) was undertaken to propose a standard itemisation of decommissioning costs either directly for the production of cost estimates or for mapping estimates onto a standard, common structure for purposes of comparison. This report updates the earlier itemisation published in 1999 and takes into account experience accumulated thus far. The revised cost itemisation structure has sought to ensure that all costs within the planned scope of a decommissioning project may be reflected. The report also provides general guidance on developing a decommissioning cost estimate, including detailed advice on using the structure.

     

  • 1-June-2012

    English

    Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation - Eleventh Information Exchange Meeting, San Francisco, California, USA, 1-4 November 2010

    In order to provide experts with a forum to present and discuss developments in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P&T), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has been organising, since 1990, a series of biennial information exchange meetings on actinide and fission product P&T. These proceedings contain all the technical papers presented at the 11th Information Exchange Meeting, which was held on 1-4 November 2010 in San Francisco, California, USA. The meeting covered national programmes on P&T; fuel cycle strategies and transition scenarios; waste forms and geological disposal; transmutation fuels and targets; pyro and aqueous processes; transmutation physics and materials; and transmutation system design, performance and safety.

     

     

  • 31-December-2012

    English

    Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Recycling of Transuranics in Fast Nuclear Reactors

    Fuel transuranics (TRU) multi-recycling is a mandatory feature if both the resource sustainability and the waste minimisation objectives for future fuel cycles are to be pursued. The resulting TRU transmutation can be implemented in fast neutron spectrum reactors according to two main options commonly referred to as the homogeneous and heterogeneous modes. In this study, the two alternatives have been compared in terms of reactor core feasibility, fuel development and impact on the fuel cycle. The multi-criteria analysis indicates that there are major challenges in minor actinide-loaded fuel development, its experimental validation and possibly in its reprocessing. Both modes of recycling have an impact on the overall fuel cycle, even if at different stages, for example complex target fabrication and handling in the case of heterogeneous recycling and full core fuel fabrication in the case of homogeneous recycling. The study finds that an economic evaluation according to specific implementation scenarios should still be undertaken.

     

  • 14-September-2012

    English

    Nuclear Fuel Safety Criteria Technical Review (Second Edition)

    Most of the current nuclear fuel safety criteria were established during the 1960s and early 1970s. Although these criteria were validated against experiments with fuel designs available at that time, a number of tests were based on unirradiated fuels. Additional verification was performed as these designs evolved, but mostly with the aim of showing that the new designs adequately complied with existing criteria, and not to establish new limits.

    In 1996, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) reviewed existing fuel safety criteria, focusing on new fuel and core designs, new cladding materials and industry manufacturing processes. The results were published in the Nuclear Fuel Safety Criteria Technical Review of 2001. The NEA has since re-examined the criteria. A brief description of each criterion and its rationale are presented in this second edition, which will be of interest to both regulators and industry (fuel vendors, utilities).

  • 21-September-2012

    English

    Challenges in Long-term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants - Implications for Regulatory Bodies

    This document contains a compilation of consensus guidance for approval of long-term operation of nuclear power plants. This guidance is presented as fundamental and key principles that should govern decisions on authorisation for long-term operation. These principles allow for differences in national regulatory strategies and expectations while ensuring that safe performance can be achieved in long-term operation.

  • 18-June-2012

    English

    The Role of Nuclear Energy in a Low-carbon Energy Future

    This report assesses the role that nuclear energy can play in supporting the transition to a low-carbon energy system. It begins by considering the greenhouse gas emissions from the full nuclear fuel cycle, reviewing recent studies on indirect emissions and assessing the impact that nuclear power could make in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    The report provides estimates of the construction rates that would be needed to meet the projected expansion of nuclear power foreseen by many energy scenarios published by international organisations. It then assesses the economic, technical, societal and institutional challenges represented by such an expansion to identify the most significant barriers. The capacity of nuclear power plants to operate in an electricity system with a large share of renewables, and the impact of smart grid technologies are also examined. Finally, long-term prospects for nuclear energy are discussed in terms of development of new reactor and fuel cycle technologies, non-electric applications and new operational and regulatory constraints that could arise as a consequence of climate change.

  • 21-June-2012

    English

    Methods for Safety Assessment of Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste - Outcomes of the NEA MeSA Initiative

    Safety assessment is an interdisciplinary approach that focuses on the scientific understanding and performance assessment of safety functions as well as the hazards associated with a geological disposal facility. It forms a central part of the safety case, and the results of the safety assessments provide evidence to support decision making. The goals of the NEA project on “Methods for Safety Assessment for Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste” (MeSA) were to examine and document methods used in safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal facilities, to generate collective views based on the methods’ similarities and differences, and to identify future work. The project reviewed a number of approaches used by various national and international organisations. Following the comprehensive review, a generic safety case with a safety assessment flowchart was developed and is presented herein. The elaboration of the safety concept, the use of safety functions, the implication of uncertainties and the formulation of scenarios are also discussed.

  • 7-May-2012

    English

    The Post-closure Radiological Safety Case for a Spent Fuel Repository in Sweden - An International Peer Review of the SKB License-application Study of March 2011

    Sweden is at the forefront among countries developing plans for a deep geological repository of highly radioactive waste. There is no such repository in operation yet worldwide, but Sweden, Finland and France are approaching the licensing stage. At the request of the Swedish government, the NEA organised an international peer review of the post-closure radiological safety case produced by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) in support of the application for a general licence to construct and operate a spent nuclear fuel geological repository in the municipality of Östhammar. The purpose of the review was to help the Swedish government, the public and relevant organisations by providing an international reference regarding the maturity of SKB’s spent fuel disposal programme vis-à-vis best practices in longterm disposal safety and radiological protection. The International Review Team (IRT) consisted of ten international specialists, who were free of conflict of interest with the SKB and brought complementary expertise to the review. This report provides the background and findings of the international peer review. The review’s findings are presented at several levels of detail in order to be accessible to both specialist and nonspecialist readers.

  • 31-December-2013

    English

    Nuclear Power Plant Operating Experience - from the IAEA/NEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience

    This fifth report on nuclear power plant operating experience from the IAEA/NEA International Reporting System covering the 2009-2011 period highlights important lessons learnt and is based on a review of the approximately 245 event reports received from the participating countries over this period.

  • 18-December-2012

    English

    The Long-term Radiological Safety of a Surface Disposal Facility for Low-level Waste in Belgium - An International Peer Review of Key Aspects of ONDRAF/NIRAS' Safety Report of November 2011 in Preparation for the License Application

    An important activity of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of radioactive waste management is the organisation of independent, international peer reviews of national studies and projects. This report provides an international peer review of the long-term safety strategy and assessment being developed by the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, ONDRAF/NIRAS, as part of the licence application for the construction and operation of a surface disposal facility for short-lived, low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in the municipality of Dessel, Belgium. The review was carried out by an International Review Team comprised of seven international specialists, all of whom were free of conflict of interest and chosen to bring complementary expertise to the review. To be accessible to both specialist and non-specialist readers, the review findings are provided at several levels of detail.

  • 18-December-2012

    English

    The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes - Market Impacts of Converting to Low-enriched Uranium Targets for Medical Isotope Production

    The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m (99mTc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. At present, most of the global production of 99Mo is from highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. However, all major 99Mo-producing countries have recently agreed to convernt to using low-enriched uranium targetts for the production of 99Mo. This report describes the market impact of this conversion both in terms of costs, available capacity as well as the policy actions that are needed.
     

  • 31-December-2012

    English

    Japan's Compensation System for Nuclear Damage - As Related to the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident

    Following the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, extraordinary efforts were undertaken in Japan to implement a compensation scheme for the proper and efficient indemnification of the affected victims. This publication provides English translations of key Japanese legislative and administrative texts and other implementing guidance, as well as several commentaries by Japanese experts in the field of third party nuclear liability.

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has prepared this publication in co-operation with the government of Japan to share Japan’s recent experience in implementing its nuclear liability and compensation regime. The material presented in the publication should provide valuable insights for those wishing to better understand the regime applied to compensate the victims of the accident and for those working on potential improvements in national regimes and the international framework for third party nuclear liability.

  • 19-December-2012

    English

    The Economics of Long-term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    Refurbishment and long-term operation (LTO) of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) today are crucial to the competitiveness of the nuclear industry in OECD countries as existing nuclear power plants produce baseload power at a reliable cost. A number of nuclear power plants, most notably 73 units in the United States (up to 2012), have been granted lifetime extensions of up to 60 years, a development that is being keenly watched in other OECD countries. In many of these (e.g. France, Switzerland), there is no legal end to the operating licence, but continued operation is based on the outcomes of periodic safety reviews.

    This study analyses technical and economic data on the upgrade and lifetime extension experience in OECD countries. A multi-criteria assessment methodology is used considering various factors and parameters reflecting current and future financial conditions of operation, political and regulatory risks, the state of the plants’ equipment and the general role of nuclear power in the country’s energy policy.

    The report shows that long-term operation of nuclear power plants has significant economic advantages for most utilities envisaging LTO programmes. In most cases, the continued operation of NPPs for at least ten more years is profitable even taking into account the additional costs of post-Fukushima modifications, and remains cost-effective compared to alternative replacement sources.

  • 31-December-2012

    English

    Chemical Thermodynamics of Tin – Volume 12

    The Chemical Thermodynamics of Tin is based on a critical review of the thermodynamic properties of tin, its solid compounds and aqueous complexes, carried out as part of NEA Thermochemical Database Project Phase III (TDB III).  The database system developed at the OECD/NEA Data Bank ensures consistency not only within the recommended data sets of tin, but also among all the data sets published in this series.  This volume will be of particular interest to scientists carrying out performance assessments of deep geological disposal sites for radioactive waste.

  • 31-December-2012

    English

    Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems (SMINS-2) - Workshop Proceedings, Daejon, Republic of Korea, 31 August-3 September 2010

    Materials research is a field of growing relevance for innovative nuclear systems, such as Generation IV reactors, critical and sub-critical transmutation systems and fusion devices. For these different systems, structural materials are selected or developed taking into account the pecificities of their foreseen operational environment. Since 2007, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has begun organising a series of workshops on Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems (SMINS) in order to provide a forum to exchange information on current materials research programmes for different innovative nuclear systems. These proceedings include the papers of the second workshop (SMINS-2) which was held in Daejon, Republic of Korea on 31 August-3 September 2010, and hosted by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI).

  • 3-October-2008

    English

    17th International ITF/OECD Symposium on Transport Economics and Policy: Benefiting from Globalisation - Transport Sector Contribution and Policy Challenges

    The opportunities for individuals and businesses to benefit from globalisation are increased by efficient, cost-effective transport networks. A competitive, responsive, well-organised transport sector facilitates trade, but creating the conditions for this poses policy challenges that must be tackled if transport is to contribute fully to globalisation. This was the main theme of the 17th ITF/OECD Symposium.

    These conference proceedings contain summaries of the opening session ceremonies and discussions and the full text of the 16 papers presented as introductory reports for the discussions.  The reports cover such fields as data and trends, globalisation and transport sector development, transport policy and regional integration, trade and infrastructure, and international transport and domestic policy.

  • 23-October-2008

    English

    Privatisation and Regulation of Urban Transit Systems

    Urban public transport services generally run at a large deficit. This has led public authorities to seek efficiencies, notably through private sector involvement. Support for the sector traditionally seeks to provide basic mobility services to all segments of society, including low-income users. Intervention is also required to manage the natural tendency towards concentration and market power in the provision of these transport services. Policy towards urban public transport is increasingly aimed at managing congestion on the roads and mitigating CO2 emissions by substituting for travel by car. 

    Achieving coherent transport networks that are efficient and financially sustainable is a challenge for any public authority. This Round Table examines experience in integrating private management and capital with public transport policy objectives in a number of developed economies. For network operators, the Round Table concludes that innovation is the key to surviving the rapidly changing policy and regulatory environment.

  • 17-December-2008

    English

    The Cost and Effectiveness of Policies to Reduce Vehicle Emissions

    Transport sector policies already contribute to moderating greenhouse gas emissions from road vehicles. They are increasingly designed to contribute to overall societal targets to mitigate climate change. While abatement costs in transport are relatively high, there are plausible arguments in favour of further abatement in this sector. The empirical basis to decide upon combinations of fuel economy standards and fuel taxes, however, remains weak. This Round Table investigates the effectiveness and costs of various mitigation options in road transport, and discusses the distribution of abatement efforts across sectors of the economy.
  • 26-January-2009

    English

    Cognitive Impairment, Mental Health and Transport - Design with Everyone in Mind

    Cognitive impairment and mental health affect a large number of people, for whom the use of public transport can present a challenge. This book examines this neglected area, presenting various suggestions from transport staff training to better signage, clearer timetables, and increased staff presence to help build users' confidence.

  • 1-April-2009

    English

    Intermodal Transport - National Peer Review: Turkey

    Turkey’s continuing economic expansion depends on the diversification of its transport modes and especially on the development of efficient multimodal services. Its role as a hub for Europe, Asia, and the Middle East and as a facilitator of global exchange will be enhanced with a strategy and measures to support a range of intermodal logistic and transport services. This work analyses the current situation and sets forth some of the actions and policies needed to stimulate the development of a truly multimodal transport system.
  • 19-June-2009

    English

    Port Competition and Hinterland Connections

    This Round Table publication discusses the policy and regulatory challenges posed by the rapidly changing port environment. The sector has changed tremendously in recent decades with technological and organisational innovation and a powerful expansion of trade. Although ports serve hinterlands that now run deep into continents, competition among ports is increasingly intense and their bargaining power in the supply chain has consequently weakened. Greater port throughput is meeting with increasing resistance from local communities because of pollution and congestion. In addition, local regulation is warranted but made difficult by the distribution of bargaining power among stakeholders. Higher-level authorities could develop more effective policies.
  • 28-April-2009

    English

    Terrorism and International Transport - Towards Risk-based Security Policy

    Security is critical to transport systems as they are often appealing targets for terrorist attacks. The significant costs of potential damage make effective security policies a key concern for transport decision makers. This Round Table examines the contribution economic analysis can make to improving security in aviation and maritime shipping by identifying methods for quantifying the benefits of security measures and assessing their effectiveness, and examining techniques to allocate resources targeting the highest risks.
  • 4-May-2010

    English

    Improving Reliability on Surface Transport Networks

    Passengers and freight shippers alike want reliable transport services.  Surprisingly, little research has been undertaken in incorporating reliability into the assessment of transport projects despite the increasing importance of scheduling in economic activities.

    This report provides policy makers with a framework to understand reliability issues, to incorporate reliability into project assessment and to design reliability management policies. It also explores a range of reliability performance measures. Case studies across OECD and ITF countries provide examples of several core policy tools that can be used to deliver more reliable networks in a cost-effective manner.

    The report makes significant progress in identifying appropriate methodology for incorporating reliability into policy and project evaluation, as well as exploring the pitfalls that need to be avoided.

  • 4-November-2009

    English

    Competitive Interaction between Airports, Airlines and High-Speed Rail

    How should airports be regulated to contain market power? This round table proceedings first examines whether they need to be regulated at all. It concludes that because regulation is inevitably imperfect and costly, policy makers should establish conditions for competition to emerge between airports in preference to comprehensive regulation, whenever possible.

    Economic regulation is sometimes necessary, such as when airports are heavily congested. The proceedings determines which approaches are likely to work best and also assesses strategies for managing greenhouse gas emissions.  It finds that although including aviation in an open emission trading scheme could help mitigate emissions efficiently across the economy, it should not be expected to produce major cuts in CO2-emissions in aviation itself.

    Finally the proceedings identifies the economic conditions under which high-speed rail can provide a competitive substitute for aviation, revealing the limited relevance of rail to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from this part of the transport market.
  • 31-March-2010

    English

    Effective Transport Policies for Corporate Mobility Management

    Many companies and other large employers have put in place initiatives to address the traffic-related nuisances generated by their activities and, in particular, the traffic generated by their workers and customers. Such Corporate Mobility Management (CMM) initiatives are the focus of this report which investigates the success factors in individual best practice cases at the company level as well as the roles, if any, public authorities can play in facilitating the uptake of CMM. The report provides guidance to governments on effective strategies for addressing and mitigating the traffic generated by commuter and customer travel.
  • 26-February-2010

    English

    Integration and Competition between Transport and Logistics Businesses

    Some very large multinational transport and logistics firms have emerged to provide integrated transport services to shippers in the globalised economy. Do these firms escape regulatory oversight from national competition authorities because of their sheer scale? Do they pose additional threats to competition when they merge with or acquire other companies in the supply chain?

    The Round Table brought competition experts together with researchers on maritime shipping, rail freight and logistics to identify critical competition issues and appropriate regulatory responses. An examination of the strategies of transport and logistics companies reveals that vertical integration can yield efficiencies, but usually reflects a need to improve the use of expensive fixed assets rather than control all parts of the supply chain. This usually explains why shipping lines acquire terminal operators. Horizontal acquisitions, where similar companies serving the same market merge, are more likely to raise competition concerns. Problems are particularly prone to arise at bottleneck infrastructure facilities.

    The Round Table report provides an economic framework for examining competition in global transport and logistics businesses, discusses the adequacy of the remedies available to regulators when competition is threatened, and explores the role of competition authorities and Transport Ministries in ensuring markets are efficient.

  • 4-May-2010

    English

    The Future for Interurban Passenger Transport - Bringing Citizens Closer Together

    Economic growth, trade and the concentration of population in large cities will intensify demand for interurban transport services. Concurrently, the need to manage environmental impacts effectively will increase. How successful we are in coping with demand will depend on our ability to innovate, to manage congestion, and to improve the quality of transport services. Technological and regulatory innovation will shape the future of transport.

    These conference proceedings bring together ideas from leading transport researchers from around the world related to the future for interurban passenger transport..  A first set of papers investigates what drives demand for interurban passenger transport and infers how it may evolve in the future.  The remaining papers investigate transport policy issues that emerge as key challenges: when to invest in high-speed rail, how to regulate to ensure efficient operation, how to assign infrastructure to different types of users, and how to control transport’s environmental footprint by managing modal split and improving modal performance.

  • 8-October-2010

    English

    Drugs and Driving - Detection and Deterrence

    Driving while impaired by drugs – whether licit or illicit – has emerged as an important road safety issue. This report provides a state-of-the-art review of the role and impact of drugs in road accident risk. It reviews the legislation, deterrence and roadside detection practices in member countries as well as preventative measures to combat drug use while driving. It provides recommendations on strategies to adopt in addressing this issue, with a view to contributing to a safe system approach and saving further lives on the roads.

  • 4-October-2010

    English

    Safety and Regulatory Reform of Railways

    Does deregulation reduce rail safety? Many countries have envisaged or implemented pro-competitive regulatory reforms of their rail sectors. Concerns have been voiced regarding the impact of these reforms on rail safety performance, especially in cases of reforms that have privatised or deregulated state ownership and control of railways. This report addresses these concerns with a detailed investigation of pre- and post-reform rail safety data in countries where complete and comparable data exists.
  • 31-August-2010

    English

    Implementing Congestion Charges

    Recent advances in the scientific understanding of urban traffic congestion have only strengthened the already solid case for congestion charges as an element of a successful urban transport policy. But examples of real-world congestion charging systems remain few and far between. What can be done to improve the chances of their more widespread adoption in practice? This report draws lessons from attempts to introduce congestion charges. 

    Technology is not an obstacle, and technologies should serve policy purposes instead of define them. Charging systems are not cheap and thus should only be used where congestion is severe. Public acceptance is seen to be the key to successful implementation. Although environmental benefits and careful deployment of toll revenues may improve acceptance, a charging system should never lose sight of its principal aim, which is to reduce congestion.

  • 26-November-2010

    English

    Airport Regulation Investment and Development of Aviation

    Adequate airport capacity is crucial to allowing the global